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Forensic Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444439/back-to-the-future-part-2-post-mortem-assessment-and-evolutionary-role-of-the-bio-medicolegal-sciences
#1
REVIEW
Santo Davide Ferrara, Giovanni Cecchetto, Rossana Cecchi, Donata Favretto, Silke Grabherr, Takaki Ishikawa, Toshikazu Kondo, Massimo Montisci, Heidi Pfeiffer, Maurizio Rippa Bonati, Dina Shokry, Marielle Vennemann, Thomas Bajanowski
Part 2 of the review "Back to the Future" is dedicated to the evolutionary role of the bio-medicolegal sciences, reporting the historical profiles, the state of the art, and prospects for future development of the main related techniques and methods of the ancillary disciplines that have risen to the role of "autonomous" sciences, namely, Genetics and Genomics, Toxicology, Radiology, and Imaging, involved in historic synergy in the "post-mortem assessment," together with the mother discipline Legal Medicine, by way of its primary fundament, universally denominated as Forensic Pathology...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439696/back-to-the-future-part-1-the-medico-legal-autopsy-from-ancient-civilization-to-the-post-genomic-era
#2
REVIEW
Giovanni Cecchetto, Thomas Bajanowski, Rossana Cecchi, Donata Favretto, Silke Grabherr, Takaki Ishikawa, Toshikazu Kondo, Massimo Montisci, Heidi Pfeiffer, Maurizio Rippa Bonati, Dina Shokry, Marielle Vennemann, Santo Davide Ferrara
Part 1 of the review "Back to the Future" examines the historical evolution of the medico-legal autopsy and microscopy techniques, from Ancient Civilization to the Post-Genomic Era. In the section focusing on "The Past", the study of historical sources concerning the origins and development of the medico-legal autopsy, from the Bronze Age until the Middle Ages, shows how, as early as 2000 BC, the performance of autopsies for medico-legal purposes was a known and widespread practice in some ancient civilizations in Egypt, the Far East and later in Europe...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437717/traumatic-axonal-injury-a-clinical-pathological-correlation
#3
N Davceva, A Sivevski
Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is a distinct clinicopathological entity that can cause serious impairment of the brain function and can sometimes be found as a concrete cause of death. It has been discussed from the perspective of its biomechanical importance, and also from the standpoint of certain criteria for the pathological diagnosis of TAI. However, since the time when DAI (diffuse axonal injury) was initially described, there have been few, if any, discussions about the clinical-pathological correlation in TAI...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431271/investigation-of-pathology-malpractice-claims-in-china-from-2002-2015
#4
Yuan Li, Dong Gao, Meng Tu, Ying-Zhen Luo, Zhen-Hua Deng
OBJECTIVE: To examine pathology-related medical claims in China and identify the most common errors to result in such claims. METHOD: A retrospective analysis was performed of 71 forensic evaluation reports carried out in two Chinese institutes of forensic medicine between 2002 and 2015 due to suspicion of medical malpractice. The judicial outcomes of each case were also reviewed when available. RESULTS: Of 71 cases, 54 cases had judicial outcomes...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399600/-stealing-as-an-impulse-control-disorder-associated-with-pramipexole-a-case-report-from-forensic-psychiatric-practice
#5
Christian Clemm von Hohenberg, Harald Dreßing
We report the case of a 48-year-old female whom we examined for legal culpability. The proband was taking the dopamine agonist pramipexole as a treatment for Parkinson's disease. In temporal association, she had committed numerous shoplifting offences.While pathological gambling, excessive shopping and hypersexuality have often been described as adverse effects of dopamine agonists, there are only few reports about impulsive stealing in this context.We discuss the synergy of the pharmacological effects with familial, biographic and social factors, suggesting a bio-psycho-social etiology...
April 2017: Psychiatrische Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399089/-the-topical-problems-of-the-application-of-the-taser-electroshock-devices
#6
I V Kondratova, K Yu Kulinkovich
The objective of the present study was the analysis of publications in the foreign medical literature concerning the problems of safety, clinical diagnostics, pathological morphology, and treatment of the patients subjected to the impact by various models of the TASER electroshock devices. The materials for this article were borrowed from the available Internet resources and libraries. The methods of scientific analysis were employed to follow up the dynamics of publication and to determine the number of publications on the issues of interest...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390826/estimation-of-date-of-death-through-wound-healing-of-an-extraction-socket-a-case-report
#7
Joan Viciano, Ruggero D'Anastasio, Cristian D'Ovidio, Sara Costantini, Aldo Carnevale, Luigi Capasso
Surgical extraction of teeth due to dental pathologies is a relatively common procedure in modern man. The healing of the wound that results occurs in gradual and sequential stages, such that the analysis of this repair process can be very useful in forensic investigations on human remains. The following study reports on a particular case where the remodeling of a tooth socket allowed an estimation of the time that had elapsed from the day of the surgical extraction of the tooth to the time of death. The corpse was that of a woman of 34 years...
