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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340252/positive-selection-on-human-gamete-recognition-genes
#1
Michael W Hart, Daryn A Stover, Vanessa Guerra, Sahar V Mozaffari, Carole Ober, Carina F Mugal, Ingemar Kaj
Coevolution of genes that encode interacting proteins expressed on the surfaces of sperm and eggs can lead to variation in reproductive compatibility between mates and reproductive isolation between members of different species. Previous studies in mice and other mammals have focused in particular on evidence for positive or diversifying selection that shapes the evolution of genes that encode sperm-binding proteins expressed in the egg coat or zona pellucida (ZP). By fitting phylogenetic models of codon evolution to data from the 1000 Genomes Project, we identified candidate sites evolving under diversifying selection in the human genes ZP3 and ZP2...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334961/smoke-alcohol-and-drug-addiction-and-male-fertility
#2
REVIEW
Andrea Sansone, Carla Di Dato, Cristina de Angelis, Davide Menafra, Carlotta Pozza, Rosario Pivonello, Andrea Isidori, Daniele Gianfrilli
In recent decades, the decline in human fertility has become increasingly more worrying: while therapeutic interventions might help, they are vexing for the couple and often burdened with high failure rates and costs. Prevention is the most successful approach to fertility disorders in males and females alike. We performed a literature review on three of the most common unhealthy habits - tobacco, alcohol and drug addiction - and their reported effects on male fertility. Tobacco smoking is remarkably common in most first-world countries; despite a progressive decline in the US, recent reports suggest a prevalence of more than 30% in subjects of reproductive age - a disturbing perspective, given the well-known ill-effects on reproductive and sexual function as well as general health...
January 15, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315421/development-of-a-new-comprehensive-and-reliable-endometrial-receptivity-map-er-map-er-grade-based-on-rt-qpcr-gene-expression-analysis
#3
M Enciso, J P Carrascosa, J Sarasa, P A Martínez-Ortiz, S Munné, J A Horcajadas, J Aizpurua
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to determine the receptivity status of an endometrium by combined quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) expression analysis of genes involved in endometrial proliferation and immunity? SUMMARY ANSWER: The new ER Map®/ER Grade® test can predict endometrial receptivity status by RT-qPCR using a new panel of genes involved in endometrial proliferation and the maternal immune response associated to embryonic implantation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The human endometrium reaches a receptive status adequate for embryonic implantation around Days 19-21 of the menstrual cycle...
January 5, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309889/matrix-metalloproteinase-and-tissue-inhibitors-of-metalloproteinases-gene-polymorphisms-in-disorders-that-influence-fertility-and-pregnancy-complications-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Anita Barišić, Sanja Dević Pavlić, Saša Ostojić, Nina Pereza
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP) gene polymorphisms have been extensively evaluated as predisposing factors to human reproductive disorders. However, the evidence available is inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide the first comprehensive synopsis of case-control studies that investigated the association of MMP and TIMP gene polymorphisms with disorders that influence fertility and pregnancy complications. Literature search was performed using PubMed and Scopus databases...
January 5, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308624/the-effects-of-in-vitro-maturation-technique-on-the-expression-of-genes-involved-in-embryonic-genome-activation-of-human-embryos
#5
Parvin Dorfeshan, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Mohammad Salehi, Reza Masteri Farahani, Fatemeh Fadaei-Fathabadi, Ronak Sehatti
OBJECTIVES: In vitro maturation technique (IVM) is shown to have an effect on full maturation of immature oocytes and the subsequent embryo development. Embryonic genome activation (EGA) is considered as a crucial and the first process after fertilization. EGA failure leads to embryo arrest and possible implantation failure. This study aimed to determine the role of IVM in EGA-related genes expression in human embryo originated from immature oocytes and recovered from women receiving gonadotrophin treatment for assisted reproduction...
April 2018: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305399/edc-impact-is-exposure-during-pregnancy-to-acetaminophen-paracetamol-disrupting-female-reproductive-development
#6
Frederic Schrøder Arendrup, Séverine Mazaud-Guittot, Bernard Jégou, David Møbjerg Kristensen
Concern has been raised over chemical induced disruption of ovarigenesis during fetal life resulting in long-lasting consequences only manifesting themselves much later during adulthood. A growing body of evidence suggest that prenatal exposure to the mild analgesic acetaminophen/paracetamol can cause such a scenario. In this Review, we therefore discuss three recent reports that collectively indicating that prenatal exposure in a window around 13.5 days post coitum in both rats and mouse can result in reduced female reproductive health...
January 5, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304248/viable-acrosome-intact-human-spermatozoa-in-the-ejaculate-as-a-marker-of-semen-quality-and-fertility-status
#7
Dorte Louise Egeberg Palme, Anders Rehfeld, Anne Kirstine Bang, Kristiana Alexandrova Nikolova, Søren Kjærulff, Morten Rønn Petersen, Janni Vikkelsø Jeppesen, Martin Glensbjerg, Anders Juul, Niels E Skakkebæk, Søren Ziebe, Niels Jørgensen, Kristian Almstrup
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible, in an unbiased and clinical relevant way, to determine the number of viable acrosome-intact human spermatozoa in ejaculates and to use this as a measure of fertility chances? SUMMARY ANSWER: Image cytometry enables easy and unbiased quantification of viable acrosome-intact spermatozoa and it correlates with semen quality and fertility status. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The presence of the acrosome and its ability to respond to physiological inducers (e...
