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Parental sensitivity

Caitlin M Hudac, Trent D DesChamps, Anne B Arnett, Brianna E Cairney, Ruqian Ma, Sara Jane Webb, Raphael A Bernier
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit difficulties processing and encoding sensory information in daily life. Cognitive response to environmental change in control individuals is naturally dynamic, meaning it habituates or reduces over time as one becomes accustomed to the deviance. The origin of atypical response to deviance in ASD may relate to differences in this dynamic habituation. The current study of 133 children and young adults with and without ASD examined classic electrophysiological responses (MMN and P3a), as well as temporal patterns of habituation (i...
March 15, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Asmaa E Kassab, Ehab M Gedawy
As we are interested in synthetizing biologically active leads with dual anticancer and antibacterial activity, we adopted biology oriented drug synthesis (BIODS) strategy to synthesize a series of novel ciprofloxacin (CP) hybrids. The National Cancer Institute (USA) selected seventeen newly synthesized compounds for anticancer evaluation against 59 different human tumor cell lines. Five compounds 3e, 3f, 3h, 3o and 3p were further studied through determination of IC50 values against the most sensitive cancer cell lines...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Samuel Mesihää, Ilpo Rasanen, Ilkka Ojanperä
Gas chromatography (GC) hyphenated with nitrogen chemiluminescence detection (NCD) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS) was applied for the first time to the quantitative analysis of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in urine, based on the N-equimolar response of NCD. A method was developed and validated to estimate the concentrations of three metabolites of the common stimulant NPS α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP) in spiked urine samples, simulating an analysis having no authentic reference standards for the metabolites and using the parent drug instead for quantitative calibration...
February 27, 2018: Forensic Science International
Anna Sidor, Hubert Köhler, Manfred Cierpka
Impact of Socioeconomic Risk Exposure on Maternal Sensitivity, Stress and Family Functionality Parental stress exposure can influence the parent-child relationship, child development and child wellbeing in negative ways. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of socio-economic risk exposure on the quality of the mother-child-interaction and family functionality. A sample of 294 mother-infant dyads at psychosocial risk was compared with a lower-risk, middle-class sample of 125 mother-infant-dyads in regard to maternal sensitivity/child's cooperation (CARE-Index), maternal stress (PSI-SF) and family functionality (FB-K)...
March 2018: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Qing Mao, Robert Chin, Weiwei Xie, Yuqing Deng, Wenwei Zhang, Huixin Xu, Rebecca Yu Zhang, Quan Shi, Erin E Peters, Natali Gulbahce, Zhenyu Li, Fang Chen, Radoje Drmanac, Brock A Peters
BACKGROUND: Amniocentesis is a common procedure, the primary purpose of which is to collect cells from the fetus to allow testing for abnormal chromosomes, altered chromosomal copy number, or a small number of genes that have small single- to multibase defects. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of generating an accurate whole-genome sequence of a fetus from either the cellular or cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of an amniotic sample. METHODS: cfDNA and DNA isolated from the cell pellet of 31 amniocenteses were sequenced to approximately 50× genome coverage by use of the Complete Genomics nanoarray platform...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Chanjuan Wang, Aiwei Li, Shuo Yang, Rui Qiao, Xi Zhu, Jie Zhang
The emergence of chemoresistance greatly increases the recurrence risk for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients, which is still a big concern of clinicians. Understanding the mechanisms of drug resistance is of great significance for preventing and reversing it. We showed here that CXC motif chemokine ligand 5 (CXCL5) was overexpressed in mitomycin C-resistant bladder cancer cell line M-RT4. Meanwhile, parental RT4 cell treated with recombinant human CXCL5 (rhCXCL5) reduced its sensitivity to mitomycin C...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Karl Wissemann, Julia Y Gorday, Alexandria Meyer
Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is the perception that anxiety symptoms and experiences have negative consequences, and has been identified as a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders. AS has been measured in adults and in children, but to date, the construct of parent's sensitivity to their children's anxiety symptoms has not been identified, measured, or evaluated. The current study presents a novel measure of this construct, the Parent Sensitivity to Child Anxiety Index (PSCAI), and an initial evaluation of its psychometric properties...
