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fertility and human reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816268/-expression-and-localization-of-transmembrane-protein-cmtm2-in-human-testis-and-sperm
#1
X W Zhang, K Lan, W B Yang, Q Li, Y P Zhao, H Q Yin, B Kite, W J Bai, T Xu
OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of transmembrane protein CMTM2 in the testis and sperm of adult males and to approach the potential function of the protein in the male reproductive system. METHODS: The expression of CMTM2 in human testis and sperm was confirmed by Western blot. Immunohistochemical staining was used for detecting CMTM2 localization in the testis tissue, TRITC-CMTM2 and FITC-Hoechst double immunofluorescence staining was performed to examine the subcellular localization of CMTM2 in the human sperm before and after acrosome reaction, that is, immunofluorescent staining was used for detecting CMTM2 localization in both the testis and sperm before and after the acrosome reaction...
August 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811221/is-the-hype-around-the-reproductive-health-claims-of-maca-lepidium-meyenii-walp-justified
#2
REVIEW
Shruti Beharry, Michael Heinrich
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Maca - Lepidium meyenii Walp has been cultivated and used by Andean people for over 1,300 to 2000 years in Peru as food and medicine. Starting in the late 1990's it has developed into an important herbal medicine in China and is now cultivated there widely, too. AIM OF STUDY: This study aims to provide an insight into the emergence of maca on the global market as an alternative remedy to treat reproductive health related problems in both men and women and to critically assess these health claims...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810198/phthalate-metabolites-related-to-infertile-biomarkers-and-infertility-in-chinese-men
#3
Liangpo Liu, Heng Wang, Meiping Tian, Jie Zhang, Parinya Panuwet, Priya Esilda D'Souza, Dana Boyd Barr, Qingyu Huang, Yankai Xia, Heqing Shen
Although in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies have demonstrated androgen and anti-androgen effects on male reproduction from phthalate exposures, human studies still remain inconsistent. Therefore, a case-control study (n = 289) was conducted to evaluate the associations between phthalate exposures, male infertility risks, and changes in metabolomic biomarkers. Regional participants consisted of fertile (n = 150) and infertile (n = 139) males were recruited from Nanjing Medical University' affiliated hospitals...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799634/effectiveness-of-highly-purified-urofollitropin-treatment-in-patients-with-idiopathic-azoospermia-before-testicular-sperm-extraction
#4
Andrea Cocci, Gianmartin Cito, Giorgio I Russo, Marco Falcone, Marco Capece, Massimiliano Timpano, Pier Andrea Della Camera, Simone Morselli, Giovanni Tasso, Girolamo Morelli, Giuseppe Morgia, Andrea Minervini, Sergio Serni, Marco Carini, Alessandro Natali, Mauro Gacci
INTRODUCTION: Recent evidences demonstrated that male factor alone is responsible for about 30% cases of infertility. Human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH) has been introduced to increase sperm concentration, spermatogonial population, or both natural or assisted pregnancy rates (PRs) in oligozoospermic subjects with normal concentrations of gonadotropins. METHODS: Fifty infertile men affected by idiopathic azoospermia were enrolled in this study, after undergoing medical history, physical and clinical examination, baseline semen parameters and hormonal plasma concentrations...
August 7, 2017: Urologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795044/n-glycoproteomic-analysis-of-human-follicular-fluid-during-natural-and-stimulated-cycles-in-patients-undergoing-in-vitro-fertilization
#5
Hee-Joung Lim, Ae Eun Seok, Jiyou Han, Jiyeong Lee, Sungeun Lee, Hee-Gyoo Kang, Byung Heun Cha, Yunseok Yang
OBJECTIVE: Hyperstimulation methods are broadly used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) in patients with infertility; however, the side effects associated with these therapies, such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), have not been well studied. N-glycoproteomes are subproteomes used for the remote sensing of ovarian stimulation in follicular growth. Glycoproteomic variation in human follicular fluid (hFF) has not been evaluated. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the glycoproteomes and N-glycoproteins (N-GPs) in natural and stimulated hFF using label-free nano-liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-quad time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
June 2017: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794429/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-genetic-influence-on-human-childlessness
#6
Renske M Verweij, Melinda C Mills, Felix C Tropf, René Veenstra, Anastasia Nyman, Harold Snieder
Previous research has found a genetic component of human reproduction and childlessness. Others have argued that the heritability of reproduction is counterintuitive due to a frequent misinterpretation that additive genetic variance in reproductive fitness should be close to zero. Yet it is plausible that different genetic loci operate in male and female fertility in the form of sexual dimorphism and that these genes are passed on to the next generation. This study examines the extent to which genetic factors influence childlessness and provides an empirical test of genetic sexual dimorphism...
