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Forensic Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810073/implications-of-pseudologia-fantastica-in-criminal-forensic-evaluations-a-review-and-case-report
#1
Richard L Frierson, Kaustubh G Joshi
Pseudologia fantastica, a psychological phenomenon that has been described in the literature for at least a century, is an understudied and poorly understood entity. Sometimes referred to as pathological lying, pseudologia fantastica involves disproportionate fabrication that may be present for many years or a lifetime. In a forensic context, it can significantly complicate the evaluation of capacity to stand trial and, in certain jurisdictions, criminal responsibility. We review the current literature regarding pseudologia fantastica and present a case to highlight the clinical and forensic challenges it may create...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805487/state-of-the-art-nanopathological-diagnostics
#2
Luca Roncati, Giuseppe Barbolini
The nanopathological diagnostics (ND) is an ultra-specialized branch of pathological anatomy aimed to identify the nanoparticles of metallic, semimetallic, or nonmetallic elements in the inorganic particulate matter present inside pathological tissues, even on the nanometer scale. ND exploits an environmental scanning electron microscope, connected to an X-ray microprobe mounted on an energy-dispersive spectrometer. The searching of nanoparticles can be performed on paraffin-embedded material, omitting emissions of black overlay and plating procedures...
August 14, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795313/-autopsies-at-the-boundary-between-pathology-and-forensic-medicine-suggestions-for-interdisciplinary-cooperation
#3
REVIEW
T Riepert
There are many differences between forensic medicine and pathology but also many similarities, as they share a common basis. In this article the characteristics of the forensic autopsy and it's legal foundations are presented. Furthermore, possibilities are discussed for a cooperation between forensic medicine and pathology to increase the rate of autopsies. This could contribute to the legal certainty, to the quality assurance and to the training of physicians.
August 9, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776465/dna-testing-in-homicide-investigations
#4
Joseph A Prahlow, Thomas Cameron, Alexander Arendt, Kenneth Cornelis, Anthony Bontrager, Michael S Suth, Lisa Black, Rebbecca Tobey, Sharon Pollock, Shawn Stur, Kenneth Cotter, Joel Gabrielse
Objectives With the widespread use of DNA testing, police, death investigators, and attorneys need to be aware of the capabilities of this technology. This review provides an overview of scenarios where DNA evidence has played a major role in homicide investigations in order to highlight important educational issues for police, death investigators, forensic pathologists, and attorneys. Methods This was a nonrandom, observational, retrospective study. Data were obtained from the collective files of the authors from casework during a 15-year period, from 2000 through 2014...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776218/molecular-pathology-of-cerebral-tnf-%C3%AE-il-1%C3%AE-inos-and-nrf2-in-forensic-autopsy-cases-with-special-regard-to-deaths-due-to-environmental-hazards-and-intoxication
#5
Si-Hao Du, Xiao-Hui Tan, Rui Zhao, Dong Zhao, Ye Xue, Hui-Jun Wang, Xiao-Li Xie, Qi Wang
Deaths involved with environmental hazards and intoxication might present with minimal or nonspecific morphological features, which are insufficient to establish a diagnosis. The present study investigated the postmortem brain mRNA and immunohistochemical expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in forensic cases. Relative mRNA quantification using Taqman real-time PCR assay demonstrated higher expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and iNOS, and lower expression of Nrf2 in methamphetamine intoxication and hyperthermia cases, higher expression of iNOS in phenobarbital intoxication cases, and higher expression of Nrf2 in phenobarbital intoxication and hypothermia cases...
August 3, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765973/differential-expression-of-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-between-left-and-right-ventricles-with-particular-regard-to-sudden-cardiac-death
#6
Zhi-Peng Cao, Jia-Jia Xue, Yuan Zhang, Mei-Hui Tian, Ying Xiao, Yu-Qing Jia, Bao-Li Zhu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential expression of B‑type natriuretic peptide (BNP) between the left and right ventricle (RV) in sudden cardiac death (SCD). A total of 26 forensic autopsy cases of sudden death (survival time <30 min, postmortem interval <48 h or frozen within 6 h following death) in the present institute were examined. The cases consisted of acute ischemic heart disease (AIHD, n=15) with/without apparent myocardial necrosis as a sign of infarction (acute myocardial infarction, n=6; ischemic heart disease, IHD, n=9), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC/D, n=5), in addition to traffic accidents and high falls without any pre existing heart disease as control (C, total n=6)...
