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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677115/subjective-socioeconomic-status-moderates-the-association-between-discrimination-and-depression-in-african-american-youth
#1
Shervin Assari, Brianna Preiser, Maryam Moghani Lankarani, Cleopatra H Caldwell
Background: Most of the literature on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health is focused on the protective effects of SES. However, a growing literature suggests that high SES may also operate as a vulnerability factor. Aims: Using a national sample of African American youth, this study compared the effects of perceived discrimination on major depressive disorder (MDD) based on SES. Methods: The current cross-sectional study included 810 African American youth who participated in the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent supplement...
April 20, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677007/near-continuous-glucose-monitoring-makes-glycemic-control-safer-in-icu-patients
#2
Jean-Charles Preiser, Olivier Lheureux, Aurelie Thooft, Serge Brimioulle, Jacques Goldstein, Jean-Louis Vincent
OBJECTIVES: Tight glycemic control using intermittent blood glucose measurements is associated with a risk of hypoglycemia. Glucose concentrations can now be measured near continuously (every 5-15 min). We assessed the quality and safety of glycemic control guided by a near-continuous glucose monitoring system in ICU patients. DESIGN: Prospective, cluster-randomized, crossover study. SETTING: Thirty-five-bed medico-surgical department of intensive care with four separate ICUs...
April 19, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624594/a-systematic-scoping-review-on-the-consequences-of-stress-related-hyperglycaemia
#3
Elena Olariu, Nicholas Pooley, Aurélie Danel, Montserrat Miret, Jean-Charles Preiser
BACKGROUND: Stress-related hyperglycaemia (SHG) is commonly seen in acutely ill patients and has been associated with poor outcomes in many studies performed in different acute care settings. We aimed to review the available evidence describing the associations between SHG and different outcomes in acutely ill patients admitted to an ICU. Study designs, populations, and outcome measures used in observational studies were analysed. METHODS: We conducted a systematic scoping review of observational studies following the Joanna Briggs methodology...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578710/chemogenomic-profiling-of-human-and-microbial-fk506-binding-proteins
#4
Sebastian Pomplun, Claudia Sippel, Andreas Hähle, Donald Tay, Kensuke Shima, Alina Klages, Can Murat Ünal, Benedikt Rieß, Hui Ting Toh, Guido Hansen, Ho Sup Yoon, Andreas Bracher, Peter Rainer Preiser, Jan Rupp, Michael Steinert, Felix Hausch
FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) are evolutionary conserved proteins that display peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity and act as co-receptors for immunosuppressants. Microbial macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip) type FKBPs can enhance infectivity. However, developing drug-like ligands for FKBPs or Mips has proven difficult and many FKBPs/Mips still lack a biologically useful ligand. To explore the scope and potential of C5-substituted-[4.3.1]-aza-bicyclic sulfonamides as a broadly applicable class of FKBP inhibitors, we developed a new synthesis for the bicyclic core scaffold and used it to prepare a FKBP/Mip-focused library...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503181/comparative-heterochromatin-profiling-reveals-conserved-and-unique-epigenome-signatures-linked-to-adaptation-and-development-of-malaria-parasites
#5
Sabine A Fraschka, Michael Filarsky, Regina Hoo, Igor Niederwieser, Xue Yan Yam, Nicolas M B Brancucci, Franziska Mohring, Annals T Mushunje, Ximei Huang, Peter R Christensen, Francois Nosten, Zbynek Bozdech, Bruce Russell, Robert W Moon, Matthias Marti, Peter R Preiser, Richárd Bártfai, Till S Voss
Heterochromatin-dependent gene silencing is central to the adaptation and survival of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites, allowing clonally variant gene expression during blood infection in humans. By assessing genome-wide heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) occupancy, we present a comprehensive analysis of heterochromatin landscapes across different Plasmodium species, strains, and life cycle stages. Common targets of epigenetic silencing include fast-evolving multi-gene families encoding surface antigens and a small set of conserved HP1-associated genes with regulatory potential...
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463246/next-generation-personalised-model-based-critical-care-medicine-a-state-of-the-art-review-of-in-silico-virtual-patient-models-methods-and-cohorts-and-how-to-validation-them
#6
REVIEW
J Geoffrey Chase, Jean-Charles Preiser, Jennifer L Dickson, Antoine Pironet, Yeong Shiong Chiew, Christopher G Pretty, Geoffrey M Shaw, Balazs Benyo, Knut Moeller, Soroush Safaei, Merryn Tawhai, Peter Hunter, Thomas Desaive
Critical care, like many healthcare areas, is under a dual assault from significantly increasing demographic and economic pressures. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients are highly variable in response to treatment, and increasingly aging populations mean ICUs are under increasing demand and their cohorts are increasingly ill. Equally, patient expectations are growing, while the economic ability to deliver care to all is declining. Better, more productive care is thus the big challenge. One means to that end is personalised care designed to manage the significant inter- and intra-patient variability that makes the ICU patient difficult...
