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Forensic Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215407/a-simplified-vocal-profile-analysis-protocol-for-the-assessment-of-voice-quality-and-speaker-similarity
#1
Eugenia San Segundo, Jose A Mompean
OBJECTIVES: A simplified perceptual protocol for the assessment of voice quality (VQ) is attempted based on the Vocal Profile Analysis (VPA) scheme, with the aim of alleviating typical issues associated with the multidimensionality of VQ and enabling an easy quantification of speaker similarity. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-four non-pathological male speakers (12 monozygotic twin pairs) of Standard Peninsular Spanish were perceptually evaluated by two trained phoneticians using the simplified VPA (SVPA)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212679/histopathological-study-of-cardiac-lesions-in-methamphetamine-poisoning-related-deaths
#2
Maryam Akhgari, Homeira Mobaraki, Afshar Etemadi-Aleagha
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine abuse is a worldwide health concern. Methamphetamine causes health hazards in many vital organs. It can cause damage to cardiac tissue via catecholamines release. Methamphetamine related deaths are becoming one of the most important problems in Iran. The purpose of the present study was to determine cardiac pathology in methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths. METHODS: The study included 100 cases of methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths and 100 cases as control group...
February 17, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191653/generalized-hostile-interpretation-bias-regarding-facial-expressions-characteristic-of-pathological-aggressive-behavior
#3
Danique Smeijers, Mike Rinck, Erik Bulten, Thom van den Heuvel, Robbert-Jan Verkes
Individuals with aggression regulation disorders tend to attribute hostility to others in socially ambiguous situations. Previous research suggests that this "hostile attribution bias" is a powerful cause of aggression. Facial expressions form important cues in the appreciation of others' intentions. Furthermore, accurate processing of facial expressions is fundamental to normal socialization. However, research on interpretation biases in facial affect is limited. It is asserted that a hostile interpretation bias (HIB) is likely to be displayed by individuals with an antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and probably also with an intermittent explosive disorder (IED)...
February 12, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176637/personalized-medicine-applied-to-forensic-sciences-new-advances-and-perspectives-for-a-tailored-forensic-approach
#4
Alessandro Santurro, Anna Maria Vullo, Marina Borro, Giovanna Gentile, Raffaele La Russa, Maurizio Simmaco, Paola Frati, Vittorio Fineschi
Personalized medicine (PM), included in P5 medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, Participative and Precision medicine) is an innovative approach to the patient, emerging from the need to tailor and to fit the profile of each individual. PM promises to dramatically impact also on forensic sciences and justice system in ways we are only beginning to understand. The application of omics (genomic, transcriptomics, epigenetics/imprintomics, proteomic and metabolomics) is ever more fundamental in the so called "molecular autopsy"...
February 7, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138758/luminol-chemiluminescence-contribution-to-postmortem-interval-determination-of-skeletonized-remains-in-portuguese-forensic-context
#5
Catarina Ermida, David Navega, Eugénia Cunha
Postmortem interval (PMI) determination is one of the main challenges of forensic anthropology, and there are several referenced methods that consider intrinsic and extrinsic factors to the skeletonized remains. Therefore, there is an important need to develop a precise, economic, easy and reproducible technique, which will operate as a presumptive test. The chemical reaction that occurs in the presence of luminol, chemiluminescence, is used as a work tool to evaluate the PMI. This is given by luminol high affinity for haemoglobin, which is secured in bone tissue by its high mineral content, after the blood supply ceases postmortem...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122325/demographic-clinical-and-pathological-features-of-sudden-deaths-due-to-myocarditis-results-from-a-state-wide-population-based-autopsy-study
#6
Liliang Li, Yang Zhang, Allen Burke, Aimin Xue, Ziqin Zhao, David Fowler, Yiwen Shen, Ling Li
Causes of sudden cardiac deaths have been widely reported with limited data focused specifically on myocarditis. A retrospective review of cases from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME), State of Maryland yielded a total of 103 sudden unexpected deaths (SUDs) due to myocarditis (0.17% of all SUDs and 0.70% of autopsied SUDs) from 2005 through 2014. Most deaths occurred in patients <30 years of age with a male:female ratio 1.3:1. Of the 103 cases, 45 (43.7%) patients were witnessed collapsed. Four deaths occurred during exertion, such as exercising at the gym or performing heavy physical work, and 2 deaths were associated with emotional stress...
