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Forensic Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324321/injuries-sustained-in-falling-fatalities-in-relation-to-different-distances-of-falls
#1
Hasan Abder-Rahman, Mohanad S O Jaber, Shrouq S Al-Sabaileh
BACKGROUND: Falling from a distance is an important issue worldwide, which happens in different ages, genders and circumstances. It is usually not considered a medicolegal case in many countries hence no autopsy is performed. This study focused on analyzing injuries sustained in victims of falling in relation to different distances of fall. METHODS: Retrospective study of 352 autopsy reports of falling victims brought to the forensic pathology department at Jordan University Hospital during the period from January 1990 to March 2016...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318893/cross-polarised-and-parallel-polarised-light-viewing-and-photography-for-examination-and-documentation-of-biological-materials-in-medicine-and-forensics
#2
Katharine L Hanlon
Cross-polarisation, with regard to visible light, is a process wherein two polarisers with perpendicular orientation to one another are used on the incident and reflected lights. Under cross-polarised light birefringent structures which are otherwise invisible become apparent. Cross-polarised light eliminates glare and specular highlights, allowing for an unobstructed view of subsurface pathology. Parallel-polarisation occurs when the polarisers are rotated to the same orientation. When cross- or parallel-polarisation is applied to photography, images can be generated which aid in visualisation of surface and subsurface elements...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317062/could-the-screening-for-correct-oral-health-reduce-the-impact-of-death-due-to-bolus-asphyxia-in-adult-patients-a-forensic-case-report
#3
Isabella Aquila, Santo Gratteri, Matteo A Sacco, Emilio Nuzzolese, Vittorio Fineschi, Paola Frati, Pietrantonio Ricci
INTRODUCTION: "Bolus death" or "Café Coronary syndrome" refers to death due to asphyxia caused by an occlusion of the upper airways due to food. In this kind of asphyxia, the food bolus obstructs the larynx or the bronchial branches. This kind of event often affects subjects with acute intoxication due to alcohol or drugs, or with edentulism and with neurological or psychiatric diseases. CASE REPORT: An elderly woman, suffering from schizophrenia, was found dead in her house due to food bolus asphyxia...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283002/twenty-three-years-1993-2015-of-homicide-trends-in-the-transkei-region-of-south-africa
#4
Meel Banwari
Background Transkei is regarded as a rural part of South Africa. It was one of the black homelands where rigorous apartheid was practised. The incidence of firearm-related deaths used to be very high, but after the implementation of the Firearm Control Act in 2002, the trend changed. However, the murder rate is still a major public-health problem in this region of South Africa. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate 23 years (1993-2015) of homicide trends in the Transkei region of South Africa. Method A review of records of medico-legal autopsies performed at Mthatha Forensic Pathology Laboratory from 1993 to 2015 was undertaken...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275561/-application-of-rt-qpcr-in-the-study-of-forensic-pathology
#5
REVIEW
S H Du, D R Li, H J Wang, Q Wang
Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a convenient and highly efficient method for the detection of mRNA in tissues or body fluid samples. It has the characteristics of easy operation, high sensitivity and specificity, etc. With a wide application in medicine, biology and other fields, RT-qPCR technique has made some progresses in the research field of forensic pathology. This paper reviews the application value of RT-qPCR in the study of forensic pathology and current situation, as well as the research progress at home and abroad reviews...
October 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275552/-forensic-analysis-of-6-cases-of-sudden-death-due-to-hyperthyroid-heart-disease
#6
M Z Zhang, B X Li, R Zhao, D W Guan, G H Zhang, X Wu, B L Zhu, R B Li
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the cases of sudden death due to hyperthyroid heart disease, and explore the general information of deaths and the forensic pathological characteristics to provide reference evidence for forensic identification of such cases. METHODS: Six cases of sudden death due to hyperthyroid heart disease between 2001 and 2016 were selected from School of Forensic Medicine, China Medical University. The general information (gender and age), clinical manifestations, medical history, anatomical and histopathological findings, biochemical parameters and cause of death were analysed retrospectively...
October 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275549/-research-progress-of-sudden-cardiac-death-in-forensic-medicine
#7
REVIEW
D Zheng, K Yin, J J Zheng, N Zhou, Y Liu, X Fu, J D Cheng
Sudden death (SD) is a special kind of death owing to disease, which severely threatening the lives of community population. As the most common type of SD, sudden cardiac death (SCD) has always been a crucial content of identification and research in forensic pathology. This article reviews the research progress from the aspects of epidemiology, morphology, molecular pathology and virtual anatomy of SCD in forensic medicine, so as to provide a reference for the morphological identification, determination of cause of death, and integrated control of this kind of SD...
