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fertility and human reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431246/fatty-acids-regulate-germline-sex-determination-through-acs-4-dependent-myristoylation
#1
Hongyun Tang, Min Han
Fat metabolism has been linked to fertility and reproductive adaptation in animals and humans, and environmental sex determination potentially plays a role in the process. To investigate the impact of fatty acids (FA) on sex determination and reproductive development, we examined and observed an impact of FA synthesis and mobilization by lipolysis in somatic tissues on oocyte fate in Caenorhabditis elegans. The subsequent genetic analysis identified ACS-4, an acyl-CoA synthetase and its FA-CoA product, as key germline factors that mediate the role of FA in promoting oocyte fate through protein myristoylation...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429281/impact-of-thyroid-disease-on-testicular-function
#2
REVIEW
Sandro La Vignera, Roberto Vita, Rosita A Condorelli, Laura M Mongioì, Silvia Presti, Salvatore Benvenga, Aldo E Calogero
INTRODUCTION: Testis was considered unresponsive to thyroid hormone for a long time. However, like in animals, the presence of thyroid hormone receptors in different testicular cell types was demonstrated also in humans. Accordingly, thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism have remarkable effects on testicular function and more extensively on fertility. REVIEW: Thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism are associated with changes affecting the endocrine, sexual, or reproductive functions...
April 20, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421497/chapter-13-human-ovarian-tissue-vitrification
#3
Sherman Silber
Ovarian freezing and transplantation has garnered increasing interest as a potential way of preserving fertility in cancer patients as well as for women who just wish to delay childbearing. This chapter spells out our techniques of ovarian cortex vitrification and results for frozen compared to fresh ovarian cortex transplantation (in one single series from one center for the sake of consistency), as well as potentially provides insight into the mechanism behind ovarian follicle recruitment. This represents an effort to simplify and popularize an approach that has yielded favorable results (all cases recovered ovulation and 75% had successful spontaneous pregnancy) in one single, disciplined study...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421492/chapter-8-human-oocytes-slow-rate-freezing-methodology
#4
C Zacà, A Borini
Cryopreservation of human oocytes is an important technique for the treatment of human infertility, as it deals successfully with legal, ethical, and moral issues related to embryo cryopreservation (Coticchio et al., Human Fertil (Camb) 4:152-157, 2001; Tucker et al., Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 113: 524-527, 2004) and maintains reproductive potential in women with diseases or conditions that may compromise reproductive capacity. Here, we describe an oocyte cryopreservation technique involving slow freezing-rapid thawing with differential sucrose concentration (0...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421489/chapter-5-slow-freezing-of-human-sperm
#5
Ashok Agarwal, Eva Tvrda
Cryopreservation of human spermatozoa is a highly efficient procedure for managing male fertility, and much of its successful application seems to have a crucial impact on the reproductive outcome of assisted reproduction technologies. Here, we present, explain, and describe the slow freezing method for preserving human spermatozoa, which is currently the most commonly used freezing technique in most clinical andrology laboratories.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420494/molecular-regulation-and-role-of-angiogenesis-in-reproduction
#6
REVIEW
Momchil Rizov, Petya Andreeva, Ivanka Dimova
Angiogenesis is an essential process for proper functioning of the female reproductive system and for successful pregnancy realization. The multitude of factors required for physiological angiogenesis and the complexity of regulation of their temporal-spatial activities contribute to aberrations in human fertilization and pregnancy outcomes. In this study, we reviewed the current knowledge of the temporal expression patterns, functions, and regulatory mechanisms of angiogenic factors during foliculogenesis, early implantation/placentation and embryo development, as well as recurrent spontaneous abortions...
