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"purpose in life"

Polly Yeung, Joanne Allen, Hazel K Godfrey, Fiona Alpass, Christine Stephens
OBJECTIVES: To compare indicators relating to aging and health among veterans and non-veterans, and identify factors associated with subjective wellbeing (SWB) of older New Zealand veterans. METHODS: Self-reported data were obtained from participants in a longitudinal cohort study of New Zealand older adults. Responses from 352 veterans and 1500 non-veterans (age range of 55-86 and gender matched) were selected as a comparison group on indicators related to health and aging...
May 21, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Boon-How Chew, Aaron Fernandez, Sazlina Shariff-Ghazali
Psychological aspects of a person, such as the personal value and belief systems, cognition and emotion, form the basis of human health behaviors, which, in turn, influence self-management, self-efficacy, quality of life, disease control and clinical outcomes in people with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. However, psychological, psychosocial and behavioral interventions aimed at these groups of patients have yielded inconsistent effects in terms of clinical outcomes in clinical trials. This might have been due to differing conceptualization of health behavioral theories and models in the interventions...
2018: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Eleftheria Vaportzis, Alan J Gow
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a U.K.-wide survey to collect information on people's beliefs, fears, perceptions, and attitudes to cognitive aging. METHODS: This community-based aging survey included 3,146 adults aged 40 years and over. RESULTS: Respondents believed memory might be the earliest cognitive skill to decline (mean: 59.4 years), followed by speed of thinking (mean: 64.9). Those in their 40s were more pessimistic, because they estimated cognitive changes would start up to 15 years earlier than respondents aged over 70...
April 4, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Nathan A Lewis, Hannah Brazeau, Patrick L Hill
It is unclear how the onset of a major health condition, such as a stroke, may impact sense of purpose long-term and whether social factors influence this change. We examined changes in purpose in 716 stroke patients ( Mage  = 72.09 years, 52.5% female) who participated in the Health and Retirement Study between 2006 and 2014. Multilevel growth modeling indicated that recent stroke patients' sense of purpose declined over time relative to pre-stroke purpose, whereas those suffering stroke prior to baseline demonstrated relative stability...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
Yuko Morimoto, Syudo Yamasaki, Shuntaro Ando, Shinsuke Koike, Shinya Fujikawa, Sho Kanata, Kaori Endo, Miharu Nakanishi, Stephani L Hatch, Marcus Richards, Kiyoto Kasai, Mariko Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Atsushi Nishida
OBJECTIVES: The rising prevalence of tobacco use and tobacco-attributable deaths among women is of worldwide concern. In particular, smoking prevention for mothers in early midlife is a significant international public health goal. A higher sense of purpose in life (PIL) is thought to reduce detrimental health behaviours. However, little is known about the association between a sense of PIL and tobacco use. This study investigates this association among community-dwelling mothers of early adolescents...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
Jie Gao, Ros McLellan
BACKGROUND: Psychological well-being in adolescence has always been a focus of public attention and academic research. Ryff's six-factor model of psychological well-being potentially provides a comprehensive theoretical framework for investigating positive functioning of adolescents. However, previous studies reported inconsistent findings of the reliability and validity of Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-being (SPWB). The present study aimed to explore whether Ryff's six-factor model of psychological well-being could be applied in Chinese adolescents...
April 20, 2018: BMC Psychology
Negar Yazdani, Sayed Vahid Hosseini, Masood Amini, Zahra Sobhani, Farkhondeh Sharif, Hajar Khazraei
Background: Morbid obesity is rising around the world. It can cause unpleasant appearance and body image. Most of the studies have aimed to evaluate the psychopathology of overweight and obesity and paying attention to mental well-being in morbid obese individuals is rare. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the relationship between body image and psychological well-being in morbid obese patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study, using simple random sampling method, was done on 124 morbid obese patients who referred to obesity clinic in Shiraz from 2016 to 2017...
April 2018: International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery
Jihoon Oh, Jeong-Ho Chae
Although heart rate variability (HRV) may be a crucial marker of mental health, how it is related to positive psychological factors (i.e. attitude to life and positive thinking) is largely unknown. Here we investigated the correlation of HRV linear and nonlinear dynamics with psychological scales that measured degree of optimism and happiness in patients with anxiety disorders. Results showed that low- to high-frequency HRV ratio (LF/HF) was increased and the HRV HF parameter was decreased in subjects who were more optimistic and who felt happier in daily living...
April 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Jennifer Morozink Boylan, Jenny M Cundiff, Karen P Jakubowski, Dustin A Pardini, Karen A Matthews
Background: Exposure to low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood predicts increased morbidity and mortality. However, little prospective evidence is available to test pathways linking low childhood SES to adult health. Purpose: In the current study, indirect effects through positive parenting in adolescence and adult SES were tested in the association between childhood SES and adult health behaviors and psychological resources. Methods: Men (n = 305; 53% Black) were followed longitudinally from ages 7 to 32...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Xiuyan Lan, Huimin Xiao, Ying Chen, Xiaoling Zhang
The current study aimed to examine the effects of life review intervention on life satisfaction and personal meaning among frail older adults. Seventy-four participants were randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group. The intervention group received the Haight Structured Life Review with modified guiding questions and memory prompts. The control group received usual nursing home care. The Life Satisfaction Index A and Purpose in Life Test questionnaires were administered at baseline and immediately after the intervention...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Courtney A Polenick, Helen C Kales, Kira S Birditt
Background: Greater feelings of purpose in life are associated with better health and may reduce the negative impact of chronic stress. Yet little is known about how purpose in life may buffer the negative effects of caregiving, a common chronic stressor in middle and later life. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a U.S. sample of 315 spousal caregivers and their partners with functional disability drawn from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving to examine how both parties' perceptions of purpose in life are associated with caregivers' emotional and physical caregiving difficulties...
