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fertility and human reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782184/the-growth-of-preantral-follicles-and-the-impact-of-different-supplementations-and-circumstances-a-review-study-with-focus-on-bovine-and-human-preantral-follicles
#1
Zahra Rajabi, Zunair Khokhar, Hossein Yazdekhasti
One of the most important concerns cancer survivors face is fertility. Current treatment modalities often result in damage to the reproductive system. Different options have been proposed to preserve the fertility of affected women, and many attempts have been made to improve their chance of childbearing after therapy. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue and follicles before the onset of cancer treatment and then either transplantation of ovarian tissue or culture of ovarian tissue and individual follicles in vitro is a commonly cited approach...
May 21, 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779926/increased-platelet-factor-4-and-aberrant-permeability-of-follicular-fluid-in-pcos
#2
Chu-Chun Huang, Chia-Hung Chou, Shee-Uan Chen, Hong-Nerng Ho, Yu-Shih Yang, Mei-Jou Chen
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Abnormal folliculogenesis is one of the cardinal presentations of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and permeability of follicular wall has been proposed to be involved in the normal follicular growth. However, whether or not there is a change in intrafollicular permeability underlies PCOS is unknown. METHODS: This was a tertiary center-based case-control study. From 2014 to 2015, thirteen patients with PCOS who underwent in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) were enrolled...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778391/matrix-metalloproteinases-and-their-inhibitors-in-human-cumulus-and-granulosa-cells-as-biomarkers-for-oocyte-quality-estimation
#3
Alice Luddi, Martina Gori, Camilla Marrocco, Angela Capaldo, Valentina Pavone, Laura Bianchi, Letizia Boschi, Giuseppe Morgante, Paola Piomboni, Vincenzo de Leo
OBJECTIVE: To study the molecular profile of metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in granulosa and cumulus cells in a subset of fertile and infertile women. DESIGN: Molecular study with granulosa and cumulus cells. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): Forty-four women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques for female infertility factor, with partners having a normal spermiogram and 15 normally fertile women with male partner affected by severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia or nonobstructive azoospermia...
May 2018: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778389/resveratrol-improves-in-vitro-maturation-of-oocytes-in-aged-mice-and-humans
#4
Mei-Ju Liu, Ai-Gang Sun, Shi-Gang Zhao, Hui Liu, Shui-Ying Ma, Mei Li, Ying-Xue Huai, Han Zhao, Hong-Bin Liu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of resveratrol on oocyte maturation in aged mice and humans. DESIGN: Experimental laboratory study. SETTING: University-based reproductive medicine center. PATIENT(S): A total of 64 women 38-45 years of age undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and 48-52-week-old female C57BL/6J mice. INTERVENTION(S): In vitro culture in the presence of three different concentrations of resveratrol (0...
May 2018: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774504/environmental-toxins-and-male-fertility
#5
REVIEW
Mahmoud Mima, David Greenwald, Samuel Ohlander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Global industrialization has increased population exposure to environmental toxins. A global decline in sperm quality over the last few decades raises questions about the adverse impact of environmental toxins on male reproductive health. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple animal- and human-based studies on exposure to environmental toxins suggest a negative impact on semen quality, in terms of sperm concentration, motility, and/or morphology. These toxins may exert estrogenic and/or anti-androgenic effects, which in turn alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA), induce sperm DNA damage, or cause sperm epigenetic changes...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774260/can-the-uk-s-birth-registration-system-better-serve-the-interests-of-those-born-following-collaborative-assisted-reproduction
#6
Marilyn A Crawshaw, Eric D Blyth, Julia Feast
Current birth registration systems fail to serve adequately the interests of those born as a result of gamete and embryo donation and surrogacy. In the UK, changes to the birth registration system have been piecemeal, reactive and situation-specific and no information is recorded about gamete donors. Birth registration has thereby become a statement of legal parentage and citizenship only, without debate as to whether it should serve any wider functions. This sits uneasily with the increasingly accepted human right to know one's genetic and gestational as well as legal parents, and the duty of the State to facilitate that right...
June 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768248/bisphenol-a-decreases-the-spontaneous-contractions-of-rat-uterus-in-vitro-through-a-nitrergic-mechanism
#7
Hemlata Gupta, Shripad B Deshpande
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical used in the manufacture of plastics, has toxic effects on various systems of the human body including the reproductive system. BPA possesses estrogenic activity and is implicated in altering oogenesis, ovulation, and fertility. In addition to ovulatory changes, uterine contractility is an important factor for fertility. However, the effects of BPA on myometrial contractions are not known. Therefore, we examined the effect of BPA on rat uterine contractions...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764437/caring-for-parents-an-evolutionary-rationale
#8
J Garay, S Számadó, Z Varga, E Szathmáry
BACKGROUND: The evolutionary roots of human moral behavior are a key precondition to understanding human nature. Investigations usually start with a social dilemma and end up with a norm that can provide some insight into the origin of morality. We take the opposite direction by investigating whether the cultural norm that promotes helping parents and which is respected in different variants across cultures and is codified in several religions can spread through Darwinian competition...