March 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351627/non-targeted-lc-ms-based-metabolomics-analysis-of-the-urinary-steroidal-profile
#8
Amelia Palermo, Francesco Botrè, Xavier de la Torre, Nicola Zamboni
The urinary steroidal fraction has been extensively explored as non-invasive alternative to monitor pathological conditions as well as to unveil the illicit intake of pseudo-endogenous anabolic steroids in sport. However, the majority of previous approaches involved the a priori selection of potentially relevant target analytes. Here we describe the non-targeted analysis of the urinary steroidal profiles. The workflow includes minimal sample pretreatment and normalization according to the specific gravity of urine, a 20 min reverse phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic separation hyphenated to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
April 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342827/foreign-citizen-mortality-in-iceland-january-2006-december-2016
#9
S N Kunz, R Bingert
BACKGROUND: In recent years, tourism has become the number one account for foreign exchange income in Iceland, overtaking the fisheries industry and aluminium production. The rise of tourism has strongly affected Icelandic society in various sectors. With the increase of tourists visiting Iceland, the number of foreign citizens that died and were autopsied also rose. METHOD: Data were collected from the Department of Forensic Pathology at Landspitali University Hospital in Reykjavik for the period January 2006 - December 2016...
March 23, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334240/the-use-of-rbans-among-inpatient-forensic-monolingual-spanish-speakers
#10
Cynthia Aguilar, Kenny A Karyadi, Dominique I Kinney, Stephen R Nitch
Objective: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) has been shown to be an effective screener for detecting neurocognitive impairments in English speaking forensic psychiatric inpatients, but no studies have examined whether the RBANS would have the same utility among monolingual Spanish speaking inpatients. This study sought to examine RBANS performance, as well as risk factors (i.e., educational, neurological, and medical) influencing RBANS performance, in that particular population...
February 18, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319470/symptomatic-acute-on-chronic-subdural-hematoma-a-clinicopathological-study
#11
Rudy J Castellani, Gruschenka Mojica-Sanchez, Gary Schwartzbauer, David S Hersh
The pathophysiology of acute-on-chronic subdural hematoma (ACSDH) is complex and incompletely understood. Evidence to date indicates that the overall process is initiated by rotational force with movement of the brain inside the skull, which exerts tensile strain and rupture of bridging veins, leading in turn to acute hemorrhage in the subdural potential space. This is followed by the proliferation of mesenchymal elements with angiogenesis and inflammation, which in turn becomes a substrate for repeated hemorrhage and expansion of the lesion...
March 18, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295494/seeds-in-the-appendix-a-fruitful-exploration
#12
Michela Campora, Chiara Trambaiolo Antonelli, Federica Grillo, Alberto Bragoni, Laura Cornara, Paola Migliora, Simona Pigozzi, Luca Mastracci
Our contribution aims at clarifying and underlining a possible finding which can pose an interesting twist in routine appendix diagnostics: seeds in the appendiceal lumen, their histological aspects and their differential diagnosis with parasites. We work in a training centre with a large referral practice for gastrointestinal pathology and often the most banal cases are those which pose problems to junior or non-expert pathologists. This short study aims at providing simple iconographic tables, which are not at the moment available either in publications or on the web, with the most frequent seeds encountered in our routine practice or sent for second opinion...
March 10, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288337/remodelling-of-myocardial-intercalated-disc-protein-connexin-43-causes-increased-susceptibility-to-malignant-arrhythmias-in-arvc-d-patients
#13
Xiao Chen, Liang Chen, Zhenglian Chen, Xinshan Chen, Jiangping Song
BACKGROUND: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is a primary cardiomyopathy characterised by fibrofatty replacement and ventricular arrhythmias. The occurrence of malignant arrhythmias may be associated with fatty infiltration and intercalated disk remodelling, but the specific pathological remodelling pattern is not yet clear. METHODS: Twelve explanted hearts from patients diagnosed with ARVC/D according to the 2010 Task Force Criteria and pathology examination were divided into two groups with (SVT, n=6) or without (non-SVT, n=6) recurrent sustained ventricular tachycardia (SVT) before heart transplantation...
