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Forensic Pathology

Guillermo Benítez, Martí March-Salas, Alberto Villa-Kamel, Ulises Cháves-Jiménez, Javier Hernández, Nuria Montes-Osuna, Joaquín Moreno-Chocano, Paloma Cariñanos
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The different species of the genus Datura have been used traditionally by some pre-Columbian civilizations, as well as in medieval rituals linked to magic and witchcraft in both Mexico and Europe. It is also noteworthy the use of different alkaloids obtained from the plants for medicinal purposes in the treatment of various groups of diseases, especially of the respiratory and muscularskeletal systems. AIM OF THE STUDY: A review of the ethnobotanical uses of the genus Datura in Mexico and Spain has been conducted...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Lianne J P Sonnemans, Bela Kubat, Mathias Prokop, Willemijn M Klein
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether virtual autopsy with postmortem CT (PMCT) improves clinical diagnosis of the immediate cause of death. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study. INCLUSION CRITERIA: inhospital and out-of-hospital deaths over the age of 1 year in whom virtual autopsy with PMCT and conventional autopsy were performed. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: forensic cases, postmortal organ donors and cases with incomplete scanning procedures...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Alberto Zanatta, Luca Bezzi, Nicola Carrara, Cicero Moraes, Gaetano Thiene, Fabio Zampieri
Morgagni is considered the father of pathological anatomy. He died in 1771, 89 years old, and was buried in Saint Maxim church in Padua, where his wife and five of his 15 children were already buried. In 2011, an anthropological analysis confirmed that one of the skulls belonged to the oldest individuals among those found in Morgagni's tomb. A genetic analysis proved a kinship between this skull and the fragments of young individuals (one male and two females), supporting the hypothesis that they were Morgagni and his children...
March 14, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Emily Simonds, Charlotte Wilson, Joe Iwanaga, Tyler Laws, Gary Holley, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
Medical imaging techniques have led to great advances in clinical anatomy and forensic pathology. New and emerging technologies allow healthcare professionals to view and understand the human body from different perspectives. This gives way to new and improved interventions, treatment plans, and an overall understanding of the human body. Herein, we present a comprehensive review of the various medical imaging equipment used in cadaveric studies along with their individual strengths and limitations.
January 7, 2018: Curēus
Venkataramana Kandi, Parimala Reddy Basireddy
Introduction Medical education involves training necessary to become a physician or a surgeon. This includes various levels of training like undergraduate, internship, and postgraduate training. Medical education can be quite complex, since it involves training in pre-clinical subjects (anatomy, physiology, biochemistry), the para-clinical subjects (microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, and forensic medicine), and a discrete group of clinical subjects that include general medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, ear, nose and throat specialization, paediatrics, cardiology, pulmonology, dermatology, ophthalmology, and orthopaedics, and many other clinical specializations and super specialities (cardio-thoracic surgery, neurosurgery, etc...
January 5, 2018: Curēus
Mio Takayama, Brian Waters, Hiroshi Fujii, Kenji Hara, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Aya Matsusue, Natsuki Ikematsu, Shin-Ichi Kubo
Based on a prospective case-control study of forensic autopsies, the causes of cocaine (COC)-related sudden death (SD) are cardiovascular events in 62.0% of cases, cerebrovascular events in 14.0%, and others. A forensic autopsy of a male in his early forties revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) at the base of the brain. A cerebral arterial aneurysm was not detected even though hemorrhage was clearly observed in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) bifurcation area. The brain weighed 1488 g and was edematous...