January 2, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300862/reproductive-alterations-in-chronically-exposed-female-mice-to-environmentally-relevant-doses-of-a-mixture-of-phthalates-and-alkylphenols
#8
Daniel Patiño-García, Leonor Cruz-Fernandes, Julio Buñay, Jaime Palomino, Ricardo D Moreno
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds that modify hormone biosynthesis, causing adverse effects to human health. Among them, phthalates, and alkylphenols are important due to their wide use in plastics, detergents, personal care products, cosmetics and food packaging. However, their conjoint effects over reproductive female health have not been addressed. The aim of this work was to test the effect of chronically exposed female mice to a mixture of three phthalates [bis (2-ethylhexyl), dibutyl and benzyl butyl] and two alkylphenols [4-nonylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol], from conception to adulthood at environmentally relevant doses...
December 28, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295655/-not-tonight-zebrafish-the-effects-of-ruta-graveolens-on-reproduction
#9
Mohammad Navid Forsatkar, Maryam HedayatiRad, Ana Carolina Luchiari
CONTEXT: There is growing interest in the pharmacological evaluation of Rue due to its potential to treat a variety of clinical diseases. The plant seems to present potent endocrine disrupting effects, and its excretion and disposal are not a concern. OBJECTIVE: The effects of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) ethanol extract (RE) on reproductive behaviour, fertility, and steroid and thyroid hormone levels in zebrafish were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We exposed subjects to varying concentrations of RE, and one-tenth the LC50 concentration (2...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287896/mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-mitotempo-improves-the-post-thaw-sperm-quality
#10
Xilan Lu, Yingchun Zhang, Hongwei Bai, Jingjing Liu, Juntao Li, Bin Wu
Human spermatozoa cryopreservation is an important means of assisted reproductive technology and male fertility preservation. Although this technique is particularly useful, sperm cryopreservation significantly reduces the quality of spermatozoa after freezing and thawing. The objective of the study is to examine the efficacy of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTEMPO in improving sperm quality during semen cryopreservation processes. Semen samples were collected and cryopreserved in extenders containing different concentrations (0...
December 26, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281099/pretty-good-or-pretty-bad-the-ovary-and-chemicals-in-personal-care-products
#11
Zelieann R Craig, Ayelet Ziv-Gal
Personal care products (PCP) contain a myriad of chemicals generally formulated to provide a safe and beneficial use. Nonetheless, an increasing amount of laboratory animal and human studies indicate that some chemicals in PCP are associated with decreased hormone production, diminished ovarian reserve, ovarian cancer, and early pregnancy loss. The ovary is key to female fertility by providing the eggs and sex steroid hormones for fertilization and maintenance of reproductive function, respectively. Thus, understanding how chemicals in PCP affect the ovary will shed some light on their potential effects on female fertility...
December 21, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280134/a-retrospective-pilot-study-to-determine-whether-the-reproductive-tract-microbiota-differs-between-women-with-a-history-of-infertility-and-fertile-women
#12
Bryan A Wee, Mark Thomas, Emma Louise Sweeney, Francesca D Frentiu, Melanie Samios, Jacques Ravel, Pawel Gajer, Garry Myers, Peter Timms, John A Allan, Wilhelmina M Huston
BACKGROUND: We know very little about the microbiota inhabiting the upper female reproductive tract and how it impacts on fertility. AIMS: This pilot study aimed to examine the vaginal, cervical and endometrial microbiota for women with a history of infertility compared to women with a history of fertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a retrospective case-control study design, women were recruited for collection of vaginal, cervical and endometrial samples...
December 26, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277366/role-of-withania-somnifera-ashwagandha-in-the-management-of-male-infertility
#13
REVIEW
Pallav Sengupta, Ashok Agarwal, Maria Pogrebetskaya, Shubhadeep Roychoudhury, Damayanthi Durairajanayagam, Ralf Henkel
To manage male infertility caused by hormonal imbalance, infections and other predicaments, multifarious treatment strategies are emerging worldwide. Contemporary treatments, such as assisted reproductive techniques, are costly with low success rates of only 10-30%; however, herbal remedies are gaining more attention as an alternative or supplementary therapeutic modality for male infertility. The beneficial effects induced by oral intake of the roots of a small evergreen shrub, Withania sominifera (Ashwagandha) on semen quality of infertile men have previously been studied...