February 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272089/mediators-of-inflammation-in-asthma-a-forensic-perspective
#14
Maria Laura Schirripa, Maria Pia Scarpelli, Cristian Palmiere
In the clinical setting, the role of systemic inflammation in patients with asthma has attracted increased attention, and some authors showed that increased IL-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein characterized a group of asthmatic patients. In the realm of forensic pathology, a postmortem diagnosis of asthmatic death can be extremely challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the postmortem serum levels of C-reactive protein, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α in a series of severe acute bronchial asthma deaths that underwent medicolegal investigations...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252873/glucose-metabolism-in-completed-suicide-a-forensic-pathological-pilot-study
#15
Jonas Forsman, Terhi Keltanen, Benny Liberg, Antti Sajantila, Thomas Masterman, Katarina Lindroos
AIM: To determine whether antemortem blood levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose predict completed suicide and, by extension, whether markers of glucose metabolism might be associated with a prosuicidal trait or state. METHOD: From consecutively performed autopsies, samples of blood and vitreous humor from 17 suicide victims and 27 non-suicide controls were compared with regard to levels of glucose, lactate, and HbA1c. RESULTS: Mean HbA1c was higher, and mean estimated blood glucose lower, among suicide victims, although tests revealed no significant differences (P=0...
February 28, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243770/sudden-aortic-death-proposal-for-a-comprehensive-diagnostic-approach-in-forensic-and-in-clinical-pathology-practice
#16
Hans H de Boer, Fabrice Dedouit, Nina Chappex, Allard C van der Wal, Katarzyna Michaud
BACKGROUNDS: Aortic rupture or dissection as immediate cause of sudden death is encountered in forensic and clinical autopsy practice. Despite a common denominator of 'sudden aortic death' (SAD), we expect that in both settings the diagnostic workup, being either primarily legal or primarily disease related, differs substantially, which may affect the eventual diagnoses. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed case records of deceased persons who fitted a diagnosis of SAD in the continuous autopsy cohorts in a forensic (Suisse) and a clinical setting (The Netherlands)...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236029/how-is-post-mortem-microbiology-appraised-by-pathologists-results-from-a-practice-survey-conducted-by-esgfor
#17
V Saegeman, M C Cohen, J Alberola, N Ziyade, C Farina, G Cornaglia, A Fernández-Rodríguez
Post-mortem microbiology (PMM) is an important tool in forensic pathology, assisting to determine the cause and manner of death. However, there is a lack of standardisation of PMM sampling. In order to get a better insight into the methods used, the available technical options and developmental needs, ESCMID Study Group for Forensic and Postmortem Microbiology (ESGFOR) members designed a survey aimed at pathologists regarding common practices of PMM in clinical and forensic autopsies. Multiple choice questions were developed based on Cumulative Techniques and Procedures in Clinical Microbiology (Cumitech)...
February 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215407/a-simplified-vocal-profile-analysis-protocol-for-the-assessment-of-voice-quality-and-speaker-similarity
#18
Eugenia San Segundo, Jose A Mompean
OBJECTIVES: A simplified perceptual protocol for the assessment of voice quality (VQ) is attempted based on the Vocal Profile Analysis (VPA) scheme, with the aim of alleviating typical issues associated with the multidimensionality of VQ and enabling an easy quantification of speaker similarity. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-four non-pathological male speakers (12 monozygotic twin pairs) of Standard Peninsular Spanish were perceptually evaluated by two trained phoneticians using the simplified VPA (SVPA)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212679/histopathological-study-of-cardiac-lesions-in-methamphetamine-poisoning-related-deaths
#19
Maryam Akhgari, Homeira Mobaraki, Afshar Etemadi-Aleagha
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine abuse is a worldwide health concern. Methamphetamine causes health hazards in many vital organs. It can cause damage to cardiac tissue via catecholamines release. Methamphetamine related deaths are becoming one of the most important problems in Iran. The purpose of the present study was to determine cardiac pathology in methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths. METHODS: The study included 100 cases of methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths and 100 cases as control group...
February 17, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191653/generalized-hostile-interpretation-bias-regarding-facial-expressions-characteristic-of-pathological-aggressive-behavior
#20
Danique Smeijers, Mike Rinck, Erik Bulten, Thom van den Heuvel, Robbert-Jan Verkes
Individuals with aggression regulation disorders tend to attribute hostility to others in socially ambiguous situations. Previous research suggests that this "hostile attribution bias" is a powerful cause of aggression. Facial expressions form important cues in the appreciation of others' intentions. Furthermore, accurate processing of facial expressions is fundamental to normal socialization. However, research on interpretation biases in facial affect is limited. It is asserted that a hostile interpretation bias (HIB) is likely to be displayed by individuals with an antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and probably also with an intermittent explosive disorder (IED)...
February 12, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
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