January 3, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119162/forensic-aspects-of-incised-wounds-and-bruises-in-pigs-established-post-mortem
#7
Kristiane Barington, Henrik Elvang Jensen
Recognizing post-mortem (PM) changes is of crucial importance in veterinary forensic pathology. In porcine wounds established PM contradicting observations regarding infiltration of leukocytes have been described. In the present study, skin, subcutis and muscle tissue sampled from experimental pigs with PM incised wounds (n=8), PM bruises (n=8) and no lesions, i.e. controls (n=4), were examined for signs of vitality over time. All tissue samples were subjected to gross and histopathological evaluation. Hemorrhages were present along the edges of PM incised wounds but deposits of fibrin were never observed...
January 15, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111741/use-of-cardiac-injury-markers-in-the-postmortem-diagnosis-of-sudden-cardiac-death
#8
Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal, Patricia M Hayward-Jones, Cirilo Nolasco-Hipolito, Dulce Ma Barradas-Dermitz, Ana Laura Calderón-Garcidueñas, Noé López-Amador
In the daily practice of forensic pathology, sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a diagnostic challenge. Our aim was to determine the usefulness of blood biomarkers [creatine kinase CK-MB, myoglobin, troponins I and T (cTn-I and T), and lactate dehydrogenase] measured by immunoassay technique, in the postmortem diagnosis of SCD. Two groups were compared, 20 corpses with SCD and 8 controls. Statistical significance was determined by variance analysis procedures, with a post hoc Tukey multiple range test for comparison of means (p < 0...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097647/microbiota-composition-and-pulmonary-surfactant-protein-expression-as-markers-of-death-by-drowning
#9
So-Yeon Lee, Seung-Kyun Woo, So-Min Lee, Eun-Ju Ha, Kyoung-Hee Lim, Kyung-Hwa Choi, Young-Hee Roh, Yong-Bin Eom
Pathological diagnosis of drowning remains a challenge for forensic science, because of a lack of pathognomonic findings. We analyzed microbiota and surfactant protein in the lungs for a novel diagnosis of drowning. All rats were divided into drowning, postmortem submersion, and control groups. The water, lungs, closed organs (kidney and liver), and cardiac blood in rats were assayed by targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of Miseq sequencing. Lung samples were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining for surfactant protein A...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064358/incipient-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-is-more-common-than-expected-and-may-comprise-clinicopathological-subtypes-a-forensic-autopsy-series
#10
Koji Yoshida, Yukiko Hata, Koshi Kinoshita, Shutaro Takashima, Kortaro Tanaka, Naoki Nishida
We investigated 998 serial Japanese forensic autopsy cases (0-101 years old, mean age 61.7 ± 21.9), with no case selection, using immunohistochemistry to detect cases with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Twenty-nine cases (mean age 82.3 ± 7.2 years, 11 males, 18 females) fulfilled the National Institute of Neuronal Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)-PSP pathological criteria (2.9% of all cases, 4.6% of cases over 60). All had neuronal and glial inclusions in the basal ganglia and brainstem. However, 13 cases had low tau pathology and were categorized as atypical PSP...
January 7, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056376/technical-note-a-preliminary-comparative-study-between-classical-and-interventional-radiological-approaches-for-multi-phase-post-mortem-ct-angiography
#11
Fatima-Zohra Mokrane, Frederic Savall, Laurent Dercle, Eric Crubezy, Norbert Telmon, Hervé Rousseau, Fabrice Dedouit
PURPOSE: Multi-phase post-mortem computed tomography angiography (MPMCTA) is a new diagnostic tool, used in forensic pathology. On the one hand, this technique allows a better and direct visualization of vascular and solid organ lesions. On the other hand, the invasiveness of the procedure-which requires surgical denudation (inguinal and/or cervical) and the insertion of surgical cannulas-leads to many relatives refusing scientific autopsies. Our hypothesis states that a minimally-invasive procedure combining interventional radiological techniques with MPMCTA (replacement of surgical cannulas by radiological catheters) will improve the approval rate of scientific autopsies by families...
