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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463246/next-generation-personalised-model-based-critical-care-medicine-a-state-of-the-art-review-of-in-silico-virtual-patient-models-methods-and-cohorts-and-how-to-validation-them
#1
REVIEW
J Geoffrey Chase, Jean-Charles Preiser, Jennifer L Dickson, Antoine Pironet, Yeong Shiong Chiew, Christopher G Pretty, Geoffrey M Shaw, Balazs Benyo, Knut Moeller, Soroush Safaei, Merryn Tawhai, Peter Hunter, Thomas Desaive
Critical care, like many healthcare areas, is under a dual assault from significantly increasing demographic and economic pressures. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients are highly variable in response to treatment, and increasingly aging populations mean ICUs are under increasing demand and their cohorts are increasingly ill. Equally, patient expectations are growing, while the economic ability to deliver care to all is declining. Better, more productive care is thus the big challenge. One means to that end is personalised care designed to manage the significant inter- and intra-patient variability that makes the ICU patient difficult...
February 20, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359192/targeted-phenotypic-screening-in-plasmodium-falciparum-and-toxoplasma-gondii-reveals-novel-modes-of-action-of-medicines-for-malaria-venture-malaria-box-molecules
#2
Gowtham Subramanian, Meenakshi A Belekar, Anurag Shukla, Jie Xin Tong, Ameya Sinha, Trang T T Chu, Akshay S Kulkarni, Peter R Preiser, D Srinivasa Reddy, Kevin S W Tan, Dhanasekaran Shanmugam, Rajesh Chandramohanadas
The Malaria Box collection includes 400 chemically diverse small molecules with documented potency against malaria parasite growth, but the underlying modes of action are largely unknown. Using complementary phenotypic screens against Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii, we report phenotype-specific hits based on inhibition of overall parasite growth, apicoplast segregation, and egress or host invasion, providing hitherto unavailable insights into the possible mechanisms affected. First, the Malaria Box library was screened against tachyzoite stage T...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310416/medium-term-outcome-of-closed-radial-wedge-osteotomy-of-the-distal-radius-for-preiser-disease-with-concomitant-kienb%C3%A3-ck-disease-two-case-reports-and-a-literature-review
#3
Yuji Tomori, Takuya Sawaizumi, Nanno Mitsuhiko, Shinro Takai
RATIONALE: Idiopathic avascular necrosis of the scaphoid or lunate bone are known as Preiser disease and Kienböck disease, respectively. Although there are reports of avascular necrosis involving more than one carpal bone, concurrent idiopathic avascular necrosis of the scaphoid and lunate bones is rare, with only five cases reported in the English literature (including the two herein). Although the optimum treatment for Preiser disease with concomitant Kienböck disease has not been established, our cases underwent closed radial wedge osteotomy based on the evidence of satisfactory outcomes for treating Kienböck disease...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280969/psychological-predictors-of-sexual-intimate-partner-violence-against-black-and-hispanic-women
#4
Brianna Preiser, Shervin Assari
Background: Although various types of intimate partner violence (IPV) tend to co-occur, risk factors of each type of IPV may differ. At the same time, most of the existing literature on risk factors of IPV among minorities has used a cross-sectional design and has focused on physical rather than sexual IPV. We conducted the current study to compare Black and Hispanic women for psychological predators of change in sexual IPV over time. Methods: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), this study followed 561 Black and 475 Hispanic women with their male partners for four years...
December 27, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274834/espen-guideline-clinical-nutrition-in-neurology
#5
Rosa Burgos, Irene Bretón, Emanuele Cereda, Jean Claude Desport, Rainer Dziewas, Laurence Genton, Filomena Gomes, Pierre Jésus, Andreas Leischker, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Kalliopi-Anna Poulia, Jean Charles Preiser, Marjolein Van der Marck, Rainer Wirth, Pierre Singer, Stephan C Bischoff
Neurological diseases are frequently associated with swallowing disorders and malnutrition. Moreover, patients with neurological diseases are at increased risk of micronutrient deficiency and dehydration. On the other hand, nutritional factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. Multiple causes for the development of malnutrition in patients with neurological diseases are known including oropharyngeal dysphagia, impaired consciousness, perception deficits, cognitive dysfunction, and increased needs...
September 22, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114397/false-positive-galactomannan-assay-in-broncho-alveolar-lavage-after-enteral-nutrition-solution-inhalation-a-case-report
#6
Olivier Lheureux, Isabel Montesinos, Olivier Taton, Martine Antoine, Jean-Charles Preiser, Joelle Nortier, Jacques Creteur, Frederique Jacobs, David Grimaldi
Introduction. Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is challenging and the gold standard for definite diagnosis remains histopathological tissue examination. However, invasive procedures such as lung biopsy are often not feasible in critically ill patients. The detection of fungal cell wall components like Aspergillus galactomannan in broncho-alveolar lavage remains a key component of the diagnostic procedure. False-positive of the Aspergillus galactomannan assay is not frequent. Case presentation. We report a case of positive galactomannan in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid after enteral nutrition aspiration without signs of invasive aspergillosis...