April 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419839/near-infrared-laser-irradiation-improves-the-development-of-mouse-pre-implantation-embryos
#7
Masaki Yokoo, Miho Mori
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of near-infrared laser irradiation on the in vitro development of mouse embryos. Female ICR mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and mated with male mice. Two-cell stage embryos were collected 40 h after administering hCG and cultured in M16 medium. Two-cell embryos (0 h after culture), 8-cell embryos (approx. 30 h after culture), morula (approx. 48 h after culture), and blastocysts (approx...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418610/localization-patterns-of-the-ganglioside-gm1-in-human-sperm-are-indicative-of-male-fertility-and-independent-of-traditional-semen-measures
#8
Cristina Cardona, Queenie V Neri, Alana J Simpson, Melissa A Moody, G Charles Ostermeier, Eric K Seaman, Theodore Paniza, Zev Rosenwaks, Gianpiero D Palermo, Alexander J Travis
Semen analysis lacks a functional component and best identifies extreme cases of infertility. The ganglioside GM1 is known to have functional roles during capacitation and acrosome exocytosis. Here, we assessed whether GM1 localization patterns (Cap-Score™) correspond with male fertility in different settings: Study 1 involved couples pursuing assisted reproduction in a tertiary care fertility clinic, while Study 2 involved men with known fertility versus those questioning their fertility at a local urology center...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417052/relationship-between-meiotic-spindles-visualization-and-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-outcomes-in-human-oocytes
#9
Elham Asa, Reza Tabatabaee, Ahmad Farrokhi, Reza Nejatbakhsh
In assisted reproductive techniques, the operator attempts to select morphologically best embryos to predict embryo viability. Development of polarized light microscope, which evaluates the oocytes' spindles according to birefringence of living cells, had been helpful in oocyte selection. The aim of this study is evaluating the relationship between meiotic spindles visualization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes in human oocytes. In this study, 264 oocytes from 24 patients with an average age of 30...
March 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414719/crucial-role-of-estrogen-for-the-mammalian-female-in-regulating-semen-coagulation-and-liquefaction-in-vivo
#10
Shuai Li, Marleny Garcia, Rachel L Gewiss, Wipawee Winuthayanon
Semen liquefaction changes semen from a gel-like to watery consistency and is required for sperm to gain mobility and swim to the fertilization site in the Fallopian tubes. Kallikrein-related peptidases 3 (KLK3) and other kallikrein-related peptidases from male prostate glands are responsible for semen liquefaction by cleaving gel-forming proteins (semenogelin and collagen). In a physiological context, the liquefaction process occurs within the female reproductive tract. How seminal proteins interact with the female reproductive environment is still largely unexplored...
April 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411496/exposure-to-environmental-noise-and-risk-for-male-infertility-a%C3%A2-2population-based-cohort-study
#11
Kyoung-Bok Min, Jin-Young Min
BACKGROUND: Noise is associated with poor reproductive health. A number of animal studies have suggested the possible effects of exposure to high noise levels on fertility; to date, a little such research has been performed on humans. OBJECTIVES: We examined an association between daytime and nocturnal noise exposures over four years (2002-2005) and subsequent male infertility. METHODS: We used the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (2002-2013), a population-wide health insurance claims dataset...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410124/wildlife-population-management-are-contraceptive-vaccines-a-feasible-proposition
#12
Satish Kumar Gupta, Vidisha Minhas
To minimize human-animal conflicts for habitation and burden of zoonotic diseases, it is imperative to develop new strategies for wildlife population management. In this direction, contraceptive vaccines eliciting immune response against hormones/proteins critical for reproduction have emerged as one of the promising options. Contraceptive vaccines based on neutralization of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) have been used for inhibition of fertility in various species such as wild horses, white-tailed deer, pigs, cats, dogs etc...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407577/diabetes-associated-with-male-reproductive-system-damages-onset-of-presentation-pathophysiological-mechanisms-and-drug-intervention
#13
REVIEW
Guang-Jiang Shi, Zhi-Mei Li, Jie Zheng, Jian Chen, Xiao-Xu Han, Jing Wu, Guang-Yong Li, Qing Chang, Yu-Xiang Li, Jian-Qiang Yu
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem that affects patients' quality of life quality throughout the world due to its many complications. Reproductive dysfunction is one of the major secondary complications in both diabetic animals and human beings. Furthermore, DM has recently broken the age barrier and has been heavily diagnosed in children and young persons of reproductive age. In the past few years, many studies on DM in male reproductive functions in both diabetic men and experimental diabetic animals have been published...
April 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402555/deregulation-of-the-endometrial-stromal-cell-secretome-precedes-embryo-implantation-failure
#14
Ruban Rex Peter Durairaj, Asma Aberkane, Lukasz Polanski, Yojiro Maruyama, Miriam Baumgarten, Emma S Lucas, Siobhan Quenby, Jerry K Y Chan, Nick Raine-Fenning, Jan J Brosens, Hilde Van de Velde, Yie Hou Lee
STUDY QUESTION: Is implantation failure following ART associated with a perturbed decidual response in endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Dynamic changes in the secretome of decidualizing EnSCs underpin the transition of a hostile to a supportive endometrial microenvironment for embryo implantation; perturbation in this transitional pathway prior to ART is associated with implantation failure. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Implantation is the rate-limiting step in ART, although the contribution of an aberrant endometrial microenvironment in IVF failure remains ill defined...