December 19, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040666/post-mortem-ct-evaluation-of-atlanto-occipital-dissociation
#12
Mohammed Madadin, Ravindra Priyalal Samaranayake, Chris O'Donnell, Stephen Cordner
Atlanto-occipital dissociation injury is an important injury in forensic pathology practice. Radiological diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation clinically is assessed by direct measurement of occipito-vertebral skeletal relationships. Different measurements may be used to diagnose atlanto-occipital dissociation, including the basion-dens interval (BDI) and basion-axial interval (BAI). It is not known whether the normal ante-mortem measurements of BDI and BAI described in the literature are applicable to post-mortem CT images of the occipito-cervical junction (OCJ) or whether these measurements could be affected by early post-mortem changes...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032242/molecular-pathological-study-on-lrrc10-in-sudden-unexplained-nocturnal-death-syndrome-in-the-chinese-han-population
#13
Lei Huang, Shuangbo Tang, Yili Chen, Liyong Zhang, Kun Yin, Yeda Wu, Jinxiang Zheng, Qiuping Wu, Jonathan C Makielski, Jianding Cheng
Sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS) is a perplexing disorder to both forensic pathologists and clinic physicians. Clinical features of SUNDS survivors suggested that SUNDS is similar to Brugada syndrome (BrS). Leucine-rich repeat containing 10 (LRRC10) gene was a newly identified gene linked to dilated cardiomyopathy, a disease associated with sudden cardiac death. To investigate the prevalence and spectrum of genetic variants of LRRC10 gene in SUNDS and BrS, the coding regions of LRRC10 were genetically screened in 113 sporadic SUNDS victims (from January 2005 to December 2015, 30...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994303/accessory-spleen-in-the-splenic-hilum-a-cadaveric-study-with-clinical-significance
#14
Shabnam Mohammadi, Arya Hedjazi, Maryam Sajjadian, Naser Ghrobi, Maliheh Dadgar Moghadam, Maryam Mohammadi
AIM: An accessory spleen is an additional tissue of the spleen that may be found near the spleen. It is a congenital anomaly of the spleen that its incidence has been reported 10-30% of the population. Hence, the objective of this study was evaluation the incidence of accessory spleen in Iranian cadavers. METHOD: Sixty hundred and ninety three spleens (541 males, 152 females) were excised from cadavers in the dissection hall of Mashhad Forensic Medicine Organization cadavers...
October 2016: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933413/investigation-on-genetic-thrombophilic-factors-in-ffpe-autopsy-tissue-from-subjects-who-died-from-pulmonary-embolism
#15
Francesco Brandimarti, Federica Alessandrini, Mauro Pesaresi, Chiara Catalani, Letizia De Angelis, Roberta Galeazzi, Simona Giovagnetti, Rosaria Gesuita, Elisa Righi, Raffaele Giorgetti, Adriano Tagliabracci
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial disease determined by a combination of inherited and acquired factors. Inherited factors include mutations in the genes coding for coagulation factors, some of which seem to exert a differential influence on the risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). In post-mortem studies of subjects who have died from pulmonary embolism (PE), the analysis of the factors that may have augmented the VTE risk is often limited to acquired factors...
March 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930816/trichobezoar-in-vagina-assessment-for-child-sexual-abuse-and-diagnostic-result-of-forensic-science
#16
Özlem Bağ, Buğra Han Acar, Şenol Öztürk, Sevay Alşen, Çiğdem Ecevit
Vaginal discharge and bleeding in children require a through and thoughtful evaluation to diagnose the underlying problem including infections, sexual abuse, and vaginal foreign bodies. We report a 6-year-old girl presenting with bloody vaginal discharge, carefully evaluated for sexual abuse, and finally diagnosed as a vaginal foreign body after vaginoscopy. A rolling hair ball was extracted from the vagina and was diagnosed as trichobezoar pathologically without any endo-ecto-mesodermal residual tissue. The hair ball was genetically detected and diagnosed to belong herself by containing no foreign structure...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927141/a-cautionary-tale-in-forensic-pathology
#17
Michael Burke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913880/forensic-3d-documentation-of-skin-injuries
#18
Chiara Villa
An accurate and precise documentation of injuries is fundamental in a forensic pathological context. Photographs and manual measurements are taken of all injuries during autopsies, but ordinary photography projects a 3D wound on a 2D space. Using technologies such as photogrammetry, it is possible to create 3D detailed, to-scale, true-color documentation of skin injuries from 2D pictures. A comparison between the measurements of 165 lesions taken during autopsies and on photogrammetrically processed pictures was performed...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896540/variations-in-the-anatomy-of-the-vertebral-artery-cervical-loop-segment-a-potential-predisposing-factor-for-traumatic-basal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#19
Jonathan E Medcalf, C Paul Johnson, Azzam Taktak, Silke Grabherr
Fatal traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage (TBSAH) is a characteristic forensic pathological entity, the investigation of which requires special techniques. In Liverpool, post-mortem room angiography is undertaken, followed by complete removal of the vertebral arteries and histological examination. It has been observed that the arterial anatomy can be highly variable, particularly the length and course of the loop segments located between the C2 vertebra and the dura. In a number of cases of TBSAH the loop segments of torn vessels have appeared relatively short...
December 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890307/-french-society-of-pediatrics-forensic-pathology-speciality-s-union-to-protect-minors
#20
M Balençon, C Garnier-Jardin, M Lemesle, A P Michard Lenoir, F Paysant, C Rambaud, C Rey-Salmon, V Scolan, B Tisseron, N Vabres
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
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