September 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091093/host-immune-evasion-strategies-of-malaria-blood-stage-parasite
#7
REVIEW
Xue Yan Yam, Peter R Preiser
Host immune evasion is a key strategy for the continual survival of many microbial pathogens including Apicomplexan protozoan: Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of Malaria. The malaria parasite has evolved a variety of mechanisms to evade the host immune responses within its two hosts: the female Anopheles mosquito vector and vertebrate host. In this review, we will focus on the molecular mechanisms of the immune evasion strategies used by the Plasmodium parasite at the blood stage which is responsible for the clinical manifestations of human malaria...
November 21, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070841/an-apiap2-member-regulates-expression-of-clonally-variant-genes-of-the-human-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum
#8
Rafael M Martins, Cameron R Macpherson, Aurélie Claes, Christine Scheidig-Benatar, Hiroshi Sakamoto, Xue Yan Yam, Peter Preiser, Suchi Goel, Mats Wahlgren, Odile Sismeiro, Jean-Yves Coppée, Artur Scherf
Variegated surface antigen expression is key to chronic infection and pathogenesis of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This protozoan parasite expresses distinct surface molecules that are encoded by clonally variant gene families such as var, rif and stevor. The molecular mechanisms governing activation of individual members remain ill-defined. To investigate the molecular events of the initial transcriptional activation process we focused on a member of the apicomplexan ApiAP2 transcription factor family predicted to bind to the 5' upstream regions of the var gene family, AP2-exp (PF3D7_1466400)...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992307/attempted-molecular-detection-of-the-thermally-dimorphic-human-fungal-pathogen-emergomyces-africanus-in-terrestrial-small-mammals-in-south-africa
#9
Nadine Cronjé, Ilan S Schwartz, Liezl Retief, Armanda D S Bastos, Sonja Matthee, Wolfgang Preiser, Nigel C Bennett, Tsidiso Maphanga, Nelesh P Govender, Robert Colebunders, Chris Kenyon
The ecological niche of Emergomyces africanus (formerly Emmonsia species), a dimorphic fungus that causes an AIDS-related mycosis in South Africa, is unknown. We hypothesized that natural infection with E. africanus occurs in wild small mammals. Using molecular detection with primers specific for E. africanus, we examined 1402 DNA samples from 26 species of mole-rats, rodents, and insectivores trapped in South Africa that included 1324 lung, 37 kidney, and 41 liver specimens. DNA of E. africanus was not detected in any animals...
September 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953556/uncontrolled-bleeding-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#10
Alain D'Hondt, Lionel Haentjens, Nicolas Brassart, Frédéric Flamme, Jean-Charles Preiser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is a frequent emergency situation, whose incidence will likely rise as a result of the increasing use of direct anticoagulants and of the medical progresses resulting in longer life expectancy with underlying comorbidities. Updated guidelines and improvements in the diagnostic and therapeutic tools are now available and will likely improve the management of massive gastrointestinal bleeding in the near future. RECENT FINDINGS: The assessment of severity has been improved by validated scores useable upon admission...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898704/interpretation-of-indeterminate-hiv-1-pcr-results-are-influenced-by-changing-vertical-transmission-prevention-regimens
#11
Jean Maritz, Jayshree Narvin Maharaj, Mark Frederic Cotton, Wolfgang Preiser
BACKGROUND: Suppression of HIV by antiretroviral drugs may be one of the reasons that indeterminate HIV-1 PCR results are obtained from testing HIV-exposed infants. This complicates the early identification of infected infants, potentially delaying initiating treatment early. There is uncertainty as to how different vertical HIV transmission prevention regimens (VTP) affect the rate and predictive value of indeterminate PCR results. OBJECTIVES: To investigate rates of indeterminate PCR results, outcomes of subsequent samples and the predictive value of an indeterminate PCR for a later positive result in the setting of intensifying VTP in the Western Cape province of South Africa...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857824/moderate-levels-of-pre-therapy-drug-resistance-pdr-in-a-generalised-epidemic-time-for-better-first-line-art
#12
Gert U van Zyl, Cornelis J Grobbelaar, Mathilda Claassen, Peter Bock, Wolfgang Preiser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765218/dengue-virus-infected-dendritic-cells-but-not-monocytes-activate-natural-killer-cells-through-a-contact-dependent-mechanism-involving-adhesion-molecules
#13
Vivian Vasconcelos Costa, Weijian Ye, Qingfeng Chen, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Peter Preiser, Eng Eong Ooi, Jianzhu Chen
Natural killer (NK) cells play a protective role against dengue virus (DENV) infection, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Using an optimized humanized mouse model, we show that human NK cells, through the secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), are critical in the early defense against DENV infection. Depletion of NK cells or neutralization of IFN-γ leads to increased viremia and more severe thrombocytopenia and liver damage in humanized mice. In vitro studies using autologous human NK cells show that DENV-infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs), but not monocytes, activate NK cells in a contact-dependent manner, resulting in upregulation of CD69 and CD25 and secretion of IFN-γ...
