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fertility and human reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925269/lifecycle-exposure-of-fathead-minnows-to-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-the-%C3%AE-blocker-drug-propranolol
#1
Joanne L Parrott, Vimal K Balakrishnan
Propranolol is a human pharmaceutical β-blocker that has been detected in municipal wastewater effluents at ng/L to low µg/L. To assess the potential of this compound to affect fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for a lifecycle in a flow-through system to nominal propranolol concentrations of 0.87, 8.7, 87, 870 and 8,700 ng/L. Measured propranolol concentrations were below detection for the two lowest exposure concentrations, and were 76, 580, and 7,800 ng/L for the three highest exposure concentrations...
December 7, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923416/charles-georges-thibault-1919-2003-inspirational-leader-in-french-reproductive-biology
#2
R H F Hunter
The contribution of Charles Thibault in creating and developing a major international centre of animal research at Jouy-en-Josas (near Versailles) in post Second World War France is recorded in detail. Not only did he select a team of gifted young chercheurs, but he stimulated and supported their research in diverse ways. The projects covered were not only primarily of significance to animal reproduction, but they also became relevant to human infertility studies and to IVF treatments. Members of the team in Physiologie Animale gained international research reputations and seasoned overseas researchers were attracted to Jouy-en-Josas for their sabbaticals...
December 7, 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921090/the-effect-of-intrauterine-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-injection-before-embryo-transfer-on-the-implantation-and-pregnancy-rate-in-infertile-patients-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi, Sima Janati, Mohammad Hossein Razi
BACKGROUND: Implantation is one of the essential steps for the success of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Their success depends on three main factors: embryo quality, endometrial receptivity (ER), and synchrony between embryo and endometrium. There are various factors that regulate the complex process of implantation. In this regard, one may refer to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as the most important factor. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the effect of intrauterine hCG injection before embryo transfer (ET) on pregnancy outcome in infertile couples...
October 2016: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916276/a-surveillance-mechanism-ensures-repair-of-dna-lesions-during-zygotic-reprogramming
#4
Sabrina Ladstätter, Kikuë Tachibana-Konwalski
Sexual reproduction culminates in a totipotent zygote with the potential to produce a whole organism. Sperm chromatin reorganization and epigenetic reprogramming that alter DNA and histone modifications generate a totipotent embryo. Active DNA demethylation of the paternal genome has been proposed to involve base excision and DNA repair-based mechanisms. The nature and consequence of DNA lesions generated during reprogramming are not known. Using mouse genetics and chemical biology, we discovered that Tet3-dependent zygotic reprogramming generates paternal DNA lesions that are monitored by a surveillance mechanism...
November 21, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912901/individualized-versus-conventional-ovarian-stimulation-for-in%C3%A2-vitro-fertilization-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-assessor-blinded-phase-3-noninferiority-trial
#5
Anders Nyboe Andersen, Scott M Nelson, Bart C J M Fauser, Juan Antonio García-Velasco, Bjarke M Klein, Joan-Carles Arce
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of follitropin delta, a new human recombinant FSH with individualized dosing based on serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and body weight, with conventional follitropin alfa dosing for ovarian stimulation in women undergoing IVF. DESIGN: Randomized, multicenter, assessor-blinded, noninferiority trial (ESTHER-1). SETTING: Reproductive medicine clinics. PATIENT(S): A total of 1,329 women (aged 18-40 years)...
November 22, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904014/male-infertility-related-molecules-involved-in-sperm-oocyte-fusion
#6
Lisha Mou, Ni Xie
Male infertility has become a very serious problem in the human reproduction system, but the molecular mechanism of infertility remains largely unknown. Fertilization is the phenomenon in which a sperm and oocyte find each other, interact, and fuse. Sperm-oocyte fusion-related factors on the sperm side play crucial roles in male infertility. For example, IZUMO1 is well-known as a sperm protein essential for fusion of a sperm and oocyte, but its dysfunction or mutation can result in male infertility. Recent studies showed a novel sperm protein named Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), which takes part in the sperm-oocyte fusion process...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903344/-a-control-study-of-artificial-oocyte-activation-in-the-same-period
#7
D Y Hao, R Zhang, X Zhang, C Y Shen, Y Yang, W B Wu, Y L Liu, J Liu, J R Zhang, X L Wang
Objective: To compare the fertility rate and embryo outcome between normal fertilization and the use of Calcium ionophore A23187 on the same period of the same cycle of human ovum for artificial activation. Methods: Patients who conducted the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle in vitro fertilization assisted reproductive from January 2015 to December in reproductive center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were enrolled.The protocol of this study was approved by the ethics committee of The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University...