October 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275338/rationale-and-design-of-the-violence-injury-and-trauma-observatory-vito-the-cape-town-vito-pilot-studies-protocol
#8
Ardil Jabar, Tolu Oni, Mark E Engel, Nemanja Cvetkovic, Richard Matzopoulos
The establishment of violence and injury observatories elsewhere has been found to reduce the burden within a relatively short period. Currently no integrated system exists in South Africa to provide collated data on violence, to allow for targeted interventions and routine monitoring and evaluation.This research seeks to identify if bringing multiple data sources, including but not limited to data from the South African Police Service (SAPS), Forensic Pathology Services (FPS), Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and local hospital clinical databases, together are (1) feasible; (2) able to generate data for action, that is valid, reliable and robust and (3) able to lead to interventions...
December 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231010/-advance-of-forensic-research-in-insulin-poisoning
#9
REVIEW
F Tong, Y Liang, Q Shi, L Zhang, W H L, Y W Zhou
Insulin as a common clinical hypoglycemic agent can effectively control serves to lower the concentration of blood glucose. However, insulin overdose can lead to death. In the whole fatal cases of insulin overdose, medical accident is the most common, followed by suicide. Though insulin homicide is extremely rare, it deserves great attention. Though there are some researches about insulin poisoning on forensic toxicology and pathology, it is still a difficult task in forensic practice. In this paper, the mechanism of death, pathological changes, detection methods and diagnose criteria of insulin overdose will be discussed in the view of forensic toxicology and pathology...
February 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231009/-research-progress-on-diagnosis-of-drowning
#10
REVIEW
W Zhang, J L Zheng
These external and internal signs of drowning are non-specific. Therefore, diagnosis of drowning is always one of the most difficult tasks in forensic pathology. This paper meticulously and comprehensively reviews research progress on the diagnosis of drowning in pathological signs, laboratory examination, immunohistochemistry test and virtopsy technology, and it also prospects the research direction of diagnosis of drowning.
February 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230997/-research-progress-of-the-relationship-between-the-expression-of-tar-dna-binding-domain-protein-43-and-brain-injury
#11
REVIEW
Y Ye, R B Li, S Y Ma, X T Wei, Q Xu
TAR DNA-binding domain protein 43 (TDP-43) is a highly conserved and widely expressed nuclear protein. Nowadays, the expression of TDP-43 can be found in most neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, which makes it become a neurodegenerative disease associated marker protein. From the current research status at homeland and abroad, and around the relationship between the expression of TDP-43 and brain injury, this article emphatically probes into the specific expression and function of TDP-43 in acute and chronic brain injury based on the knowledge of its biological characteristics, which aims to explore the feasibility for determining the cause of death and the injury and disability situations by TDP-43 in forensic pathology...
June 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230996/-research-progress-of-the-correlation-between-caveolin-and-unexpected-sudden-cardiac-death
#12
REVIEW
F Y Wu, L L Gai, X P Kong, B Hao, E W Huang, H Shi, L H Sheng, L Quan, S P Liu, B Luo
Due to the negative autopsy and without cardiac structural abnormalities, unexpected sudden cardiac death (USCD) is always a tough issue for forensic pathological expertise. USCD may be associated with parts of fatal arrhythmic diseases. These arrhythmic diseases may be caused by disorders of cardiac ion channels or channel-related proteins. Caveolin can combine with multiple myocardial ion channel proteins through its scaffolding regions and plays an important role in maintaining the depolarization and repolarization of cardiac action potential...
June 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223918/postmortem-computed-tomography-findings-in-cases-of-bath-related-death-applicability-and-limitation-in-forensic-practice
#13
Satoko Mishima, Hideto Suzuki, Tatsushige Fukunaga, Yoko Nishitani
PURPOSE: Bath-related deaths occur frequently in Japan, and many of these deaths are diagnosed as death from disease without autopsy in the current Japanese death-investigation system. Therefore, we aimed to examine the postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) findings of bath-related deaths to determine if PMCT can differentiate between real cases of drowning and sudden deaths not related to drowning. METHODS: Bath-related deaths were sampled from all autopsies conducted at the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office from September 2015 to August 2016...
December 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220722/circulating-mirnas-expression-profiling-in-drug-resistant-epilepsy-up-regulation-of-mir-301a-3p-in-a-case-of-sudden-unexpected-death
#14
Maria De Matteis, Giovanni Cecchetto, Giada Munari, Laura Balsamo, Marina Paola Gardiman, Renzo Giordano, Guido Viel, Matteo Fassan
Sudden and unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) represents one of the most challenging fields for clinical, forensic and preventative pathology. Several authors have emphasized the search of innovative biomarkers related to drug-resistance for an appropriate risk stratification in these patients. However, no reliable biomarker has been implemented into clinical practice, so far. Herein, we present a case of SUDEP due to drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) in which we performed miRNA expression profiling (miR-301a-3p, miR-194-5p, miR-30b-5p, mIR-342-5p, and miR-4446-3p) from both the plasma and the temporal lobe in comparison to ten autopsies for traumatic or asphyxia deaths...