March 15, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Hargun Ahluwalia, Tanya Anand, L N Suman
Substance abuse is a family disease that adversely impacts both the user and the user's family. The family can act as a risk factor for the development of substance abuse among children and adults. The family can also be involved in therapy to either help the recovery process or prevent substance abuse. Marital and family therapy have been found to be effective in reducing the severity of substance use, lowering marital and family conflict, improving family communication and cohesion as well as effective parenting practices...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Peter Bryk, Matthew G Brewer, Brian M Ward
The vaccinia virus protein F13, encoded by the F13L gene, is conserved across the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae and is critical among orthopoxviruses to produce the wrapped form of virus that is required for cell-to-cell spread. F13 is the major envelope protein on the membrane of extracellular forms of virus, however it is not known if F13 is required in steps post-wrapping. In this report, we utilize two temperature-sensitive vaccinia virus mutants from the Condit collection of temperature-sensitive viruses whose small plaque phenotypes have been mapped to the F13L gene...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Erika Toda, Yukinosuke Ohnishi, Takashi Okamoto
Upon double fertilization, one sperm cell fuses with the egg cell to form a zygote with a 1:1 maternal-to-paternal genome ratio (1m:1p), and another sperm cell fuses with the central cell to form a triploid primary endosperm cell with a 2m:1p ratio, resulting in formation of the embryo and the endosperm, respectively. The endosperm is known to be considerably sensitive to the ratio of the parental genome. However, in contrast to endosperm, the effect of an imbalance of the parental genome on zygotic development/embryogenesis has not been well addressed, because it is difficult to reproduce the parental genome-imbalanced situation in zygotes and to monitor the developmental profile of zygotes without external effects from endosperm...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Tiffany G Munzer, Alison L Miller, Karen E Peterson, Holly E Brophy-Herb, Mildred A Horodynski, Dawn Contreras, Julie Sturza, Julie C Lumeng, Jenny Radesky
OBJECTIVE: Excessive screen media exposure in childhood is associated with parent-reported self-regulation difficulties. No studies have used laboratory-based or teacher-reported measures of child self-regulatory behaviors. This study examines cross-sectional associations between preschooler screen media exposure and multiple measures of self-regulatory behaviors. METHODS: Preintervention data were used from 541 preschoolers in the Growing Healthy study, an obesity prevention trial (2011-2015)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Dvora Izgelov, Irina Cherniakov, Gefen Aldouby Bier, Abraham J Domb, Amnon Hoffman
In recent years, Phase II metabolism, as a first pass metabolism process occurring to the parent drug, is gaining more and more attention. This is due to its acknowledged significance in drug development as well as drug-drug interactions. However, the predominant role of Phase I metabolism has always overshadowed Phase II metabolism, resulting in insufficient data regarding its mechanisms. In this paper, we investigate the effect of an advanced lipid based drug delivery system on Phase II metabolism at the intestinal level of the enterocytes monolayer...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Irene Tung, Amanda N Noroña, Julia E Morgan, Barbara Caplan, Steve S Lee, Bruce L Baker
Although parenting behavior and friendship quality predict adolescent externalizing behaviors (EBs), individual differences in temperament may differentially affect susceptibility to these factors over time. In a multi-method and multi-informant study of 141 children followed prospectively from toddlerhood to adolescence, we tested the independent and interactive associations of age 3 reactive temperament (e.g., negative emotionality) and age 13 observed parenting (i.e., positive and negative behavior) and friendship (i...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
Jessie A Gomez, Alice S Carter, Danielle Forbes, Sarah A O Gray
Utilizing a two-dimensional model of parenting emphasizing both (1) proximity seeking and (2) exploration, consistent with a conceptual framework rooted in attachment theory, the relations between parental insightfulness, observed parenting, and child cognitive outcomes were investigated in a low-income sample of 64 of caregivers and their young 3-5-year-old children. Specifically, observed parental sensitivity (proximity seeking) and intrusiveness (exploration) and parental insightfulness assessed dimensionally to capture Positive Insight and Focus on Child were examined in relation to child cognitive outcomes...