February 20, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359192/targeted-phenotypic-screening-in-plasmodium-falciparum-and-toxoplasma-gondii-reveals-novel-modes-of-action-of-medicines-for-malaria-venture-malaria-box-molecules
#7
Gowtham Subramanian, Meenakshi A Belekar, Anurag Shukla, Jie Xin Tong, Ameya Sinha, Trang T T Chu, Akshay S Kulkarni, Peter R Preiser, D Srinivasa Reddy, Kevin S W Tan, Dhanasekaran Shanmugam, Rajesh Chandramohanadas
The Malaria Box collection includes 400 chemically diverse small molecules with documented potency against malaria parasite growth, but the underlying modes of action are largely unknown. Using complementary phenotypic screens against Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii , we report phenotype-specific hits based on inhibition of overall parasite growth, apicoplast segregation, and egress or host invasion, providing hitherto unavailable insights into the possible mechanisms affected. First, the Malaria Box library was screened against tachyzoite stage T...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310416/medium-term-outcome-of-closed-radial-wedge-osteotomy-of-the-distal-radius-for-preiser-disease-with-concomitant-kienb%C3%A3-ck-disease-two-case-reports-and-a-literature-review
#8
REVIEW
Yuji Tomori, Takuya Sawaizumi, Nanno Mitsuhiko, Shinro Takai
RATIONALE: Idiopathic avascular necrosis of the scaphoid or lunate bone are known as Preiser disease and Kienböck disease, respectively. Although there are reports of avascular necrosis involving more than one carpal bone, concurrent idiopathic avascular necrosis of the scaphoid and lunate bones is rare, with only five cases reported in the English literature (including the two herein). Although the optimum treatment for Preiser disease with concomitant Kienböck disease has not been established, our cases underwent closed radial wedge osteotomy based on the evidence of satisfactory outcomes for treating Kienböck disease...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280969/psychological-predictors-of-sexual-intimate-partner-violence-against-black-and-hispanic-women
#9
Brianna Preiser, Shervin Assari
Background: Although various types of intimate partner violence (IPV) tend to co-occur, risk factors of each type of IPV may differ. At the same time, most of the existing literature on risk factors of IPV among minorities has used a cross-sectional design and has focused on physical rather than sexual IPV. We conducted the current study to compare Black and Hispanic women for psychological predators of change in sexual IPV over time. Methods: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), this study followed 561 Black and 475 Hispanic women with their male partners for four years...
December 27, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274834/espen-guideline-clinical-nutrition-in-neurology
#10
Rosa Burgos, Irene Bretón, Emanuele Cereda, Jean Claude Desport, Rainer Dziewas, Laurence Genton, Filomena Gomes, Pierre Jésus, Andreas Leischker, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Kalliopi-Anna Poulia, Jean Charles Preiser, Marjolein Van der Marck, Rainer Wirth, Pierre Singer, Stephan C Bischoff
Neurological diseases are frequently associated with swallowing disorders and malnutrition. Moreover, patients with neurological diseases are at increased risk of micronutrient deficiency and dehydration. On the other hand, nutritional factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. Multiple causes for the development of malnutrition in patients with neurological diseases are known including oropharyngeal dysphagia, impaired consciousness, perception deficits, cognitive dysfunction, and increased needs...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114397/false-positive-galactomannan-assay-in-broncho-alveolar-lavage-after-enteral-nutrition-solution-inhalation-a-case-report
#11
Olivier Lheureux, Isabel Montesinos, Olivier Taton, Martine Antoine, Jean-Charles Preiser, Joelle Nortier, Jacques Creteur, Frederique Jacobs, David Grimaldi
Introduction. Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is challenging and the gold standard for definite diagnosis remains histopathological tissue examination. However, invasive procedures such as lung biopsy are often not feasible in critically ill patients. The detection of fungal cell wall components like Aspergillus galactomannan in broncho-alveolar lavage remains a key component of the diagnostic procedure. False-positive of the Aspergillus galactomannan assay is not frequent. Case presentation. We report a case of positive galactomannan in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid after enteral nutrition aspiration without signs of invasive aspergillosis...
September 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091093/host-immune-evasion-strategies-of-malaria-blood-stage-parasite
#12
REVIEW
Xue Yan Yam, Peter R Preiser
Host immune evasion is a key strategy for the continual survival of many microbial pathogens including Apicomplexan protozoan: Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of Malaria. The malaria parasite has evolved a variety of mechanisms to evade the host immune responses within its two hosts: the female Anopheles mosquito vector and vertebrate host. In this review, we will focus on the molecular mechanisms of the immune evasion strategies used by the Plasmodium parasite at the blood stage which is responsible for the clinical manifestations of human malaria...