May 15, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764212/the-clinical-application-of-single-sperm-based-snp-haplotyping-for-pgd-of-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#9
Linjun Chen, Zhenyu Diao, Zhipeng Xu, Jianjun Zhou, Guijun Yan, Haixiang Sun
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, presenting either autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X-linked inheritance patterns. The majority of OI cases are autosomal dominant and are caused by heterozygous mutations in either the COL1A1 or COL1A2 gene. In these dominant disorders, allele dropout (ADO) can lead to misdiagnosis in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Polymorphic markers linked to the mutated genes have been used to establish haplotypes for identifying ADO and ensuring the accuracy of PGD...
May 15, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751638/zika-virus-trafficking-and-interactions-in-the-human-male-reproductive-tract
#10
REVIEW
Lucia Regina Cangussu da Silva
Sexual transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) is a matter of great concern. Infectious viral particles can be shed in semen for as long as six months after infection and can be transferred to male and female sexual partners during unprotected sexual intercourse. The virus can be found inside spermatozoa and could be directly transferred to the oocyte during fertilization. Sexual transmission of ZIKV can contribute to the rise in number of infected individuals in endemic areas as well as in countries where the mosquito vector does not thrive...
May 11, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750435/signaling-pathways-involved-in-human-sperm-hyperactivated-motility-stimulated-by-zn-2
#11
Deborah Allouche-Fitoussi, Danit Bakhshi, Haim Breitbart
To fertilize the egg, sperm cells must reside in the female reproductive tract for several hours during which they undergo chemical and motility changes collectively called capacitation. During capacitation, the sperm develop a unique type of motility known as hyper-activated motility (HAM). The semen contains Zn2+ in millimolar concentrations, whereas in the female reproductive tract the concentration is around 1 µM. In this study, we characterize the role of Zn2+ in human sperm capacitation focusing on its effect on HAM...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743243/cftr-enac-dependent-regulation-of-membrane-potential-during-human-sperm-capacitation-is-initiated-by-bicarbonate-uptake-through-nbc
#12
Lis C Puga Molina, Nicolas A Pinto, Nicolás I Torres, Ana L Gonzalez-Cota, Guillermina M Luque, Paula A Balestrini, Ana Romarowski, Dario Krapf, Celia M Santi, Claudia L Trevino, Alberto Darszon, Mariano G Buffone
To fertilize an egg, sperm must reside in the female reproductive tract to undergo several maturational changes that are collectively referred to as capacitation. From a molecular point of view, the HCO3--dependent activation of the atypical soluble adenylyl cyclase (ADCY10) is one of the first events that occurs during capacitation and leads to the subsequent cAMP-dependent activation of protein kinase A (PKA). Capacitation is also accompanied by hyperpolarization of the sperm plasma membrane. We previously reported that PKA activation is necessary for CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Channel) activity and for the modulation of membrane potential (Em)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741637/microscopic-analysis-of-sperm-movement-links-to-mechanisms-and-protein-components
#13
Kazuo Inaba, Kogiku Shiba
Cilia and flagella are cell machines that power hydrodynamic forces by fast beating. They are composed of bundles of 9 + 2 microtubules that associate with several protein structures including axonemal dyneins and their regulators. Spermatozoa are single cells with in most cases a single flagellum and are good cell models to study how flagellar movements are regulated and linked to cell behavior. In addition, the assessment of sperm motility is an important diagnostic tool for evaluating male fertility in human reproductive medicine, and in livestock and fisheries sciences...
May 8, 2018: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741247/prenatal-and-preimplantation-diagnosis-of-hemoglobinopathies
#14
REVIEW
C Vrettou, G Kakourou, T Mamas, J Traeger-Synodinos
The hemoglobinopathies, as a group, are one of the most common serious monogenic diseases in the world. An accepted and widely adopted approach to reduce the number of new cases involves carrier-screening programs, with the option of prenatal diagnosis (PND) or preimplantation diagnosis (preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic disease, PGT-M) for carrier couples. The aim of PND is to provide an accurate result as early in pregnancy as possible, which necessitates prior identification of the parental disease-causing mutations, as well as safe and timely biopsy of fetal material...