August 1, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756769/continuous-glucose-monitoring-in-the-icu-clinical-considerations-and-consensus
#14
REVIEW
James S Krinsley, J Geoffrey Chase, Jan Gunst, Johan Martensson, Marcus J Schultz, Fabio S Taccone, Jan Wernerman, Julien Bohe, Christophe De Block, Thomas Desaive, Pierre Kalfon, Jean-Charles Preiser
Glucose management in intensive care unit (ICU) patients has been a matter of debate for almost two decades. Compared to intermittent monitoring systems, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) can offer benefit in the prevention of severe hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia by enabling insulin infusions to be adjusted more rapidly and potentially more accurately because trends in glucose concentrations can be more readily identified. Increasingly, it is apparent that a single glucose target/range may not be optimal for all patients at all times and, as with many other aspects of critical care patient management, a personalized approach to glucose control may be more appropriate...
July 31, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756470/a-critical-view-on-primary-and-secondary-outcome-measures-in-nutrition-trials
#15
EDITORIAL
Yaseen M Arabi, Jean-Charles Preiser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 29, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737574/is-there-a-role-for-enterohormones-in-the-gastroparesis-of-critically-ill-patients
#16
Carlos A Santacruz, Amanda Quintairos, Claudia Righy, Ilaria A Crippa, Lucio Couto, Virginie Imbault, Mongkolpun Wasineeart, Mathieu De Ryckere, Jean-Charles Preiser
OBJECTIVES: Delayed gastric emptying occurs in critically ill patients and impairs the delivery, digestion, and absorption of enteral feeding. A pathophysiologic role of the enterohormones peptide YY and ghrelin is supported by preclinical data. To compare the circulating plasma levels of peptide YY and ghrelin in control subjects and in critically ill patients, during feeding and fasting, and to search for a correlation with gastric emptying. DESIGN: A prospective observational trial...
October 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732085/point-of-care-screening-for-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-pregnant-women-at-an-antenatal-clinic-a-south-african-experience
#17
Nafiisah Chotun, Wolfgang Preiser, Christoffel Johannes van Rensburg, Pedro Fernandez, Gerhard Barnard Theron, Dieter Glebe, Monique Ingrid Andersson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Elimination of HIV and syphilis mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) has received much attention but little consideration has been given to the possibility of elimination of HBV MTCT. In sub-Saharan Africa, HBV vertical transmission continues to be reported and it remains an important public health problem. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of screening pregnant women for HBV using a point-of-care (POC) test and implementing interventions to prevent HBV MTCT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683458/oral-nitrate-increases-microvascular-reactivity-and-the-number-of-visible-perfused-microvessels-in-healthy-volunteers
#18
Louis Kolb, Diego Orbegozo, Jacques Creteur, Jean-Charles Preiser, Jean-Louis Vincent, Daniel De Backer
Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in controlling microcirculatory function, but the effects of exogenous administration of nitrate (NO3-) on the microcirculation have not been well studied. We evaluated whether NO3- could influence the microvascular response to hypoxia in 17 healthy volunteers. We used a vascular occlusion test (VOT) to assess the response of near-infrared spectroscopy-derived indexes to hypoxic stress before and 2 h 15 min after oral administration of 800 mg potassium nitrate. We also monitored changes in the sublingual microcirculation using side-stream dark-field (SDF) video microscopy...
2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622798/singapore-malaria-network-meeting-singmalnet-2016
#19
EDITORIAL
Peter Preiser, Laurent Renia, Zbynek Bozdech, Kevin Tan, Bruce Russell, Brian M Cooke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599676/a-randomized-trial-of-supplemental-parenteral-nutrition-in-underweight-and-overweight-critically-ill-patients-the-top-up-pilot-trial
#20
Paul E Wischmeyer, Michel Hasselmann, Christine Kummerlen, Rosemary Kozar, Demetrios James Kutsogiannis, Constantine J Karvellas, Beth Besecker, David K Evans, Jean-Charles Preiser, Leah Gramlich, Khursheed Jeejeebhoy, Rupinder Dhaliwal, Xuran Jiang, Andrew G Day, Daren K Heyland
BACKGROUND: Nutrition guidelines recommendations differ on the use of parenteral nutrition (PN), and existing clinical trial data are inconclusive. Our recent observational data show that amounts of energy/protein received early in the intensive care unit (ICU) affect patient mortality, particularly for inadequate nutrition intake in patients with body mass indices (BMIs) of <25 or >35. Thus, we hypothesized increased nutrition delivery via supplemental PN (SPN) + enteral nutrition (EN) to underweight and obese ICU patients would improve 60-day survival and quality of life (QoL) versus usual care (EN alone)...
June 9, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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