November 21, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070841/an-apiap2-member-regulates-expression-of-clonally-variant-genes-of-the-human-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum
#13
Rafael M Martins, Cameron R Macpherson, Aurélie Claes, Christine Scheidig-Benatar, Hiroshi Sakamoto, Xue Yan Yam, Peter Preiser, Suchi Goel, Mats Wahlgren, Odile Sismeiro, Jean-Yves Coppée, Artur Scherf
Variegated surface antigen expression is key to chronic infection and pathogenesis of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This protozoan parasite expresses distinct surface molecules that are encoded by clonally variant gene families such as var, rif and stevor. The molecular mechanisms governing activation of individual members remain ill-defined. To investigate the molecular events of the initial transcriptional activation process we focused on a member of the apicomplexan ApiAP2 transcription factor family predicted to bind to the 5' upstream regions of the var gene family, AP2-exp (PF3D7_1466400)...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992307/attempted-molecular-detection-of-the-thermally-dimorphic-human-fungal-pathogen-emergomyces-africanus-in-terrestrial-small-mammals-in-south-africa
#14
Nadine Cronjé, Ilan S Schwartz, Liezl Retief, Armanda D S Bastos, Sonja Matthee, Wolfgang Preiser, Nigel C Bennett, Tsidiso Maphanga, Nelesh P Govender, Robert Colebunders, Chris Kenyon
The ecological niche of Emergomyces africanus (formerly Emmonsia species), a dimorphic fungus that causes an AIDS-related mycosis in South Africa, is unknown. We hypothesized that natural infection with E. africanus occurs in wild small mammals. Using molecular detection with primers specific for E. africanus, we examined 1402 DNA samples from 26 species of mole-rats, rodents, and insectivores trapped in South Africa that included 1324 lung, 37 kidney, and 41 liver specimens. DNA of E. africanus was not detected in any animals...
September 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953556/uncontrolled-bleeding-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#15
Alain D'Hondt, Lionel Haentjens, Nicolas Brassart, Frédéric Flamme, Jean-Charles Preiser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is a frequent emergency situation, whose incidence will likely rise as a result of the increasing use of direct anticoagulants and of the medical progresses resulting in longer life expectancy with underlying comorbidities. Updated guidelines and improvements in the diagnostic and therapeutic tools are now available and will likely improve the management of massive gastrointestinal bleeding in the near future. RECENT FINDINGS: The assessment of severity has been improved by validated scores useable upon admission...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898704/interpretation-of-indeterminate-hiv-1-pcr-results-are-influenced-by-changing-vertical-transmission-prevention-regimens
#16
Jean Maritz, Jayshree Narvin Maharaj, Mark Frederic Cotton, Wolfgang Preiser
BACKGROUND: Suppression of HIV by antiretroviral drugs may be one of the reasons that indeterminate HIV-1 PCR results are obtained from testing HIV-exposed infants. This complicates the early identification of infected infants, potentially delaying initiating treatment early. There is uncertainty as to how different vertical HIV transmission prevention regimens (VTP) affect the rate and predictive value of indeterminate PCR results. OBJECTIVES: To investigate rates of indeterminate PCR results, outcomes of subsequent samples and the predictive value of an indeterminate PCR for a later positive result in the setting of intensifying VTP in the Western Cape province of South Africa...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857824/moderate-levels-of-pre-therapy-drug-resistance-pdr-in-a-generalised-epidemic-time-for-better-first-line-art
#17
Gert U van Zyl, Cornelis J Grobbelaar, Mathilda Claassen, Peter Bock, Wolfgang Preiser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765218/dengue-virus-infected-dendritic-cells-but-not-monocytes-activate-natural-killer-cells-through-a-contact-dependent-mechanism-involving-adhesion-molecules
#18
Vivian Vasconcelos Costa, Weijian Ye, Qingfeng Chen, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Peter Preiser, Eng Eong Ooi, Jianzhu Chen
Natural killer (NK) cells play a protective role against dengue virus (DENV) infection, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Using an optimized humanized mouse model, we show that human NK cells, through the secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), are critical in the early defense against DENV infection. Depletion of NK cells or neutralization of IFN-γ leads to increased viremia and more severe thrombocytopenia and liver damage in humanized mice. In vitro studies using autologous human NK cells show that DENV-infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs), but not monocytes, activate NK cells in a contact-dependent manner, resulting in upregulation of CD69 and CD25 and secretion of IFN-γ...
August 1, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756769/continuous-glucose-monitoring-in-the-icu-clinical-considerations-and-consensus
#19
REVIEW
James S Krinsley, J Geoffrey Chase, Jan Gunst, Johan Martensson, Marcus J Schultz, Fabio S Taccone, Jan Wernerman, Julien Bohe, Christophe De Block, Thomas Desaive, Pierre Kalfon, Jean-Charles Preiser
Glucose management in intensive care unit (ICU) patients has been a matter of debate for almost two decades. Compared to intermittent monitoring systems, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) can offer benefit in the prevention of severe hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia by enabling insulin infusions to be adjusted more rapidly and potentially more accurately because trends in glucose concentrations can be more readily identified. Increasingly, it is apparent that a single glucose target/range may not be optimal for all patients at all times and, as with many other aspects of critical care patient management, a personalized approach to glucose control may be more appropriate...
July 31, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756470/a-critical-view-on-primary-and-secondary-outcome-measures-in-nutrition-trials
#20
EDITORIAL
Yaseen M Arabi, Jean-Charles Preiser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
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