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fertility and human reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535578/coasting-withholding-gonadotrophins-for-preventing-ovarian-hyperstimulation-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Arianna D'Angelo, Nazar N Amso, Rudaina Hassan
BACKGROUND: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is an iatrogenic and potentially life threatening condition resulting from excessive ovarian stimulation. Reported incidence of moderate to severe OHSS ranges from 0.6% to 5% of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. The factors contributing to OHSS have not been completely explained. The release of vasoactive substances secreted by the ovaries under human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) stimulation may play a key role in triggering this syndrome...
May 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533904/-this-is-where-it-all-started-the-pivotal-role-of-plc%C3%AE-within-the-sophisticated-process-of-mammalian-reproduction-a-systemic-review
#2
Itai Gat, Raoul Orvieto
Mammalian reproduction is one of the most complex and fascinating biological phenomenon, which aims to transfer maternal and paternal genetic material to the next generation. At the end of oogenesis and spermatogenesis, both haploid gametes contain a single set of chromosomes ready to form the zygote, the first cell of the newly developing individual. The mature oocyte and spermatozoa remain in a quiescent state, during which the oocyte is characterized by nuclear and cytoplasmic arrest, while the spermatozoa necessitates further maturation within the epididymis and female reproductive track prior to egg fertilization...
2017: Basic and Clinical Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533361/healthy-offspring-from-freeze-dried-mouse-spermatozoa-held-on-the-international-space-station-for-9-months
#3
Sayaka Wakayama, Yuko Kamada, Kaori Yamanaka, Takashi Kohda, Hiromi Suzuki, Toru Shimazu, Motoki N Tada, Ikuko Osada, Aiko Nagamatsu, Satoshi Kamimura, Hiroaki Nagatomo, Eiji Mizutani, Fumitoshi Ishino, Sachiko Yano, Teruhiko Wakayama
If humans ever start to live permanently in space, assisted reproductive technology using preserved spermatozoa will be important for producing offspring; however, radiation on the International Space Station (ISS) is more than 100 times stronger than that on Earth, and irradiation causes DNA damage in cells and gametes. Here we examined the effect of space radiation on freeze-dried mouse spermatozoa held on the ISS for 9 mo at -95 °C, with launch and recovery at room temperature. DNA damage to the spermatozoa and male pronuclei was slightly increased, but the fertilization and birth rates were similar to those of controls...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526997/nafld-as-a-sexual-dimorphic-disease-role-of-gender-and-reproductive-status-in-the-development-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-inherent-cardiovascular-risk
#4
REVIEW
Stefano Ballestri, Fabio Nascimbeni, Enrica Baldelli, Alessandra Marrazzo, Dante Romagnoli, Amedeo Lonardo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spans steatosis through nonalcoholic steatohepatis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with striking systemic features and excess cardiovascular and liver-related mortality. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and multifactorial. Endocrine derangements are closely linked with dysmetabolic traits. For example, in animal and human studies, female sex is protected from dysmetabolism thanks to young individuals' ability to partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triacylglycerol, and to sex-specific browning of white adipose tissue...
May 19, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525858/effects-of-intermediate-frequency-magnetic-fields-on-male-fertility-indicators-in-mice
#5
K Kumari, M Capstick, A M Cassara, M Herrala, H Koivisto, J Naarala, H Tanila, M Viluksela, J Juutilainen
Human exposure to intermediate frequency (IF) fields is increasing due to new applications such as electronic article surveillance systems, wireless power transfer and induction heating cookers. However, limited data is available on effects of IF magnetic fields (MF) on male fertility function. This study was conducted to assess possible effects on fertility indicators from exposure to IF MF. Male C57BL/6J mice were exposed continuously for 5 weeks to 7.5kHz MF at 12 and 120μT. Sperm cells from cauda epididymis were analysed for motility, total sperm counts, and head abnormalities...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523429/kir-lilrb-and-their-ligands-genes-as-potential-biomarkers-in-recurrent-implantation-failure
#6
REVIEW
Izabela Nowak, Karolina Wilczyńska, Jacek R Wilczyński, Andrzej Malinowski, Paweł Radwan, Michał Radwan, Piotr Kuśnierczyk
Reproductive failure in humans is a very important social and economic problem, because nowadays women decide to conceive later in life and delay motherhood. Unfortunately, with increasing age they have less chance for natural fertilization and maintenance of pregnancy. Many of them need assisted reproductive technology. Approximately 10% of women after in vitro fertilization-embryo transfers experience recurrent implantation failure (RIF). Multiple factors may contribute to RIF, including oocyte and sperm quality, parental chromosomal anomalies, genetic or metabolic abnormalities of the embryo, poor uterine receptivity, immunological disturbances in the implantation site, and some gynecologic pathologies such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, hydrosalpinx and endometrial polyps...