November 22, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901279/dopamine-agonists-for-preventing-ovarian-hyperstimulation-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Huilin Tang, Selma Mourad, Suo-Di Zhai, Roger J Hart
BACKGROUND: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a potentially serious complication of ovarian stimulation in assisted reproduction technology (ART). It is characterised by enlarged ovaries and an acute fluid shift from the intravascular space to the third space, resulting in bloating, increased risk of venous thromboembolism and decreased organ perfusion. Most cases are mild, but forms of moderate or severe OHSS appear in 3% to 8% of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycles. The dopamine agonist cabergoline was introduced as a secondary prevention intervention for OHSS in women at high risk of OHSS undergoing ART treatment...
November 30, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887783/a-systematic-review-of-mancozeb-as-a-reproductive-and-developmental-hazard
#9
REVIEW
Jennifer Runkle, Joan Flocks, Jeannie Economos, Anne L Dunlop
BACKGROUND: The potential adverse reproductive and developmental effects of Mancozeb, especially in sensitive subpopulations, have not been fully reviewed for this widely used fungicide. OBJECTIVE: To review the experimental and epidemiologic evidence for the association between exposure to Mancozeb and reproductive and developmental health outcomes using an adaptation of the National Toxicology Program's Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) systematic review framework...
November 22, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886257/an-evolutionary-conserved-interaction-between-the-gcm-transcription-factor-and-the-sf1-nuclear-receptor-in-the-female-reproductive-system
#10
Pierre B Cattenoz, Claude Delaporte, Wael Bazzi, Angela Giangrande
NR5A1 is essential for the development and for the function of steroid producing glands of the reproductive system. Moreover, its misregulation is associated with endometriosis, which is the first cause of infertility in women. Hr39, the Drosophila ortholog of NR5A1, is expressed and required in the secretory cells of the spermatheca, the female exocrine gland that ensures fertility by secreting substances that attract and capacitate the spermatozoids. We here identify a direct regulator of Hr39 in the spermatheca: the Gcm transcription factor...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884790/altered-spermatogenesis-steroidogenesis-and-suppressed-fertility-in-adult-male-rats-exposed-to-genistein-a-non-steroidal-phytoestrogen-during-embryonic-development
#11
R Meena, Ch Supriya, K Pratap Reddy, P Sreenivasula Reddy
This article focuses on the effects of prenatal exposure to genistein on the mother, her pregnancy and reproductive functions of the male progeny, since these issues have ethological relevance in both animals and humans. Pregnant Wistar rats received i.p. injections of genistein at a dose level of 2, 20 or 100 mg/kg body weight daily from 12(th) to 19(th) day of gestation. Male pups from control and genistein exposed animals were weaned and allowed to develop until 100 days of age; however, when they were 90 days old, twelve males from each group were cohabited with untreated 90-day old females for 8 days...
November 21, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881734/nlrp2-controls-age-associated-maternal-fertility
#12
Anna A Kuchmiy, Jinke D'Hont, Tino Hochepied, Mohamed Lamkanfi
Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins are well-known for their key roles in the immune system. Ectopically expressed NLRP2 in immortalized cell lines assembles an inflammasome and inhibits activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB, but the physiological roles of NLRP2 are unknown. Here, we show that Nlrp2-deficient mice were born with expected Mendelian ratios and that Nlrp2 was dispensable for innate and adaptive immunity. The observation that Nlrp2 was exclusively expressed in oocytes led us to explore the role of Nlrp2 in parthenogenetic activation of oocytes...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875650/military-genitourinary-trauma-policies-implications-and-ethics
#13
Wendy K Dean, Arthur L Caplan, Brendan Parent
The men and women who serve in the armed forces, in the words of Major General Joseph Caravalho, "sign a blank check, co-signed by their families, payable to the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marines, up to and including their lives." It is human nature to consider such a pact in polarized terms; the pact concludes in either a celebratory homecoming or funereal mourning. But in reality, surviving catastrophic injury may incur the greatest debt. The small but real possibility of losing the ability to bear biological children due to genitourinary combat injury has been a topic of discussion in hushed tones, behind closed doors...