April 10, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402417/grandmaternal-smoke-exposure-reduces-female-fertility-in-a-murine-model-with-great-grandmaternal-smoke-exposure-unlikely-to-have-an-effect
#15
N J Camlin, A G Jarnicki, R L Vanders, K A Walters, P M Hansbro, E A McLaughlin, J E Holt
STUDY QUESTION: What effect does multigenerational (F2) and transgenerational (F3) cigarette smoke exposure have on female fertility in mice? SUMMARY ANSWER: Cigarette smoking has a multigenerational effect on female fertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: It has been well established that cigarette smoking decreases female fertility. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence suggests that smoking during pregnancy decreases the fertility of daughters and increases cancer and asthma incidence in grandchildren and great-grandchildren...
April 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395326/signaling-mechanisms-in-mammalian-sperm-motility%C3%A2
#16
Maria João Freitas, Srinivasan Vijayaraghavan, Margarida Fardilha
The goal of sperm is to fertilize the oocyte. To achieve that purpose, it must acquire motility in the epididymis and hyperactivated motility in the female reproductive tract. Motility is only achieved when the sperm presents a fully functional flagellum, is capable of producing energy to fuel the movement, and suffers epididymal maturation and capacitation. Since sperm is a transcriptionally silent cell, motility depends on the activation and/or inhibitions of key signaling pathways. This review describes and discusses the main signaling pathways involved in primary and hyperactivated motility, as well as the bioenergetic mechanisms necessary to produce energy to fuel sperm motility...
January 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392401/toxicoanthropology-phthalate-exposure-in-relation-to-market-access-in-a-remote-forager-horticulturalist-population
#17
Marissa Sobolewski, Bernard Weiss, Melanie Martin, Michael Gurven, Emily Barrett
Phthalates are a class of plasticizing chemicals produced in high volume and widely found in consumer products. Evidence suggests that phthalates may have non-monotonic effects on reproductive hormone activity. With exposure to phthalates virtually ubiquitous among industrialized populations, identifying unexposed and/or minimally exposed human populations is essential for understanding the effects of low level exposures. Our primary objective was to quantify urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in the Tsimane', a remote population of Bolivian forager-horticulturalists...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390288/automatic-classification-of-human-sperm-head-morphology
#18
Violeta Chang, Laurent Heutte, Caroline Petitjean, Steffen Härtel, Nancy Hitschfeld
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Infertility is a problem that affects up to 15% of couples worldwide with emotional and physiological implications and semen analysis is the first step in the evaluation of an infertile couple. Indeed the morphology of human sperm cells is considered to be a clinical tool dedicated to the fertility prognosis and serves, mainly, for making decisions regarding the options of assisted reproduction technologies. Therefore, a complete analysis of not only normal sperm but also abnormal sperm turns out to be critical in this context...
April 2, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389751/heat-shock-protein-a2-hspa2-regulatory-roles-in-germ-cell-development-and-sperm-function
#19
Brett Nixon, Elizabeth G Bromfield, Jinwei Cui, Geoffry N De Iuliis
Among the numerous families of heat shock protein (HSP) that have been implicated in the regulation of reproductive system development and function, those belonging to the 70 kDa HSP family have emerged as being indispensable for male fertility. In particular, the testis-enriched heat shock 70 kDa protein 2 (HSPA2) has been shown to be critical for the progression of germ cell differentiation during spermatogenesis in the mouse model. Beyond this developmentally important window, mounting evidence has also implicated HSPA2 in the functional transformation of the human sperm cell during their ascent of the female reproductive tract...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389520/oocyte-stem-cells-fact-or-fantasy
#20
Corrina J Horan, Suzannah Alice Williams
For many decades, the dogma prevailed that female mammals had a finite pool of oocytes at birth and this was gradually exhausted during a lifetime of reproductive function. However, in 2004, a new era began in the field of female oogenesis. A study was published that appeared to detect oocyte-stem cells capable of generating new eggs within mouse ovaries. This study was highly controversial and the years since this initial finding have produced extensive research and even more extensive debate into their possibility...
April 7, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
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