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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783183/identification-of-novel-phosphatidic-acid-binding-domain-on-sphingosine-kinase-1-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Shatakshi Pandit, Vikram Dalal, Girish Mishra
Phosphatidic acid (PA) is an important lipid signaling molecule which interacts with Arabidopsis thaliana Sphingosine kinase1 (AtSPHK1) during several abiotic stresses particularly drought stress as a result of Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in guard cells. PA molecules respond by generating lipid signal and/or by binding and translocating target proteins to membrane. However, site of interaction and role of PA binding to AtSPHK1 is not clear yet. Owing to the importance of AtSPHK1 during stress signaling it is imperative to decipher the site of PA interaction with AtSPHK1...
May 8, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783050/disruption-of-ergosterol-and-tryptophan-biosynthesis-as-well-as-cell-wall-integrity-pathway-and-the-intracellular-ph-homeostasis-lead-to-mono-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-toxicity-in-budding-yeast
#2
Linghuo Jiang, Litong Wang, Tianshu Fang, Vassilios Papadopoulos
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are substances in the environment, food, and consumer products that interfere with hormone homeostasis, metabolism or reproduction in humans and animals. One such EDC, the plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), exerts its function through its principal bioactive metabolite, mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP). To fully understand the effects of MEHP on cellular processes and metabolism as well as to assess the impact of genetic alteration on the susceptibility to MEHP-induced toxicity, we screened MEHP-sensitive mutations on a genome-scale in the eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
May 15, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782989/nadph-oxidase-2-deletion-enhances-neurogenesis-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Jing Wang, Merry W Ma, Krishnan M Dhandapani, Darrell W Brann
The NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzyme family is a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and contributor to the secondary pathology underlying traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, little is known about how NOX-derived ROS influences the proliferation and cell-fate determination of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) following TBI. In the current study, we found that deletion of NOX2 (NOX2-KO) significantly decreases the population of radial glia-like NSCs and neuroblasts but maintains the population of non-radial Sox2 expressing stem cells under physiological (non-injury) conditions...
May 18, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782939/global-deletion-of-tetraspanin-cd82-attenuates-bone-growth-and-enhances-bone-marrow-adipogenesis
#4
Alexis Bergsma, Sourik S Ganguly, Daniel Dick, Bart O Williams, Cindy K Miranti
CD82 is a widely expressed member of the tetraspanin family of transmembrane proteins known to control cell signaling, adhesion, and migration. Tetraspanin CD82 is induced over 9-fold during osteoclast differentiation in vitro; however, its role in bone homeostasis is unknown. A globally deleted CD82 mouse model was used to assess the bone phenotype. Based on microCT and 4-point bending tests, CD82-deficient bones are smaller in diameter and weaker, but display no changes in bone density. Histomorphometry shows a decrease in size, erosion perimeter, and number of osteoclasts in situ, with a corresponding increase in trabecular surface area, specifically in male mice...
May 18, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782916/identification-of-amino-acid-residues-in-infectious-hematopoietic-necrosis-virus-ihnv-nv-protein-necessary-for-viral-replication-and-pathogenicity
#5
Yang Wu, Li Wang, Tiantian Guo, Yanping Jiang, Xinyuan Qiao, Li Sun, Min Liu, Lijie Tang, Yigang Xu, Yijing Li
Our previous studies demonstrated that the nonstructural NV protein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was essential for efficient viral replication and pathogenicity, and that the amino acid residues 32 EGDL35 of the NV protein were responsible for nuclear localization, and played important roles in suppressing IFN and inhibiting NF-κB activity. However, little is known about the influence of 32 EGDL35 on IHNV replication and pathogenicity. In the present study, two recombinant IHNV strains with deletions of NV 32 EGDL35 were generated and the effect on IHNV replication and pathogenicity was explored...
May 18, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782848/impaired-tfeb-mediated-lysosome-biogenesis-and-autophagy-promote-chronic-ethanol-induced-liver-injury-and-steatosis-in-mice
#6
Xiaojuan Chao, Shaogui Wang, Katrina Zhao, Yuan Li, Jessica A Williams, Tiangang Li, Hemantkumar Chavan, Partha Krishnamurthy, Xi C He, Linheng Li, Andrea Ballabio, Hong-Min Ni, Wen-Xing Ding
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Defects in lysosome function and autophagy contribute to pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. We investigated the mechanisms by which alcohol consumption affects these processes, evaluating the functions transcription factor EB (TFEB), which regulates lysosomal biogenesis. METHODS: We performed studies with GFP-LC3 mice, mice with liver-specific deletion of transcription factor EB (TFEB), mice with disruption of the transcription factor E3 gene (TFE3-knockout mice), mice with disruption of the Tefb and Tfe3 genes (TFEB, TFE3 double-knockout mice), and Tfebflox/flox albumin cre-negative mice (controls)...
