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Forensic Pathology

Jessica Vanhaebost, Kewin Ducrot, Sébastien de Froidmont, Maria Pia Scarpelli, Coraline Egger, Pia Baumann, Gregory Schmit, Silke Grabherr, Cristian Palmiere
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess whether the identification of pathological myocardial enhancement at multiphase postmortem computed tomography angiography was correlated with increased levels of troponin T and I in postmortem serum from femoral blood as well as morphological findings of myocardial ischemia. We further aimed to investigate whether autopsy cases characterized by increased troponin T and I concentrations as well as morphological findings of myocardial ischemia were also characterized by pathological myocardial enhancement at multiphase postmortem computed tomography angiography...
October 20, 2016: La Radiologia Medica
Yu I Pigolkin, M A Shilova, E M Kil'dyushov, Eksp Gal'chikov
The objective of the present study was to analyze the causes of sudden death in the general population and in the fraction of the young subjects (below 39 years of age). The results of the original retrospective study were obtained in the course of forensic medical autopsies of the subjects aged below 39 years that had been carried out during a period of 10 years. It was shown that one of the causes behind sudden death among the young subjects is cardiovascular disorders associated with the pre-existing pathological condition in the form of connective tissue dysplasia...
2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Karen E van den Hondel, Anne Linde Saaltink, Peter Paul M Bender
BACKGROUND: Forensic physicians are responsible for first-line medical care of detainees (individuals held in custody) in the police station. The Dutch police law contains a 'duty of care', which gives the police responsibility for the apparent mentally ill and/or confused people they encounter during their work. The police can ask a forensic physician to do a primary psychiatric assessment of any apparent mentally ill detainee. The forensic physician determines if the apparent mentally ill behavior of the detainee is due to a somatic illness, or has a psychiatric cause for which the detainee needs admission to a psychiatric hospital...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Guangtao Xu, Ruibing Su, Junyao Lv, Xiaoping Lai, Xianxian Li, Jiayan Wu, Bo Hu, Long Xu, Ruilin Shen, Jiang Gu, Xiaojun Yu
Specific morphological changes may be absent in some cases of electrocution shocked by the voltage of 220 V or lower. In this study, we attempted to demonstrate that the anterior wrist and medial malleolus were the optimal sites with promising and significant changes in electric death through the hand-to-foot circuit pathway. We established an electric shock rat model and observed histopathologic changes in the anterior wrist and medial malleolus. The results showed that the current intensities in the left anterior wrist and right medial malleolus were remarkably higher than those in the other sites, and the nuclei long/short (L/S) axis ratios of the arterial endotheliocyte and the skeletal muscle cell in these two areas were significantly higher than those in other parts of the body...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Paul Bayman, Luz M Serrato-Díaz
Forensic phytopathology is the application of plant pathology to legal or criminal matters. It is an emerging field. The existing literature focuses mainly on potential agricultural bioterrorism threats to the United States. Here we try to take a broader view including agricultural bioterrorism, mycoherbicide applications to eradicate plants used for illegal drugs, civil cases involving charges of sale or movement of diseased plants, and mycotoxins. In several of the examples given the evidence is inconclusive, but the examples are no less interesting for that...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Caroline Fournet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
D Tchin, W Atsi, T Hodabalo Tchaa, Kpelao Essossinam, J Yaovii Edèm, K Koffi Amégbor, N-K Gado
We collected 190 forensic records from the only pathology laboratory in Lomé, over the period from January 2010 to December 2014. The sex ratio (M/F) was 4.4 and the decedents' average age 33.4 years. In 43.2% of cases, the accident resulted from a collision between a pedestrian and a motorcycle; excess speed noted in 56.8% of cases. Four principal groups of fatal injuries were observed: polytrauma (136 cases), isolated severe head injury (49 cases), isolated thoracic contusion (3 cases), and abdominal pelvic contusion with perinea trauma (2 cases)...
August 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Lykke Schrøder Jakobsen, Sissel Lundemose, Jytte Banner, Niels Lynnerup, Christina Jacobsen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) images in estimating organ sizes and to examine the use of the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR). METHODS: We included 45 individuals (19 females), who underwent a medico-legal autopsy. Using the computer software program Mimics(®), we determined in situ heart and liver volumes derived from linear measurements (width, height and depth) on a whole body PMCT-scan, and compared the volumes with ex vivo volumes derived by CT-scan of the eviscerated heart and liver...
September 28, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Johan J Dempers, Jean Coldrey, Elsie H Burger, Vonita Thompson, Shabbir A Wadee, Hein J Odendaal, Mary Ann Sens, Brad B Randall, Rebecca D Folkerth, Hannah C Kinney
The rate for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in Cape Town, South Africa, is estimated to be among the highest in the world (3.41/1000 live births). In several of these areas, including those of extreme poverty, only sporadic, nonstandardized infant autopsy, and death scene investigation (DSI) occurred. In this report, we detail a feasibility project comprising 18 autopsied infants with sudden and unexpected death whose causes of death were adjudicated according to the 1991 NICHD definitions (SIDS, n = 7; known cause of death, n = 7; and unclassified, n = 4)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
F Z Mokrane, R Colleter, S Duchesne, P Gerard, F Savall, E Crubezy, C Guilbeau-Frugier, R Moreno, A Sewonu, H Rousseau, N Telmon, F Dedouit
INTRODUCTION: Among 800 burials dated between the 15th and 18th centuries and found in the center of Rennes (Brittany, France), a collection of five heart-shaped lead urns was discovered. This material was studied using classical methods (external study, autopsy and histology), and also modern imaging like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) before and after coronary opacification. The aim of this manuscript is to describe different steps of ancient soft tissues study, especially using imaging techniques...