March 14, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Diego Hojsgaard
Polyploid genomes evolve and follow a series of dynamic transfigurations along with adaptation and speciation. The initial formation of a new polyploid individual within a diploid population usually involves a triploid bridge, a two-step mechanism of cell fusions between ubiquitous (reduced) and rare (unreduced) gametes. The primary fusion event creates an intermediate triploid individual with unbalanced genome sets, a situation of genomic-shock characterized by gene expression dysregulation, high dosage sensitivity, disturbed cell divisions, and physiological and reproductive attributes drastically altered...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hidejiro Torigoe, Kazuhiko Shien, Tatsuaki Takeda, Takahiro Yoshioka, Kei Namba, Hiroki Sato, Ken Suzawa, Hiromasa Yamamoto, Junichi Soh, Masakiyo Sakaguchi, Shuta Tomida, Kazunori Tsukuda, Shinichiro Miyoshi, Shinichi Toyooka
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various cancers. HER2 alterations have been suggested to be a therapeutic target in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), just as in breast and gastric cancers. We previously reported that the pan-HER inhibitor afatinib could be a useful therapeutic agent as HER2-targeted therapy for patients with NSCLC harboring HER2 alterations. However, acquired resistance to afatinib was observed in the clinical setting, similar to the case for other HER inhibitors...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Science
Yuqing Zhang, Xinyu Zhou, Lining Yang, Sarah E Hetrick, John R Weisz, Pim Cuijpers, Jürgen Barth, Cinzia Del Giovane, Shuai Yuan, David Cohen, Donna Gillies, Xiaofeng Jiang, Teng Teng, Peng Xie
INTRODUCTION: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among children and adolescents who are exposed to trauma, and it is often associated with significant negative impacts on their psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Many types of psychotherapies have been found to be effective for PTSD in children and adolescents. However, due to the lack of direct comparisons between different psychotherapies, the hierarchy of treatment efficacy is still unclear. Therefore, we plan to conduct a systematic review and network meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of various types of psychotherapies for PTSD in children and adolescents...
March 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Michael Cowley, David A Skaar, Dereje D Jima, Rachel L Maguire, Kathleen M Hudson, Sarah S Park, Patricia Sorrow, Cathrine Hoyo
BACKGROUND: Imprinted genes are defined by their preferential expression from one of the two parental alleles. This unique mode of gene expression is dependent on allele-specific DNA methylation profiles established at regulatory sequences called imprinting control regions (ICRs). These loci have been used as biosensors to study how environmental exposures affect methylation and transcription. However, a critical unanswered question is whether they are more, less, or equally sensitive to environmental stressors as the rest of the genome...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
Attachment is transmitted from one generation to the next. Adult attachment has been shown to predict the security or insecurity of children's attachment relationship with their parents. In search for the mechanism of intergenerational transmission of attachment sensitive parenting has been the main focus of research during the past four decades. Meta-analytic work confirmed the role of sensitive parenting, but a large explanatory gap remains to be explained. Parental mentalization has not yet fulfilled its promise as a bridge across the transmission gap...
February 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Min Zhou, Xinjian Liu, Zonghai Li, Qian Huang, Fang Li, Chuan-Yuan Li
Caspase-3 (CASP3) is a major mediator of apoptosis activated during cellular exposure to cytotoxic drugs, radiotherapy, or immunotherapy. It is often used as a marker for efficacy of cancer therapy. However, recent reports indicate that caspase-3 also has non-apoptotic roles such as promotion of tumor relapse and tumor angiogenesis. Therefore, the roles of caspase-3 in tumor progression remains to be defined clearly. In this study, we established caspase-3 knockout (KO) colon cancer cell lines by use of the CRISPR technology...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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