May 18, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782550/multiple-roles-of-core-protein-linker-in-hepatitis-b-virus-replication
#7
Kuancheng Liu, Laurie Luckenbaugh, Xiaojun Ning, Ji Xi, Jianming Hu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) contains an N-terminal domain (NTD, assembly domain) and a C-terminal domain (CTD), which are linked by a flexible linker region. HBc plays multiple essential roles in viral replication, including capsid assembly, packaging of the viral pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) into nucleocapsids, viral reverse transcription that converts pgRNA to the genomic DNA, and secretion of DNA-containing (complete) virions or genome-free (empty) virions. The HBc linker is generally assumed to act merely as a spacer between NTD and CTD but some results suggest that the linker may affect NTD assembly...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782549/sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-2-facilitates-pulmonary-fibrosis-through-potentiating-il-13-pathway-in-macrophages
#8
Juanjuan Zhao, Yasuo Okamoto, Yuya Asano, Kazuhiro Ishimaru, Sho Aki, Kazuaki Yoshioka, Noriko Takuwa, Takashi Wada, Yutaka Inagaki, Chiaki Takahashi, Takumi Nishiuchi, Yoh Takuwa
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating disease with poor prognosis. The pathogenic role of the lysophospholipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate and its receptor S1PR2 in lung fibrosis is unknown. We show here that genetic deletion of S1pr2 strikingly attenuated lung fibrosis induced by repeated injections of bleomycin in mice. We observed by using S1pr2LacZ/+ mice that S1PR2 was expressed in alveolar macrophages, vascular endothelial cells and alveolar epithelial cells in the lung and that S1PR2-expressing cells accumulated in the fibrotic legions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782499/tgf%C3%AE-signaling-limits-lineage-plasticity-in-prostate-cancer
#9
Yi Hao, Glen A Bjerke, Karolina Pietrzak, Tiffany A Melhuish, Yu Han, Stephen D Turner, Henry F Frierson, David Wotton
Although treatment options for localized prostate cancer (CaP) are initially effective, the five-year survival for metastatic CaP is below 30%. Mutation or deletion of the PTEN tumor suppressor is a frequent event in metastatic CaP, and inactivation of the transforming growth factor (TGF) ß signaling pathway is associated with more advanced disease. We previously demonstrated that mouse models of CaP based on inactivation of Pten and the TGFß type II receptor (Tgfbr2) rapidly become invasive and metastatic...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782498/endoplasmic-reticulum-plasma-membrane-contact-sites-integrate-sterol-and-phospholipid-regulation
#10
Evan Quon, Yves Y Sere, Neha Chauhan, Jesper Johansen, David P Sullivan, Jeremy S Dittman, William J Rice, Robin B Chan, Gilbert di Paolo, Christopher T Beh, Anant K Menon
Tether proteins attach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to other cellular membranes, thereby creating contact sites that are proposed to form platforms for regulating lipid homeostasis and facilitating non-vesicular lipid exchange. Sterols are synthesized in the ER and transported by non-vesicular mechanisms to the plasma membrane (PM), where they represent almost half of all PM lipids and contribute critically to the barrier function of the PM. To determine whether contact sites are important for both sterol exchange between the ER and PM and intermembrane regulation of lipid metabolism, we generated Δ-super-tether (Δ-s-tether) yeast cells that lack six previously identified tethering proteins (yeast extended synatotagmin [E-Syt], vesicle-associated membrane protein [VAMP]-associated protein [VAP], and TMEM16-anoctamin homologues) as well as the presumptive tether Ice2...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782489/systematic-identification-of-factors-mediating-accelerated-mrna-degradation-in-response-to-changes-in-environmental-nitrogen
#11
Darach Miller, Nathan Brandt, David Gresham
Cellular responses to changing environments frequently involve rapid reprogramming of the transcriptome. Regulated changes in mRNA degradation rates can accelerate reprogramming by clearing or stabilizing extant transcripts. Here, we measured mRNA stability using 4-thiouracil labeling in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during a nitrogen upshift and found that 78 mRNAs are subject to destabilization. These transcripts include Nitrogen Catabolite Repression (NCR) and carbon metabolism mRNAs, suggesting that mRNA destabilization is a mechanism for targeted reprogramming of the transcriptome...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782413/2018-wound-care-related-codes-new-revised-and-deleted
#12
Kathleen D Schaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782346/claudins-and-nephrolithiasis
#13
Allein Plain, R Todd Alexander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The greatest risk factor for kidney stone formation is increased urinary calcium excretion. Most filtered calcium is reabsorbed from the proximal tubule and the thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop via a paracellular pathway. Claudins are tight junction proteins that confer the permeability properties of an epithelium. We review the contribution of renal claudins to nephron calcium permeability and how perturbations in these pathways cause alterations in tubular calcium transport, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, or nephrolithiasis...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781741/slowly-progressive-retinitis-pigmentosa-caused-by-two-novel-mutations-in-the-mak-gene
#14
Joanna Monika Gray, Harry Otway Orlans, Morag Shanks, Penny Clouston, Robert Elvis MacLaren
BACKGROUND: The growing number of clinical trials currently underway for inherited retinal diseases has highlighted the importance of achieving a molecular diagnosis for all new cases presenting to hospital eye services. The male germ cell-associated kinase (MAK) gene encodes a cilium-associated protein selectively expressed in the retina and testis, and has recently been implicated in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Whole exome sequencing has previously identified a homozygous Alu insertion in probands with recessive RP and nonsense and missense mutations have also been reported...