January 5, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Sarah Marone, Katherine Bloore, Paola Sebastiani, Christopher Flynn, Brittany Leonard, Kelsey Whitaker, Marilyn Mostowy, Thomas Perls, Stacy L Andersen
Objectives: Purpose in life (PIL), a feeling of meaning and direction in life, is associated with favorable health outcomes including lower mortality and reduced risk of disease, disability, and cognitive impairment. Since centenarian offspring have been shown to have long health spans we sought to examine whether they have higher PIL than individuals without familial longevity. Method: We compared PIL scores from the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being in centenarian offspring from the New England Centenarian Study (N=361, mean age=82...
March 7, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Marta Bassi, Antonella Delle Fave, Irene Cetin, Erika Melchiorri, Melissa Pozzo, Francesca Vescovelli, Chiara Ruini
BACKGROUND: The bulk of research on motherhood has focused on perinatal depression, largely overlooking indicators of women's positive mental health which can likewise have pervasive consequences on family functioning. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to address this issue by exploring the impact of parity and childbirth on both women's perinatal depression and psychological well-being. METHODS: A convenience sample of 81 women was followed during pregnancy (Time 1) and postpartum (Time 2)...
April 2017: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Kathryn Abramoski, Jennifer Pierce, Corinne Hauck, Sarah Stoddard
Purpose in life (PIL) promotes positive development and is associated with decreased substance use. However, to our knowledge, researchers have not investigated how different categories of PIL are associated with substance use behavior among youth. Therefore, we sought to explore categories of PIL and how they are related to substance use in a sample of adolescents. Ninth through 12th-grade students from a high school in a Midwest suburban community completed a paper-and-pencil survey ( n = 408, Mage = 15.36, SD = 1...
April 2018: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
Anise M S Wu, Juliet Honglei Chen, Kwok-Kit Tong, Shu Yu, Joseph T F Lau
Background and aims Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been mainly studied among adolescents, and no research to date has examined its prevalence in general Chinese adult populations. This study estimated the prevalence of probable IGD in community-dwelling adults in Macao, China. Associations between IGD and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) as well as IGD and character strength (i.e., psychological resilience and purpose in life) were also tested. Methods A random, representative sample of 1,000 Chinese residents (44% males; mean age = 40...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Stephen Neville, Jeffery Adams, Jed Montayre, Peter Larmer, Nick Garrett, Christine Stephens, Fiona Alpass
Loneliness as a consequence of getting older negatively impacts on the health and well-being of men as they age. Having a purpose in life may mitigate loneliness and therefore positively impact on health and well-being. Limited research into loneliness and purpose in life has been undertaken in older men. This study seeks to understand the relationship between loneliness and purpose in life in a group of older men. Using data from a cross-sectional survey of 614 men aged 60 years and over living in New Zealand, bivariate and multivariate analyses were undertaken to examine the relationship between loneliness and purpose in life using a range of demographic, health, and social connection variables...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Dorian A Lamis, Shweta Kapoor, Amanda P B Evans
Individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD) are at an increased risk of Suicidal ideation, attempts, and death. Moreover, a strong association exists between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and suicidal ideation among individuals with BD. Yet growing evidence suggests that existential well-being (EWB) may be a protective factor against suicidality. In this study, adult BD patients (N = 112) provided data on CSA, religious well-being (RWB; spiritual life in relation to God), EWB (purpose/meaning in life), and suicidal ideation...
February 12, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Tomoko Yamanouchi, Mayo Hiroshima, Yumiko Takeuchi, Yumiko Sawada, Makiko Takahashi, Manami Amagai
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to the worsening or improved mental health of long-term evacuees over three years following the Great East Japan Earthquake. METHOD: The Japanese version of the K6 questionnaire was used as a measure of mental health. The first- and third-year survey results were compared and differences in mental health status calculated. Respondents were then divided into two groups according to worsening or improved mental health status...
February 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
Wingyun Mak, Silvia Sörensen
Objectives: Little is known about humor and purpose in life in people with dementia. Although having a sense of humor is typically associated with positive psychological outcomes, recent evidence suggests that outcomes may vary depending on whether the humor being used is adaptive versus maladaptive. The goal of this study was to determine whether humor styles are predictive of purpose in life in people with dementia. Methods: Questionnaires were verbally administered to people with mild-to-moderate dementia to measure humor styles and purpose in life...
January 27, 2018: Gerontologist
Mary E Gannotti, Yvette Blanchard, Lisa Blumberg, Diana LaRocco
PURPOSE: To describe shared meanings of success, happiness, and health of adults with cerebral palsy and physiotherapists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethnography employed open ended/semi-structured interviews and structured questionnaires (Satisfaction with Life Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II® , Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, Life Habits Questionnaire, Medical Outcomes Study-Social Support Survey, and PROMIS® Pain Interference Scale). Content analysis of qualitative data and principal components analysis of questionnaire responses identified shared meanings...
January 25, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
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