May 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739653/the-association-between-urinary-concentrations-of-phosphorous-containing-flame-retardant-metabolites-and-semen-parameters-among-men-from-a-fertility-clinic
#15
Mary E Ingle, Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Courtney C Carignan, Craig M Butt, Heather M Stapleton, Paige L Williams, Jennifer B Ford, Russ Hauser, John D Meeker
BACKGROUND: The use of PFRs has steadily increased as brominated compounds have been or are being phased out. Human exposure is widespread and animal studies have shown adverse impacts on male reproduction, but human data are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between urinary concentrations of phosphorous-containing flame retardant (PFR) metabolites and semen parameters. METHODS: A subset of 220 men from an existing longitudinal cohort of couples were recruited from Massachusetts General Hospital fertility clinic between 2005 and 2015...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735702/high-mobility-group-a2-hmga2-deficiency-in-pigs-leads-to-dwarfism-abnormal-fetal-resource-allocation-and-cryptorchidism
#16
Jaewook Chung, Xia Zhang, Bruce Collins, Renan B Sper, Katherine Gleason, Sean Simpson, Sehwon Koh, Jeffrey Sommer, William L Flowers, Robert M Petters, Jorge A Piedrahita
Expression of HMGA2 is strongly associated with body size and growth in mice and humans. In mice, inactivation of one or both alleles of Hmga2 results in body-size reductions of 20% and 60%, respectively. In humans, microdeletions involving the HMGA2 locus result in short stature, suggesting the function of the HMGA2 protein is conserved among mammals. To test this hypothesis, we generated HMGA2-deficient pigs via gene editing and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Examination of growth parameters revealed that HMGA2 -/+ male and female pigs were on average 20% lighter and smaller than HMGA2 +/+ matched controls ( P < 0...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734439/optimization-of-human-semen-extender-components-for-cryopreservation-using-statistical-tools
#17
P M Ramesh, A S Vickram, T B Sridharan, R Parameswari, K Archana, S Nithya, A Mishika
  BACKGROUND: Human sperm cell preservation is an important part of assisted reproductive technology (ART). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to find the essential and significant components in semen preservation extender required to prolong the shelf life of human spermatozoa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By using the statistical tool 'Plackett-Burman design' the significant components present in E4 extender (formulated in our previous study) was determined by reducing the unacceptable large number of trial experiments from the full factorial method...
November 2017: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732159/ultrasound-imaging-improves-hormone-therapy-strategies-for-induction-of-ovulation-and-in-vitro-fertilization-in-the-endangered-dusky-gopher-frog-lithobates-sevosa
#18
Katherine M Graham, Cecilia J Langhorne, Carrie K Vance, Scott T Willard, Andrew J Kouba
Establishing captive breeding populations of amphibians is an important conservation strategy to safeguard against ongoing declines of wild populations and provide broodstock for reintroduction programs. The endangered dusky gopher frog (DGF) has never naturally reproduced in captivity and requires breeding intervention to sustain the population. Methods for inducing ovulation in female DGFs using hormone therapies have not been evaluated. To address this need, we tested four exogenous hormone treatments to induce ovulation in DGFs ( n = 11/treatment), including: treatment (A) gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa); (B) GnRHa with dopamine antagonist metoclopramide hydrochloride; (C) GnRHa and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and (D) GnRHa with hCG following two low hCG priming doses...
2018: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731504/application-of-auxin-inducible-degron-technology-to-mouse-oocyte-activation-with-plc%C3%AE
#19
Kento Miura, Shogo Matoba, Narumi Ogonuki, Takafumi Namiki, Junya Ito, Naomi Kashiwazaki, Atsuo Ogura
In mammals, spermatozoa activate oocytes by triggering a series of intracellular Ca2+ oscillations with phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor. Because the introduction of PLCζ alone can induce oocyte activation, it might be a promising reagent for assisted reproductive technologies. To test this possibility, we injected human PLCζ (hPLCζ) mRNA into mouse oocytes at different concentrations. We observed the oocyte activation and subsequent embryonic development. Efficient oocyte activation and embryonic development to the blastocyst stage was achieved only with a limited range of mRNA concentrations (0...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730035/infant-allocare-in-traditional-societies
#20
Karen L Kramer, Amanda Veile
Across human societies infants receive care from both their mothers and others. Reproductive cooperation raises two important questions: how does allocare benefit mothers and infants, and why do caretakers help mothers when they could spend their time in other, perhaps more valuable ways? We use behavioral and biological data from three small-scale societies to evaluate 1) how allocare affects a nursing mother's time, 2) whether a mother's birth interval length, surviving fertility and infant weight vary as a function of the childcare help that she receives, and 3) the opportunity cost for helpers to spend time caring for children...
May 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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