December 7, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262380/vitamin-d-effects-on-human-reproduction-pregnancy-and-fetal-well-being
#14
REVIEW
E L Heyden, S J Wimalawansa
Pregnancy places exceptional demands on vitamin D and calcium availability; thus, their deficiencies during pregnancy threaten the woman and her fetus. Globally, vitamin D and other micronutrient deficiencies are common during pregnancy, especially in developing countries where pregnant women have less access to supplements. Vitamin D deficiency has been reported to be as high as 40% among pregnant women. As a pregnancy progresses, the requirements for vitamin D increase and can worsen preexisting hypovitaminosis D...
December 17, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260004/comparative-genomics-identifies-male-accessory-gland-proteins-in-five-glossina-species
#15
Muna F Abry, Kelvin M Kimenyi, Daniel Masiga, Benard W Kulohoma
Accessory gland proteins (ACPs) are important reproductive proteins produced by the male accessory glands (MAGs) of most insect species. These proteins are essential for male insect fertility, and are transferred alongside semen to females during copulation. ACPs are poorly characterized in Glossina species (tsetse fly), the principal vector of the parasite that causes life-threatening Human African Trypanosomiasis and Animal trypanosomiasis in endemic regions in Africa. The tsetse fly has a peculiar reproductive cycle because of the absence of oviposition...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259465/is-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-supplementation-beneficial-for-frozen-and-thawed-embryo-transfer-in-estrogen-progesterone-replacement-cycles-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Masahide Shiotani, Yukiko Matsumoto, Eri Okamoto, Satoshi Yamada, Yuri Mizusawa, Kohyu Furuhashi, Hiromi Ogata, Seiji Ogata, Shoji Kokeguchi
Aim: Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is used frequently for luteal support in fresh in vitro fertilization cycles as it induces progesterone secretion from the ovaries after oocyte retrieval and modulates the endometrium for implantation in fresh cycles. In contrast, hCG is not usually used for the transfer of cryopreserved-thawed embryos in estrogen/progesterone replacement cycles because ovulation is suppressed. However, several studies have shown that luteinizing hormone and hCG receptors are present in the human endometrium and that hCG can directly induce the decidualization of endometrial stromal cells in vitro...
April 2017: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250030/cytokines-in-male-fertility-and-reproductive-pathologies-immunoregulation-and-beyond
#17
REVIEW
Kate L Loveland, Britta Klein, Dana Pueschl, Sivanjah Indumathy, Martin Bergmann, Bruce E Loveland, Mark P Hedger, Hans-Christian Schuppe
Germline development in vivo is dependent on the environment formed by somatic cells and the differentiation cues they provide; hence, the impact of local factors is highly relevant to the production of sperm. Knowledge of how somatic and germline cells interact is central to achieving biomedical goals relating to restoring, preserving or restricting fertility in humans. This review discusses the growing understanding of how cytokines contribute to testicular function and maintenance of male reproductive health, and to the pathologies associated with their abnormal activity in this organ...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244163/regulation-of-chromosome-segregation-in-oocytes-and-the-cellular-basis-for-female-meiotic-errors
#18
Jessica Greaney, Zhe Wei, Hayden Homer
BACKGROUND: Meiotic chromosome segregation in human oocytes is notoriously error-prone, especially with ageing. Such errors markedly reduce the reproductive chances of increasing numbers of women embarking on pregnancy later in life. However, understanding the basis for these errors is hampered by limited access to human oocytes. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Important new discoveries have arisen from molecular analyses of human female recombination and aneuploidy along with high-resolution analyses of human oocyte maturation and mouse models...
December 13, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243140/mutational-analysis-of-izumo1r-in-women-with-fertilization-failure-and-polyspermy-after-in-vitro-fertilization
#19
Mengru Yu, Han Zhao, Tailai Chen, Ye Tian, Mei Li, Keliang Wu, Yuehong Bian, Shizhen Su, Yongzhi Cao, Yunna Ning, Hongbin Liu, Zi-Jiang Chen
PURPOSE: The etiology of fertilization failure and polyspermy during assisted reproductive technology (ART) remains elusive. The aim of this study was to determine whether mutations in the IZUMO1 receptor (IZUMO1R) gene, which is essential for mammalian fertilization, contribute to the pathogenesis of fertilization failure or polyspermy in humans. METHODS: We recruited 215 female subjects with fertilization failure/poor fertilization, 330 females with polyspermy, and 300 matched controls...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241080/paternal-urinary-concentrations-of-organophosphate-flame-retardant-metabolites-fertility-measures-and-pregnancy-outcomes-among-couples-undergoing-in-vitro-fertilization
#20
Courtney C Carignan, Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Paige L Williams, John D Meeker, Heather M Stapleton, Craig M Butt, Thomas L Toth, Jennifer B Ford, Russ Hauser
BACKGROUND: Use of organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) has increased over the past decade following the phase out of some brominated flame retardants, leading to increased human exposure. We recently reported that increasing maternal PFR exposure is associated with poorer pregnancy outcomes among women from a fertility clinic. Because a small epidemiologic study previously reported an inverse association between male PFR exposures and sperm motility, we sought to examine associations of paternal urinary concentrations of PFR metabolites and their partner's pregnancy outcomes...
December 11, 2017: Environment International
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