December 4, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219267/-forensic-analysis-for-54-cases-of-suxamethonium-chloride-poisoning
#15
Y F Zhao, B Q Zhao, K J Ma, J Zhang, F Y Chen
OBJECTIVES: To observe and analyze the performance of forensic science in the cases of suxa- methonium chloride poisoning, and to improve the identification of suxamethonium chloride poisoning. METHODS: Fifty-four cases of suxamethonium chloride poisoning were collected. The rules of determination of suxamethonium chloride poisoning were observed by the retrospective analysis of pathological and toxicological changes as well as case features. RESULTS: The pathological features of suxamethonium chloride poisoning were similar to the general changes of sudden death, which mainly included acute pulmonary congestion and edema, and partly showed myocardial disarray and fracture...
August 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185214/the-significance-of-preexisting-medical-conditions-alcohol-drug-use-and-suicidal-behavior-for-drivers-in-fatal-motor-vehicle-crashes-a-retrospective-autopsy-study
#16
Jan Mario Breen, Paal Aksel Naess, Hallvard Gjerde, Christine Gaarder, Arne Stray-Pedersen
Driver fatalities in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) encompass accidents, suicides, and natural deaths when driving. The objective of this study was to determine the significance of pathology and other autopsy findings for drivers in fatal MVCs. Forensic autopsy records of driver fatalities in southeast Norway between 2000 and 2014 were studied retrospectively. Data from individual police and collision investigation reports were also collected and analyzed. In 406 driver fatalities, the male/female ratio was 340/66; 9% died from natural causes, 9% were suicides, 65% were culpable accidental deaths, 14% were nonculpable deaths, and 3% were undetermined deaths...
November 28, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179049/histological-estimation-of-age-at-death-in-amputated-lower-limbs-issues-of-disuse-advanced-age-and-disease-in-the-analysis-of-pathological-bone
#17
Amy R Michael
Histological studies of healed bone tissue following amputation are relatively rare in the literature. This study describes the histomorphological features of femoral thin sections from six uni- and bi-lateral amputees of documented age and sex. Thin sections were cut from the midshaft of both the right and left femora from each amputee and analyzed following standard forensic methods for histological estimation of age at death from the human femur. The histological age at death estimations for the thin sections from amputated bone were consistently lower than the actual chronological age of each individual, suggesting that the effects of amputation prohibit the effective use of age at death estimation methods...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170817/postmortem-1h-mrs-detection-of-ketone-bodies-and-glucose-in-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#18
Jakob Heimer, Dominic Gascho, Vasiliki Chatzaraki, Damaris Fröhlich Knaute, Vera Sterzik, Rosa Maria Martinez, Michael J Thali, Niklaus Zoelch
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus that takes a lethal course if untreated. In this way relevant to forensic medicine, secure diagnosis of DKA usually involves the evidence of elevated levels of glucose and the ketone bodies acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate in corpse fluids. We conducted a postmortem hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in a case of lethal DKA. Distinctive resonances of all three ketone bodies as well as glucose were visible in spectra of cerebrospinal fluid, vitreous humor, and white matter...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154002/forensic-evaluation-of-str-typing-reliability-in-lung-cancer
#19
Peng Zhang, Ying Zhu, Yongguo Li, Shisheng Zhu, Ruoxiang Ma, Minzhu Zhao, Jianbo Li
Short tandem repeats (STR) analysis is the gold standard method in the forensics field for personal identification and paternity testing. In cancerous tissues, STR markers are gaining attention, with some studies showing increased instability. Lung cancer, which is one of the most commonmalignancies, has become the most lethal among all cancers. In certain situations, lung cancer tissues may be the only resource available for forensic analysis. Therefore, evaluating the reliability of STR markers in lung cancer tissues is required to avoid false exclusions...
November 11, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145187/diogenes-syndrome
#20
Frédéric Assal
Diogenes syndrome (DS) is not a specific disease but a real neurobehavioral syndrome, characterized by severe domestic squalor, pathological hoarding, lack of insight into the condition, and no need for help. DS can be secondary when associated to psychosis or bipolar disorder, or primary when it occurs as a single entity, usually in the elderly. DS is a clinically complex transnosographic syndrome for which multidimensional approaches need to be considered: medical, psychiatric, neurological, social, scientific, and ethical...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
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