March 2, 2018: Legal Medicine
Samuel P Prahlow, Joseph A Prahlow
As forensic scientists and physicians, forensic pathologists are duty-bound to perform their examinations with integrity and professionalism. The practice of medicine requires knowledge regarding the history and presentation of the patient. In forensic pathology, the history includes scene and other investigative information, and the decedent's medical and social history. Such information is important for the correct certification of the cause and manner of death. Herein, the authors present a case originally thought by police and death investigators to represent a sexual-assault-related homicide, as an elderly female's body was found partially nude, and apparently beaten, on the muddy floor of her horse barn...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Arya Sobhakumari, Robert H Poppenga, J Brad Pesavento, Francisco A Uzal
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO), a common cause of poisoning in human beings has also been implicated in the death of animals. Though there are multiple studies on CO poisoning and relevant lethal blood COHb concentrations in humans, there are no reliable reports of diagnostic lethal carboxyhemoglobin percentage of saturation (COHb%) in cats. Additionally, due to shared housing environments, exposures to companion animals can be a surrogate for lethal exposures in human beings and provide valuable information in concurrent forensic investigations...
March 5, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Banwari Meel
Background Firearm-related deaths are a serious public-health problem in South Africa, which has the second-highest rate of firearm-related deaths in the world. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trend in firearm deaths in the Transkei subregion of South Africa. Method An autopsy record review study was conducted at the Forensic Pathology Laboratory at Mthatha over a period of 23 years (1993-2015). Results Over a 23-year period (1993-2015), 27,036 autopsies were performed at the Mthatha Forensic Pathology Laboratory on people who had died from unnatural causes...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
Paolo Fais, Maria Carla Mazzotti, Gabriella Teti, Rafael Boscolo-Berto, Susi Pelotti, Mirella Falconi
Estimating the post mortem interval (PMI) is still a crucial step in Forensic Pathology. Although several methods are available for assessing the PMI, a precise estimation is still quite unreliable and can be inaccurate. The present study aimed to investigate the immunohistochemical distribution and mRNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α) in post mortem gingival tissues to establish a correlation between the presence of HIF-1α and the time since death, with the final goal of achieving a more accurate PMI estimation...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Gil Graziani, Sigal Tal, Adi Adelman, Chen Kugel, Tali Bdolah-Abram, Alon Krispin
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Post-mortem CT (PMCT) is becoming an essential tool available to forensic pathologists worldwide, but its validity with respect to evidence for legal purposes still requires more comprehensive large-scale studies, comparing PMCT to autopsy. This article compares PMCT and autopsy findings of the head, neck, and spine during a period of five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 203 cases for which both autopsy and PMCT were performed...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Nan Zhou, Qiu-Ping Wu, Terry Su, Qian-Hao Zhao, Kun Yin, Da Zheng, Jing-Jing Zheng, Lei Huang, Jian-Ding Cheng
Producing qualified forensic pathological practitioners is a common difficulty around the world. In China, forensic pathology is one of the required major subspecialties for undergraduates majoring in forensic medicine, in contrast to forensic education in Western countries where forensic pathology is often optional. The enduring predicament is that the professional qualities and abilities of forensic students from different institutions vary due to the lack of an efficient forensic pedagogical model. The purpose of this article is to describe the new pedagogical model of forensic pathology at Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, which is characterised by: (a) imparting a broad view of forensic pathology and basic knowledge of duties and tasks in future careers to students; (b) educating students in primary skills on legal and medical issues, as well as advanced forensic pathological techniques; (c) providing students with resources to broaden their professional minds, and opportunities to improve their professional qualities and abilities; and (d) mentoring students on occupational preparation and further forensic education...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
Bernard Pawlowicz, John Fernandes, Vidhya Nair
In this case series, we delve into the database of medicolegal cases of the Forensic Pathology Department at Hamilton Health Sciences in Hamilton Ontario from the last 20 years (1996-2017), and review cases of sudden cardiac death due to coronary artery abnormalities. We found 17 cases that fit the criteria, which gave us an incidence of 1.34 per 1000 cases. These cases were further audited for age, sex, type of coronary artery abnormality, symptoms before demise, circumstances of death, presence of significant atherosclerotic disease, and toxicology...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Josep M Casadesús, Fernando Aguirre, Ana Carrera, Pere Boadas-Vaello, Maria T Serrando, Francisco Reina
The purpose of this study was to suggest modifications of autopsy techniques in order to improve post-mortem diagnosis of arterial gas embolism (AGE) based on multidisciplinary investigation of SCUBA diving fatalities. Five adult human cadavers from the voluntary donation program of the Human Anatomy Laboratory, and eight judicial autopsied bodies of SCUBA divers from the Forensic Pathology Service were assessed. Before performing any autopsies, we accessed the diving plan and the divers' profiles for each case...