November 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875265/oviduct-roles-in-fertilization-and-early-embryo-development
#14
REVIEW
Shuai Li, Wipawee Winuthayanon
Animal oviducts and human Fallopian tubes are a part of the female reproductive tract that hosts fertilization and pre-implantation development of the embryo. With an increasing understanding of roles of the oviduct at the cellular and molecular levels, current research signifies the importance of the oviduct on naturally conceived fertilization and pre-implantation embryo development. This review highlights the physiological conditions within the oviduct during fertilization, environmental regulation, oviductal fluid composition and its role in protecting embryos and supplying nutrients...
January 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872723/a-human-reproductive-approach-to-the-study-of-infertility-in-chimpanzees-an-experience-at-leon-s-zoological-park-mexico
#15
Raul Eduardo Piña-Aguilar, Janet López-Saucedo, Lilia Ivone Ruiz-Galaz, José de Jesús Barroso-Padilla, Mayra Celina Gallegos-Rivas, Claudia González-Ortega, Antonio Martin Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez
Great apes are mammals close to humans in their genetic, behavioral, social and evolutionary characteristics and new genomic information is revolutionizing our understanding of evolution in primates. However, all these species are endangered. While there are many global programs to protect these species, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) projects that in a near future the wild populations will decrease significantly. Nowadays, the relevance of captive populations of great apes is becoming critical for research and understanding of pathophysiology of diseases...
2016: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866819/endocrinology-of-human-female-sexuality-mating-and-reproductive-behavior
#16
REVIEW
Natalie V Motta-Mena, David A Puts
Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior...
November 17, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852689/female-exposure-to-phthalates-and-time-to-pregnancy-a-first-pregnancy-planner-study
#17
Anne Marie L Thomsen, Anders H Riis, Jørn Olsen, Bo A G Jönsson, Christian H Lindh, Niels H Hjollund, Tina Kold Jensen, Jens Peter Bonde, Gunnar Toft
STUDY QUESTION: Is female exposure to phthalate metabolites associated with reduced fecundity, as estimated by prolonged time to pregnancy (TTP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Female exposure to monoethyl phthalate (MEP) but not monobutyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) was associated with a longer TTP. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Male exposure to phthalates is potentially associated with adverse effects on human fecundity in epidemiological studies, but little is known about the potential effects on female reproduction...
November 16, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852101/human-chorionic-gonadotrophin-priming-for-fertility-treatment-with-in-vitro-maturation
#18
REVIEW
Jane Reavey, Katy Vincent, Timothy Child, Ingrid E Granne
BACKGROUND: In vitro maturation (IVM) is a fertility treatment that involves the transvaginal retrieval of immature oocytes, and their subsequent maturation and fertilisation. Although the live birth rate is lower than conventional in vitro fertilisation (IVF) with ovarian stimulation, it is a useful treatment, as it avoids the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Women with polycystic ovaries (PCO) or polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are at an increased risk of OHSS. Thus, IVM may be a more useful treatment in this patient group...
November 16, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845423/glycine-increases-preimplantation-development-of-mouse-oocytes-following-vitrification-at-the-germinal-vesicle-stage
#19
Xin-Yan Cao, Jack Rose, Shi-Yong Wang, Yong Liu, Meng Zhao, Ming-Jie Xing, Tong Chang, Baozeng Xu
Ice-free cryopreservation, referred to as vitrification, is receiving increased attention in the human and animal assisted reproduction. However, it introduces the detrimental osmotic stress by adding and removing high contents of cryoprotectants. In this study, we evaluated the effects of normalizing cell volume regulation by adding glycine, an organic osmolyte, during vitrification of mouse germinal vesicle stage oocyte and/or subsequent maturation on its development. The data showed that glycine supplementation in either vitrification/thawing or maturation medium significantly improved the cytoplasmic maturation of MII oocytes manifested by spindle assembly, chromosomal alignment, mitochondrial distribution, euploidy rate, and blastocyst development following fertilization in vitro, compared to the control without glycine treatment...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826822/an-updated-systematic-review-on-the-possible-effect-of-nonylphenol-on-male-fertility
#20
Zahra Noorimotlagh, Neemat Jaafarzadeh Haghighi, Mehdi Ahmadimoghadam, Fakher Rahim
Diverse industries like detergents, resins and polymers, hair dyes, intravaginal spermicides, and pesticides produce endocrine disruptor (ED)-containing wastewaters that have hazardous effects on the environment and public health. Nonylphenol (NP) is a chemical substance that consists of a phenolic group and an attached lipophilic linear nonyl chain. NP has weak estrogenic activity and affects estrogen receptor (ER), as well as induces male infertility via a negative impact on spermatogenesis and sperm quality...
November 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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