August 2, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763709/similar-mechanisms-of-traumatic-rectal-injuries-in-patients-who-had-anal-sex-with-animals-to-those-who-were-butt-fisted-by-human-sexual-partner
#7
Damian Jacob Sendler
Sexual pleasure comes in various forms of physical play, for many it involves stimulation of the vagina, while the anus for others; some enjoy both. A recent report by Cappelletti et al.(1) shows a meta-analysis of cases describing anal trauma due to sexual fisting in human partners. This clinical article reports four cases of males diagnosed with zoophilia, and who received anal sex from animals, resulting in injuries. Surgical and psychiatric evaluations are summarized. Unusual etiology of sexual activity with animals caused peri-anal trauma in men who engaged in anal sex with dogs and farm animals...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759776/fatal-poisoning-by-butane-sniffing-a-forensic-analysis-and-immunohistochemical-detection-of-myocardial-hypoxic-damage
#8
Francesco Ventura, Rosario Barranco, Maria Celeste Landolfa, Massimo Gallo, Andrea Gianelli Castiglione, Giulio Fraternali Orcioni, Francesco De Stefano
Although less widespread than twenty years ago, inhalant abuse remains an on-going problem, whose incidence among U.S. teenagers and young adults ranges from 10 to 15%. Death due to the inhalation of vapor from halogenated hydrocarbons is a well-known phenomenon, yet few cases of fatal butane-gas poisoning have been described. Many cases of volatile substance abuse in prison populations have been reported: drug-addicted inmates often resort to this alternative practice when unable to get their habitual drugs of abuse...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752200/retrospective-analysis-of-769-cases-of-sudden-cardiac-death-from-2006-to-2015-a-forensic-experience-in-china
#9
Zijiao Ding, Mingzhen Yang, Yunyun Wang, Shifan Wu, Xingang Qiu, Qian Liu
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major health challenge. The records of 769 autopsy cases of SCD examined at Tongji Medicolegal Expertise Center from January 2006 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of the cases was 46 years, excluding 27 victims in whom the exact age could not be confirmed. The highest incidence of SCD occurred among the 40- to 60-year-old group (45.0%). Male preponderance was observed in SCD cases (male: female ratio: 5.0:1), and this preponderance was even higher (8...
July 27, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751028/toxic-metals-biomonitoring-based-on-prey-predator-interactions-and-environmental-forensics-techniques-a-study-at-the-romanian-ukraine-cross-border-of-the-black-sea
#10
Stefan-Adrian Strungaru, Mircea Nicoara, Carmen Teodosiu, Dragos Micu, Gabriel Plavan
Marine cross-border areas are ideal for monitoring pollutants so as to increase ecosystems protection. This study was conducted at the Romanian-Ukraine border of the Black Sea to reveal evidence of contamination with toxic metals based on biomonitoring of: cadmium, lead, total chromium, nickel and copper at different water depths and prey-predator interactions, combined with environmental forensics techniques of biological sampling and separation in witnesses size groups. The species used were Mytilus galloprovincialis L...
July 25, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745146/disorganized-attachment-in-infancy-a-review-of-the-phenomenon-and-its-implications-for-clinicians-and-policy-makers
#11
Pehr Granqvist, L Alan Sroufe, Mary Dozier, Erik Hesse, Miriam Steele, Marinus van Ijzendoorn, Judith Solomon, Carlo Schuengel, Pasco Fearon, Marian Bakermans-Kranenburg, Howard Steele, Jude Cassidy, Elizabeth Carlson, Sheri Madigan, Deborah Jacobvitz, Sarah Foster, Kazuko Behrens, Anne Rifkin-Graboi, Naomi Gribneau, Gottfried Spangler, Mary J Ward, Mary True, Susan Spieker, Sophie Reijman, Samantha Reisz, Anne Tharner, Frances Nkara, Ruth Goldwyn, June Sroufe, David Pederson, Deanne Pederson, Robert Weigand, Daniel Siegel, Nino Dazzi, Kristin Bernard, Peter Fonagy, Everett Waters, Sheree Toth, Dante Cicchetti, Charles H Zeanah, Karlen Lyons-Ruth, Mary Main, Robbie Duschinsky
Disorganized/Disoriented (D) attachment has seen widespread interest from policy makers, practitioners, and clinicians in recent years. However, some of this interest seems to have been based on some false assumptions that (1) attachment measures can be used as definitive assessments of the individual in forensic/child protection settings and that disorganized attachment (2) reliably indicates child maltreatment, (3) is a strong predictor of pathology, and (4) represents a fixed or static "trait" of the child, impervious to development or help...