September 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792413/human-reproduction-and-health-an-evolutionary-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Grazyna Jasienska, Richard G Bribiescas, Anne-Sofie Furberg, Samuli Helle, Alejandra Núñez-de la Mora
According to life history theory, increased investment in reproductive function (physiology and behaviour) at different times throughout the life course affects the risk of many diseases and, ultimately, longevity. Although genetic factors contribute to interindividual and interpopulation variation in reproductive traits, the dominant source of variability is phenotypic plasticity during development and adult life. Reproductive traits in both sexes evolved sensitivity to ecological conditions, as reflected in contemporary associations of hormone concentrations with geographical setting, nutritional status, and physical activity level...
July 29, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792412/evolutionary-public-health-introducing-the-concept
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan C K Wells, Randolph M Nesse, Rebecca Sear, Rufus A Johnstone, Stephen C Stearns
The emerging discipline of evolutionary medicine is breaking new ground in understanding why people become ill. However, the value of evolutionary analyses of human physiology and behaviour is only beginning to be recognised in the field of public health. Core principles come from life history theory, which analyses the allocation of finite amounts of energy between four competing functions-maintenance, growth, reproduction, and defence. A central tenet of evolutionary theory is that organisms are selected to allocate energy and time to maximise reproductive success, rather than health or longevity...
July 29, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774687/the-environment-and-male-reproduction-the-effect-of-cadmium-exposure-on-reproductive-system-and-semen-quality-and-its-implication-in-fertility
#9
REVIEW
Cristina de Angelis, Mariano Galdiero, Claudia Pivonello, Ciro Salzano, Daniele Gianfrilli, Prisco Piscitelli, Andrea Lenzi, Annamaria Colao, Rosario Pivonello
Cadmium is an environmental pollutant known as endocrine disruptor. Testis is particularly susceptible to cadmium, and testis injury occurs at high but even low levels of exposure. Cadmium reproductive toxicity is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including structural damage to testis vasculature and blood-testis barrier, inflammation, cytotoxicity on Sertoli and Leydig cells, oxidative stress, apoptosis, epigenetic actions, and disturbance of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. The current review outlines epidemiological observational findings from environmental and occupational exposure in humans, and reports experimental studies in humans and animals...
July 31, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764714/testis-specific-histone-2b-is-associated-with-sperm-chromatin-dynamics-and-bull-fertility-a-pilot-study
#10
Naseer A Kutchy, Ana Velho, Erika S B Menezes, Marie Jacobsen, Giselle Thibaudeau, Robert W Wills, Arlindo Moura, Abdullah Kaya, Andy Perkins, Erdogan Memili
BACKGROUND: Bull fertility is the degree of sperm's ability to fertilize and activate the egg and support embryo development, and this is critical for herd reproductive performance. We used the bull as a unique model organism for the study of male fertility because cattle genetics and physiology is similar to those of other mammals including humans. Moreover, reliable fertility data along with well-established in vitro systems are available for bovine. The objective of this original study was to ascertain evolutionary diversification and expression dynamics of Testis Specific Histone 2B (TH2B) in sperm from Holstein bulls with different fertility scores...
August 1, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760768/evolution-of-male-strategies-with-sex-ratio-dependent-pay-offs-connecting-pair-bonds-with-grandmothering
#11
Sara L Loo, Kristen Hawkes, Peter S Kim
Men's provisioning of mates and offspring has been central to ideas about human evolution because paternal provisioning is absent in our closest evolutionary cousins, the great apes, and is widely assumed to result in pair bonding, which distinguishes us from them. Yet mathematical modelling has shown that paternal care does not readily spread in populations where competition for multiple mates is the common male strategy. Here we add to models that point to the mating sex ratio as an explanation for pairing as pay-offs to mate guarding rise with a male-biased sex ratio...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760760/the-potential-pitfalls-of-studying-adult-sex-ratios-at-aggregate-levels-in-humans
#12
REVIEW
Thomas V Pollet, Andrea H Stoevenbelt, Toon Kuppens
Human adult sex ratios have been studied extensively across the biological and social sciences. While several studies have examined adult sex ratio effects in a multilevel perspective, many studies have focused on effects at an aggregated level only. In this paper, we review some key issues relating to such analyses. We address not only nation-level analyses, but also aggregation at lower levels, to investigate whether these issues extend to lower levels of aggregation. We illustrate these issues with novel databases covering a broad range of variables...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760757/causes-and-consequences-of-adult-sex-ratio-imbalance-in-a-historical-u-s-population
#13
Ryan Schacht, Ken R Smith
The responsiveness of individuals to partner availability has been well-documented across the literature. However, there is disagreement regarding the direction of the consequences of sex ratio imbalance. Specifically, does an excess of males or females promote male-male mating competition? In an attempt to clarify the role of the adult sex ratio (ASR) on behaviour, here we evaluate both competing and complimentary expectations derived from theory across the social and biological sciences. We use data drawn from a historical, nineteenth century population in North America and target several life-history traits thought to be affected by partner availability: age at first birth, relationship status, completed fertility and longevity...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760755/not-all-sex-ratios-are-equal-the-fisher-condition-parental-care-and-sexual-selection
#14
REVIEW
Michael D Jennions, Lutz Fromhage
The term 'sex roles' encapsulates male-female differences in mate searching, competitive traits that increase mating/fertilization opportunities, choosiness about mates and parental care. Theoretical models suggest that biased sex ratios drive the evolution of sex roles. To model sex role evolution, it is essential to note that in most sexually reproducing species (haplodiploid insects are an exception), each offspring has one father and one mother. Consequently, the total number of offspring produced by each sex is identical, so the mean number of offspring produced by individuals of each sex depends on the sex ratio (Fisher condition)...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760233/biochemical-and-imaging-diagnostics-in-endocrinology-predictors-of-fertility
#15
REVIEW
Erica B Mahany, John F Randolph
One of the limiting factors of fertility testing is the relative inefficiency of human reproduction. A careful history and physical examination must be performed on each patient to inform the particular diagnostic tests that are chosen and to create a meaningful treatment plan. Testing parameters, such as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value, can help to interpret test results, although there is no perfect screening test for the various causes of infertility. This article describes the 4 major categories of testing for infertility: ovarian reserve, ovulatory status, gamete transport, and male factor...