February 19, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Alessandro Bonsignore, Cristian Palmiere, Francesca Buffelli, Eloisa Maselli, Andrea Marzullo, Giulio Fraternali Orcioni, Francesco Ventura, Francesco De Stefano, Alessandro Dell'Erba
Attribution of death to myocarditis continues to be a controversial issue in forensic pathology, despite the existence of established histopathological criteria as well as complementary investigations. The aim of the study was two-fold: (a) to retrospectively analyse the data obtained from a series of clinical and forensic autopsies in order to assess the number of cases with death attributed to myocarditis, and (b) to reevaluate these cases in order to assess how properly the histopathological diagnosis of myocarditis conformed to established criteria and therefore how accurately these were used on the basis of all postmortem investigation findings to conclude the cause of death...
February 7, 2018: Forensic Science International
Rick Janssen, Scott R Moisik, Dan Dediu
People vary at most levels, from the molecular to the cognitive, and the shape of the hard palate (the bony roof of the mouth) is no exception. The patterns of variation in the hard palate are important for the forensic sciences and (palaeo)anthropology, and might also play a role in speech production, both in pathological cases and normal variation. Here we describe a method based on Bézier curves, whose main aim is to generate possible shapes of the hard palate in humans for use in computer simulations of speech production and language evolution...
2018: PloS One
Amanda R Hale, Ann H Ross
The purpose of this paper is to introduce a promising, novel method to aid in the assessment of bone quality in forensically relevant skeletal remains. BMD is an important component of bone's nutritional status and in skeletal remains of both juveniles and adults, and it can provide information about bone quality. For adults remains, it can provide information on pathological conditions or when bone insufficiency may have occurred. In juveniles, it provides a useful metric to elucidate cases of fatal starvation or neglect, which are generally difficult to identify...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
X Y Luo, J J Xue, Y Zhang, Z P Cao, M H Tian, Y Xiao, B L Zhu
OBJECTIVES: To study the expression pattern of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in myocardial tissue from forensic routine cases and to explore its application value in the forensic determination of sudden cardiac death (SCD). METHODS: The data of 96 autopsy cases accepted by the center of Medico-legal Investigation of China Medical University between December 2008 to May 2014 were collected. There were 62 cases in SCD group cardiac and 34 cases in non-SCD group...
December 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
A V Kovalev, M D Ametrin, G V Zolotenkova, A N Gerasimov, D V Gornostaev, M P Poletaeva
The objective of the present study was to determine the biological age of the unrecognized individuals based on the analysis of CT-scanograms of the skull and the craniovertebral region in the sagittal projection. We investigated the structure of the spongy substance of the clinoid plate of the sella turcica and the clivus of the cranium, involution of the vertebrae configuration in the medial atlantoaxial articulation, frontal and sphenoidal sinuses. A total of 80 skulls of Caucasoid individuals at the age ranging from 4 to 84 years belonging to an Eastern Slavonic population (free from the pathological lesions in the above cranial structures) were available for the examination...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Paul Barrett
The European Federation of Psychologists' Associations (EFPA) has issued sets of test standards and guidelines for psychometric test reviews without any attempt to address the critical content of many substantive publications by measurement experts such as Joel Michell. For example, he has argued that the psychometric test-theory which underpins classical and modern IRT psychometrics is "pathological", with the entire profession of psychometricians suffering from a methodological thought disorder. With the advent of new kinds of assessment now being created by the "Next Generation" of psychologists which no longer conform to the item-based, statistical test theory generated last century, a new framework is set out for constructing evidence-bases suitable for these "Next Generation" of assessments, which avoids the illusory beliefs of equal-interval or quantitatively structured psychological attributes...
January 2018: Behavioral Sciences
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