May 21, 2018: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781582/sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-signaling-maintains-endothelial-cell-barrier-function-and-protects-against-immune-complex-induced-vascular-injury
#15
Nathalie Burg, Steven Swendeman, Stefan Worgall, Timothy Hla, Jane E Salmon
OBJECTIVE: Immune complex (IC) deposition activates neutrophils (PMN), increases vascular permeability and leads to organ damage in SLE and RA. The bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), acting via S1P receptor 1 (S1P1 ), is a key regulator of endothelial cell (EC) barrier function. We hypothesized that augmenting EC integrity via S1P1 signaling would attenuate inflammatory injury mediated by ICs. METHODS: In vitro barrier function was assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS)...
May 21, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781506/articular-cartilage-protection-in-ctsk-mice-is-associated-with-cellular-and-molecular-changes-in-subchondral-bone-and-cartilage-matrix
#16
Fabiana N Soki, Ryu Yoshida, David N Paglia, Le T Duong, Marc F Hansen, Hicham Drissi
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease and a major cause of chronic disability in aging individuals. Cathepsin K (CatK), encoded by the Ctsk gene, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pycnodysostosis and osteoporosis. The use of a selective inhibitor of CatK was recently shown to delay OA progression in rabbits. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying these protective effects remain unexplored. We examined articular cartilage maintenance and joint bone remodeling using Ctsk null mice (Ctsk-/- ) which underwent destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM)...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781215/strap-deficiency-impairs-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-lineage-commitment-through-cyp26a1-mediated-retinoic-acid-homeostasis
#17
Lin Jin, Chenbei Chang, Kevin M Pawlik, Arunima Datta, Larry M Johnson, Trung Vu, Joseph L Napoli, Pran K Datta
Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is essential for the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and vertebrate development. RA biosynthesis and metabolism are controlled by a series of enzymes, but the molecular regulators of these enzymes remain largely obscure. In this study, we investigated the functional role of the WD-domain protein STRAP (serine threonine kinase receptor-associated protein) in the pluripotency and lineage commitment of murine ESCs. We generated Strap knockout (KO) mouse ESCs and subjected them to spontaneous differentiation...
May 21, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780592/preleukemic-and-second-hit-mutational-events-in-an-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patient-with-a-novel-germline-runx1-mutation
#18
Isaac Ks Ng, Joanne Lee, Christopher Ng, Bustamin Kosmo, Lily Chiu, Elaine Seah, Michelle Meng Huang Mok, Karen Tan, Motomi Osato, Wee-Joo Chng, Benedict Yan, Lip Kun Tan
Background: Germline mutations in the RUNX1 transcription factor give rise to a rare autosomal dominant genetic condition classified under the entity: Familial Platelet Disorders with predisposition to Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (FPD/AML). While several studies have identified a myriad of germline RUNX1 mutations implicated in this disorder, second-hit mutational events are necessary for patients with hereditary thrombocytopenia to develop full-blown AML. The molecular picture behind this process remains unclear...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780540/the-cycloaspeptides-uncovering-a-new-model-for-methylated-nonribosomal-peptide-biosynthesis
#19
Kate M J de Mattos-Shipley, Claudio Greco, David M Heard, Gemma Hough, Nicholas P Mulholland, Jason L Vincent, Jason Micklefield, Thomas J Simpson, Christine L Willis, Russell J Cox, Andrew M Bailey
The cycloaspeptides are bioactive pentapeptides produced by various filamentous fungi, which have garnered interest from the agricultural industry due to the reported insecticidal activity of the minor metabolite, cycloaspeptide E. Genome sequencing, bioinformatics and heterologous expression confirmed that the cycloaspeptide gene cluster contains a minimal 5-module nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and a new type of trans -acting N -methyltransferase ( N -MeT). Deletion of the N -MeT encoding gene and subsequent feeding studies determined that two modules of the NRPS preferentially accept and incorporate N -methylated amino acids...
May 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780405/quercetin-induced-lifespan-extension-in-podospora-anserina-requires-methylation-of-the-flavonoid-by-the-o-methyltransferase-pamth1
#20
Verena Warnsmann, Saskia Hainbuch, Heinz D Osiewacz
Quercetin is a flavonoid that is ubiquitously found in vegetables and fruits. Like other flavonoids, it is active in balancing cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and has a cyto-protective function. Previously, a link between ROS balancing, aging, and the activity of O -methyltransferases was reported in different organisms including the aging model Podospora anserina. Here we describe a role of the S -adenosylmethionine-dependent O -methyltransferase PaMTH1 in quercetin-induced lifespan extension...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
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