September 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758506/exposure-to-modern-widespread-environmental-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-their-effect-on-the-reproductive-potential-of-women-an-overview-of-current-epidemiological-evidence
#16
Anetta Karwacka, Dorota Zamkowska, Michał Radwan, Joanna Jurewicz
Growing evidence indicates that exposure to widespread, environmental contaminants called endocrine disruptors (EDCs) negatively affects animal and human reproductive health and has been linked to several diseases including infertility. This review aims to evaluate the impact of environmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals [phthalates, parabens, triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA), organochlorine (PCBs) and perfluorinated (PFCs) compounds] on the reproductive potential among women, by reviewing most recently published literature...
July 31, 2017: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754630/reproductive-and-developmental-toxicology-studies-with-gantenerumab-in-ps2app-transgenic-mice
#17
Paul Barrow, Loris Villabruna, Alan Hoberman, Bernd Bohrmann, Wolfgang F Richter, Christine Schubert
Gantenerumab is intended for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. It is a fully human recombinant monoclonal IgG1 which binds aggregated forms of amyloid beta such as Aβ oligomers, fibrils and neuritic amyloid plaques. A full package of developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART) studies was performed in the PS2APP double-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. A combined fertility and embryo fetal development study and a pre-and post-natal development study were performed. The PS2APP mouse model allowed a more complete DART evaluation than would have been possible in conventional species or strains which do not express the target antigen of gantenerumab...
July 25, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754128/does-air-pollution-play-a-role-in-infertility-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Julie Carré, Nicolas Gatimel, Jessika Moreau, Jean Parinaud, Roger Léandri
BACKGROUND: Air pollution is involved in many pathologies. These pollutants act through several mechanisms that can affect numerous physiological functions, including reproduction: as endocrine disruptors or reactive oxygen species inducers, and through the formation of DNA adducts and/or epigenetic modifications. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature on the impact of air pollution on reproductive function. Eligible studies were selected from an electronic literature search from the PUBMED database from January 2000 to February 2016 and associated references in published studies...
July 28, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750635/proteomic-analysis-of-human-follicular-fluid-associated-with-successful-in-vitro-fertilization
#19
Xiaofang Shen, Xin Liu, Peng Zhu, Yuhua Zhang, Jiahui Wang, Yanwei Wang, Wenting Wang, Juan Liu, Ning Li, Fujun Liu
BACKGROUND: Human follicular fluid (HFF) provides a key environment for follicle development and oocyte maturation, and contributes to oocyte quality and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. METHODS: To better understand folliculogenesis in the ovary, a proteomic strategy based on dual reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MALDI TOF/TOF MS) was used to investigate the protein profile of HFF from women undergoing successful IVF...
July 27, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746835/genetic-ataxia-telangiectasia-porcine-model-phenocopies-the-multisystemic-features-of-the-human-disease
#20
Rosanna Beraldi, David K Meyerholz, Alexei Savinov, Attila D Kovács, Jill M Weimer, Jordan A Dykstra, Ryan D Geraets, David A Pearce
Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a progressive multisystem autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the AT-mutated (ATM) gene. Early onset AT in children is characterized by cerebellar degeneration, leading to motor impairment. Lung disease and cancer are the two most common causes of death in AT patients. Accelerated thymic involution may contribute to the cancer, and recurrent and/or chronic respiratory infections may be a contributing factor to lung disease in AT. AT patients have fertility issues, are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation and they present oculocutaneous telangiectasia...
July 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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