May 18, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511935/bile-acids-and-male-fertility-from-mouse-to-human
#7
REVIEW
Lauriane Sèdes, Emmanuelle Martinot, Marine Baptissart, Silvère Baron, Françoise Caira, Claude Beaudoin, David H Volle
Next to their involvement in digestion, bile acids have been defined as signaling molecules. They have been demonstrated to control many physiological functions among which lipid homeostasis, glucose and energy metabolisms. Bile acids are ligands of several receptors and multiple studies using transgenic mouse models defined the major roles of their respective nuclear and membrane receptors namely the Farnesoid-X-Receptor (FXRα) and the G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1(GPBAR1; TGR5). Here we review the reports highlighting the impacts of bile acids on testicular physiology and on male reproductive functions...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511457/leptin-as-a-predictive-marker-in-unexplained-infertility-in-north-indian-population
#8
Pratibha Kumari, S P Jaiswar, Pushplata Shankhwar, Sujata Deo, Kalim Ahmad, Bushra Iqbal, A A Mahdi
INTRODUCTION: According to WHO, the primary infertility in India is about 3.9% (age-standardized to 25-49 year) and 16.8% (age-standardized to 15-49 year), using the "age but no birth" definition. Several factors which affect fertility include low sperm production in men, poor egg quality and blocked fallopian tubes in women and also hormonal imbalances. Leptin plays a critical role in women's reproduction and neuroendocrine health. It is used for treating exercise-induced bone loss, eating disorders and infertility...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506949/frozen-embryo-transfer-prevents-the-detrimental-effect-of-high-estrogen-on-endometrium-receptivity
#9
Aynur Adeviye Erşahin, Mustafa Acet, Suat Süphan Erşahin, Nur Dokuzeylül Güngör
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether serum levels of estradiol affect reproductive outcomes of normoresponder women undergoing fresh embryo transfer (ET) versus frozen-thawed ET (FET). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred fifty-five normoresponder women underwent fresh ET in their first or second in vitro fertilization cycle. Ninety-two women with negative pregnacy test results underwent FET. Clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates, implantation, and live birth rates of women undergoing fresh ET versus FET were compared...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505106/human-chorionic-gonadotropin-the-pregnancy-hormone-and-more
#10
REVIEW
Charalampos Theofanakis, Petros Drakakis, Alexandros Besharat, Dimitrios Loutradis
To thoroughly review the uses of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) related to the process of reproduction and also assess new, non-traditional theories. Review of the international literature and research studies. hCG and its receptor, LH/CGR, are expressed in numerous sites of the reproductive tract, both in gonadal and extra-goanadal tissues, promoting oocyte maturation, fertilization, implantation and early embryo development. Moreover, hCG seems to have a potential role as an anti-rejection agent in solid organ transplantation...
May 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501366/reproductive-outcomes-after-a-single-dose-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-agonist-compared-with-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-for-the-induction-of-final-oocyte-maturation-in-hyper-responder-women-aged-35-40%C3%A2-years
#11
Samer Tannus, Rola Turki, Yoni Cohen, Weon-Young Son, Tal Shavit, Michael Haim Dahan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the reproductive outcomes after the use of GnRH agonist (GnRHa) compared with hCG for the induction of final oocyte maturation in GnRH antagonist cycles performed in hyper-responder women aged 35-40 years. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Academic fertility center. PATIENT(S): Two hundred seventy-two hyper-responder women aged 35-40 years who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation under GnRH antagonist suppression were included...
May 10, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500824/vitamin-d-and-aspects-of-female-fertility
#12
REVIEW
Nick Voulgaris, Labrini Papanastasiou, George Piaditis, Anna Angelousi, Gregory Kaltsas, George Mastorakos, Eva Kassi
The role of vitamin D in female reproduction has been intensively examined over the last few decades. A large body of evidence suggests that vitamin D might have beneficial effects on metabolic/hormonal parameters of PCOS and endometriosis, while it appears to be associated with IVF outcomes. However, due to the heterogeneity among observational and interventional studies, no cause-effect relationship has yet been established. The aim of this review is to analyze recent in vitro animal and human studies which examined the association of vitamin D with disease entities affecting female fertility potential...
January 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495606/the-synthetic-cannabinoid-win-55-212-55-212-induced-apoptosis-in-cytotrophoblasts-cells-by-a-mechanism-dependent-on-cb1-receptor
#13
Marta Almada, Lia Costa, Bruno Miguel Fonseca, Cristina Amaral, Natércia Teixeira, Georgina Correia-da-Silva
The endocannabinoid system has evolved as a key regulator in several pathological and physiological processes, including placentation, decidualization and implantation. In addition, it is known that Cannabis and cannabinoids negatively affect female reproduction. Although, the biological action of synthetic cannabinoids, such as WIN-55,212, in human fertility and pregnancy outcome remain to be unveiled. A tight balance between proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of trophoblast cells is required for placental development and pregnancy outcome...