July 26, 2017: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718912/survival-of-atherosclerotic-calcifications-in-skeletonized-material-forensic-and-pathological-implications
#12
Lucie Biehler-Gomez, Annalisa Cappella, Elisa Castoldi, Laurent Martrille, Cristina Cattaneo
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease creating calcifying plaques in the arterial walls. Because its paleopathological diagnosis remains little studied on skeletal remains, its impact on forensic and archeological data is completely underestimated. Here, 24 skeletal remains from the Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection have been studied to evaluate the chance of atherosclerotic calcification survival, retrieval, and identification. Through direct comparison with a known autopsy collection and literature, the identification and categorization of several types of calcifications were performed...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704795/endocan-concentrations-in-postmortem-serum-vitreous-humor-and-urine-in-victims-of-lethal-hypothermia
#13
Emilienne Descloux, Marc Augsburger, Grzegorz Teresiński, Petr Hejna, Eric Grouzmann, Maria Pia Scarpelli, Tania Hervet, Cristian Palmiere
Endocan is a soluble molecule secreted from vascular endothelial cells of various organs. Its exact function in humans remains to be elucidated, though it has been postulated that increased tissue expression or serum levels of this molecule may be an indicator of endothelial activation and neovascularization. In the realm of forensic pathology, studies pertaining to endothelial activation following exposure to cold exclusively focused on thrombomodulin, a transmembrane protein specific to endothelial cells...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696182/prediction-of-psychiatric-hospitalization-diagnoses-arrests-and-violent-behavior-through-scored-drawings-and-associations
#14
Frank J Dyer
The article presents a completely empirical approach to using drawings and associations as a supplemental tool in forensic psychological assessment. The present system represents a modern alternative to prior theory-driven "projective technique" approaches that have failed to pass scientific scrutiny. Using an archival sample of 252 forensic cases, House-Tree-Person drawing protocols were scored according to preliminary test items developed from published handbooks, academic courses, and workshops on the use of drawings and related associations for assessment...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692478/diagnosis-of-vitality-in-skin-wounds-in-the-ligature-marks-resulting-from-suicide-hanging
#15
Isabel Legaz Pérez, Maria Falcón, M Gimenez, F Martínez Diaz, M D Pérez-Cárceles, E Osuna, D Nuno-Vieira, A Luna
Ascertaining the vital origin of skin wounds is one of the most challenging problems in forensic pathology. The forensic literature describes biomarkers and methods for differentiating vital and postmortem wounds, although no clear conclusions have been reached. The aim of this study was to characterize human vital wounds by analyzing the concentrations of metallic ions and the expression of P-selectin and cathepsin D in skin wounds in the ligature marks in a cohort of suicidal hangings for which vitality was previously demonstrated...
September 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689029/course-constructions-a-case-base-of-forensic-toxicology
#16
Nan Zhou, Yeda Wu, Terry Su, Liyong Zhang, Kun Yin, Da Zheng, Jingjing Zheng, Lei Huang, Qiuping Wu, Jianding Cheng
Forensic toxicology education in China is limited by insufficient teaching methods and resources, resulting in students with adequate theoretical principles but lacking practice experience. Typical cases used as teaching materials vividly represent intoxication and provide students with an opportunity to practice and hone resolving skills. In 2013, the Department of Forensic Pathology at Zhongshan School of Medicine began to construct top-quality courses in forensic toxicology, with its first step, creating a base containing typical cases of intoxication...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686962/forensic-aspects-of-homicides-by-insulin-overdose
#17
Fang Tong, Rongqi Wu, Wen Huang, Yi Yang, Lin Zhang, Biao Zhang, Xin Chen, Xiaohui Tang, Yiwu Zhou
Analysis of homicidal insulin overdose is a challenging task in forensic practice because of the difficulties in toxicological analysis as well as the elusive pathologic changes. We performed a detailed histopathologic examination on four autopsy cases involving insulin homicide, using H&E, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence assays. Severe reactive astrocyte proliferation was obvious in the white matter of the cerebrum, corpus callosum, cerebellum and brain stem, especially in subcortical regions...
June 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675999/subduing-the-green-eyed-monster-bridging-the-psychopharmacological-and-psychosocial-treatment-perspective-in-understanding-pathological-jealousy
#18
Farah Deena Abdul Samad, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Nurul Hazwani Hatta
Human being is not spared from a broad-ranged emotional state, including being jealous. Jealousy has both affective-cognitive and behavioural-evaluative dimension where the person perceives, or experiences a real threat on a valued relationship. As this complex emotion becomes irrational and not amenable to reason, it later transforms into a dangerously 'green-eyed monster'. This perilous situation which is viewed as pathological jealousy is a form of delusion, which is maintained by a fixed and false reasoning in an originally entrusted intimate relationship...
July 4, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674960/autopsy-histopathology-where-the-prosector-is-not-a-histopathologist-a-proposal
#19
Mohammed Madadin, Rihab Molah, Stephen Cordner
Forensic pathology is a specialty that involves death investigation while clinical forensic medicine is the application of the practice of medicine to the requests of the law in relation to the living. Around the world, there is diverse practice for these two disciplines. The forensic physician or forensic doctor (sometimes, called a forensic pathologist but not a forensic histopathologist) in parts of the world such as continental Europe, the Middle East and India, practice both clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology...
July 3, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663329/long-qt-syndrome-and-sudden-unexpected-infant-death
#20
EDITORIAL
Chantal Van Niekerk, Barbara Ströh Van Deventer, Lorraine du Toit-Prinsloo
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an inheritable primary electric disease of the heart characterised by abnormally long QT intervals and a propensity to develop atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. It is caused by an inherited channelopathy responsible for sudden cardiac death in individuals with structurally normal hearts. Long QT syndrome can present early in life, and some studies suggest that it may be associated with up to 20% of sudden unexplained infant death (SUID), particularly when associated with external stressors such as asphyxia, which is commonly seen in many infant death scenes...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
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