September 14, 2016: Forensic Science International
Yu Du, Hong-Nian Jin, Rui Zhao, Dong Zhao, Ye Xue, Bao-Li Zhu, Da-Wei Guan, Xiao-Li Xie, Qi Wang
Pulmonary edema is a common finding in fatal methamphetamine intoxication. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. This study investigated the molecular pathology of alveolar damage involving pulmonary edema in forensic autopsy cases. Seven candidate reference genes (RPL13A, YWHAZ, GUSB, SDHA, GAPDH, B2M, and ACTB) were evaluated in the lung by the geNorm module in qBase(plus) software. RPL13A, YWHAZ, and GUSB were identified as the most stable reference genes. Using these validated reference genes, intrapulmonary mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), claudin-5 (CLDN-5), and aquaporins (AQPs) were examined...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
O V Dolzhansky, M A Shilova, E M Pal'tseva, D N Fedorov, E Z Kocharyan, Yu I Pigolkin
UNLABELLED: To date, the modern Russian literature has not covered morphological studies of aortic aneurysm in Erdheim's idiopathic cystic medial necrosis on autopsy and surgical materials, by using immunohistochemical studies, and it has not estimated the magnitude of pathohistochemical changes in the aortic media either. AIM: to conduct a morphological examination of aortic aneurysm in Erdheim's idiopathic cystic medial necrosis, by using the material of pathology and forensic medical departments...
July 2016: Arkhiv Patologii
B Palmieri, B Nardo, G Lippi, L Palmieri, M Vadalà, C Laurino
Dogs'smell ability is about 10000-100000 more developed than humans' one. Dogs smell is usually exploited in forensic medicine, to find missing people and specific substances showing peculiar sensorial features. In clinic, there is the possibility to take advantage of dogs smell, which are conveniently trained, for the screening of cancers and other diseases. The common feature is the presence of molecules in organic samples that may be considered as biomarkers of a specific pathology. In cancer, scientific evidences exist about screening of melanoma, lung, breast, rectum, ovarian, prostate and bladder cancer...
July 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
Ashraf I Shaweesh
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at providing the first standards on the timing of third molar eruption in Jordanians. METHODS: A total of 571 healthy Jordanian adolescents and young adults aged 15-27 years (275 males and 296 females distributed into one-year age groups) were clinically examined for third molar eruption. Presence of four clinical eruption stages from crown emergence to full eruption were counted and expressed each as a frequency relative to the total of participants within a given age group...
August 26, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Rossana Cecchi
The diagnosis of anaphylaxis in a pre- or post-mortal phase involves the formulation of problems not yet solved by the international scientific literature, due to the complexity of pathogenic factors and pathophysiological processes that characterizes it. For forensic autopsies, further problems of differential diagnosis arise and often leave the forensic pathologist unable to express an opinion of certainty, as a result of lack of case history, circumstantial and autoptical-histopathological data. Nevertheless, in routine cases the postmortem diagnosis of anaphylactic death continues to be based on exclusion and circumstantial evidence...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Leigh Hlavaty, William Kasper, LokMan Sung
The constellation of injuries observed in hangings is a subject receiving frequent review in forensic pathology literature. Whereas recent studies have reported high concordance between hangings and internal findings such as strap muscle hemorrhages and hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage fractures, a 2-part study examining autopsied suicidal hangings over a 9-year period at the Wayne County Medical Examiner's Office produced markedly differing results. Retrospectively and prospectively, external and internal autopsy observations were correlated with factors such as age, sex, body height, body mass index, ligature, and height of suspension...
August 26, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
V A Fetisov, A A Gusarov, T A Kuprina
The objective of the present study was to analyze the results of research reported in the theses for the degree in "forensic medicine" defended in different dissertation committees during the 5 year period (from 2010 till 2014) and to summarize and compartmentalize the main research areas in which the authors carried out their study and thereby make the data obtained more readily available for the wide circles of readers. A total of 55 theses for the scientific degree in "forensic medicine" (14.03.05) were defended during the period from 2010 till 2014 including 18 (32...
May 2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
S P McDonough, B J McEwen
Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases...
September 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Guan-heng Ren, Rong-hua Weng, Yan Shi, Ping Huang, Zheng-dong Li, Yu Shao, Kai-fei Deng, Ning-guo Liu, Yi-jiu Chen
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-IMS) has been a classical technique for studying proteomics in present and a tool for analyzing the distribution of proteins and small molecules within biological tissue sections. MALDI-TOF-IMS can analyze multiple unknown compounds in biological tissue sections simultaneously through a single measurement which can obtain molecule imaging of the tissue while maintaining the integrity of cellular and molecules in tissue...
April 2016: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
D S Kadochnikov, P V Minaeva
The annually increasing number of the patients presenting with HIV infection and hemocontact viral hepatitis is naturally accompanied by the growing number of deaths from these infectious pathologies. The objective of the present study was to analyze the results of forensic medical expertises of the cases of HIV infection and hemocontact viral hepatitis B and C during the period from 2011 till 2015 in different subjects of the Russian Federation. The data obtained confirm the tendency toward the further rise in the frequency of such cases in the practical work of forensic medical experts...
July 2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
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