May 8, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490169/ethical-considerations-in-the-field-of-assisted-reproductive-technology
#14
Lindsey N Cobb, Raymond W Ke
Human reproduction has always generated more than its share of emotion that exceeds the life and death issues of medicine. For patients that are unable to conceive naturally, medical advances have greatly expanded treatment options. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is a highly evolving, complex, and controversial field of medicine in which ethical principles play a large role in decision-making. The following highlights ethical considerations regarding ART, specifically in vitro fertilization (IVF), that practicing obstetricians and indeed all physicians may encounter...
May 8, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481731/posttranslational-modifications-in-spermatozoa-and-effects-on-male-fertility-and-sperm-viability
#15
Rahim Dad Brohi, Li-Jun Huo
Spermatogenesis is a complex and highly regulated process. The ability of spermatozoa to perform its function depends on multiple physiological and genetic factors that are not fully understood. Notably, due to lack of transcriptional and translational activity in spermatozoa, posttranslational modifications (PTMs) play key roles in determining their viability. PTMs not only confer structural changes in the proteome of the spermatozoa cells, but also increase the diversity of the proteome and introduce specific modifications that could be translated into functional changes in the affected spermatozoa...
May 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479120/what-fertility-specialists-should-know-about-the-vaginal-microbiome-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Juan Antonio García-Velasco, Marco Menabrito, Isidoro Bruna Catalán
Our understanding of the composition of the microbial communities that inhabit the human body, known as the 'microbiome', is aided by the development of non-culture-dependent DNA sequencing. It is increasingly apparent that the balance of microbial species greatly affects the health of the host. Disturbances in the composition of bacterial communities have been shown to contribute to various disease states, and there is a growing body of evidence that the vaginal microbiota, which is unique to each woman, plays an important role in determining many facets of reproductive health...
April 19, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473188/reproductive-toxicity-of-roundup-herbicide-exposure-in-male-albino-rat
#17
Folarin O Owagboriaye, Gabriel A Dedeke, Kehinde O Ademolu, Olarenwaju O Olujimi, Joseph S Ashidi, Aladesida A Adeyinka
The incidence of infertility in human is on the increase and the use of Roundup herbicide and presence of its residues in foodstuff is a major concern. This study therefore aim to assess the effect of Roundup on the reproductive capacity of 32 adult male albino rats randomized into 4 groups of 8 rats per group orally exposed to Roundup at 3.6mg/kg body weight(bw), 50.4mg/kgbw and 248.4mg/kgbw of glyphosate concentrations for 12 weeks while the control group was given distilled water. Serum level of reproductive hormone (testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin), oxidative stress indices in the testicular tissue, epididymal sperm morphology assessment and testicular histopathology of the rats were used as a diagnostic marker of reproductive dysfunction...
May 1, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469531/cancer-metastasis-enactment-of-the-script-for-human-reproductive-drama
#18
Xichun Sun, Xiwu Liu
Based on compelling evidence from many biological disciplines, we put forth a hypothesis for cancer metastasis. In the hypothesis, the metastatic cascade is depicted as human reproduction in miniature. Illustrated in a reproductive light, the staggering resemblance of cancer metastasis to human reproduction becomes evident despite some ostensible dis-similarities. In parallel to the appearance of primordial germ cells during early embryogenesis, the cancer reproductive saga starts with the separation of metastasis initiating cells (MICs) from cancer initiating cells when the primary cancer is still in its infancy...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467768/gnrh-agonist-triggering-of-ovulation-replacing-hcg-a-30-year-old-revolution-in-ivf-practice-led-by-rambam-health-care-campus
#19
REVIEW
Shahar Kol, Ofer Fainaru
Final oocyte maturation is a crucial step in in vitro fertilization, traditionally achieved with a single bolus of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) given 36 hours before oocyte retrieval. This bolus exposes the patient to the risks of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), particularly in the face of ovarian hyper-response to gonadotropins. Although multiple measures were developed to prevent OHSS, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triggering is now globally recognized as the best approach to achieve this goal...
April 28, 2017: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466233/age-related-expression-of-tgf-beta-family-receptors-in-human-cumulus-oophorus-cells
#20
A Ribeiro, C Freitas, L Matos, A Gouveia, F Gomes, J L Silva Carvalho, H Almeida
PURPOSE: During ovarian follicle growth, local cellular interactions are essential for oocyte quality acquisition and successful fertilization. While cumulus cells (CCs) nurture oocytes, they also deliver oocyte-secreted factors (OSFs) that activate receptors on CCs. We hypothesized that disturbance of those interactions contributes to age-related lower reproductive success in women submitted to assisted reproductive technology treatments. METHODS: Women aged 27-48, without recognized personal reproductive disorder, were enrolled in the study and divided in <35- and ≥35-year-old groups...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
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