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fertility and human reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329872/doxorubicin-has-dose-dependent-toxicity-on-mouse-ovarian-follicle-development-hormone-secretion-and-oocyte-maturation
#1
Shuo Xiao, Jiyang Zhang, Mingjun Liu, Hideyuki Iwahata, Hunter B Rogers, Teresa K Woodruff
Doxorubicin (DOX), one of the most commonly used anticancer medications, has been reported to affect fertility by damaging ovarian follicles; however, the dose-dependent toxicity of DOX on the dynamic follicle development and oocyte maturation has not been well-defined. Our objective is to determine the effects of human-relevant exposure levels of DOX on follicular functions across developmental time. In vitro cultured multilayered secondary mouse follicles were treated with DOX at 0, 2, 20, 100, and 200 nM for 24 hours, and follicle development, hormone secretion, and oocyte maturation were analyzed...
March 17, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324667/gtpase-activating-protein-elmod2-is-essential-for-meiotic-progression-in-mouse-oocytes
#2
Chun-Xiang Zhou, Li-Ya Shi, Rui-Chao Li, Ya-Hong Liu, Bo-Qun Xu, Jin-Wei Liu, Bo Yuan, Zhi-Xia Yang, Xiao-Yan Ying, Dong Zhang
Meiotic failure in oocytes is the major determinant of human zygote-originated reproductive diseases, the successful accomplishment of meiosis largely relay on the normal functions of many female fertility factors. Elmod2 is a member of the Elmod family with the strongest GAP (GTPase-activating protein) activity; although it was identified as a possible maternal protein, its actual physiologic role in mammalian oocytes has not been elucidated. Herein we reported that among Elmod family proteins, Elmod2 is the most abundant in mouse oocytes, and that inhibition of Elmod2 by specific siRNA caused severe meiotic delay and abnormal chromosomal segregation during anaphase...
March 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323984/trimester-specific-urinary-bisphenol-a-concentrations-and-blood-glucose-levels-among-pregnant-women-from-a-fertility-clinic
#3
Yu-Han Chiu, Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Jennifer B Ford, Myra Keller, Ellen W Seely, Carmen Messerlian, John Petrozza, Paige L Williams, Xiaoyun Ye, Antonia M Calafat, Russ Hauser, Tamarra James-Todd
Context: Women with a history of infertility are at increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Studies suggest higher urinary bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations are associated with diabetes in non-pregnant populations, but the association between BPA and glucose levels among pregnant women is unclear. Objective: To assess trimester-specific urinary BPA concentrations in relation to blood glucose levels among subfertile women. Design: Environment and Reproductive Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315713/maternal-senp7-programs-meiosis-architecture-and-embryo-survival-in-mouse
#4
ChunJie Huang, Di Wu, XiaoFei Jiao, Faheem Ahmed Khan, ChengLiang Xiong, XiaoMing Liu, Jing Yang, TaiLang Yin, LiJun Huo
Understanding the mechanisms underlying abnormal egg production and pregnancy loss is significant for human fertility. SENP7, a SUMO poly-chain editing enzyme, has been regarded as a mitotic regulator of heterochromatin integrity and DNA repair. Herein, we report the roles of SENP7 in mammalian reproductive scenario. Mouse oocytes deficient in SENP7 experienced meiotic arrest at prophase I and metaphase I stages, causing substantial decrease of mature eggs. Hyperaceylation and hypomethylation of histone H3 and up-regulation of Cdc14B/C accompanied by down-regulation of CyclinB1 and CyclinB2 were further recognized as contributors to defective M-phase entry and spindle assembly in oocytes...
March 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302175/prolonged-hypothyroidism-severely-reduces-ovarian-follicular-reserve-in-adult-rats
#5
Li Meng, Eddy Rijntjes, Hans J M Swarts, Jaap Keijer, Katja J Teerds
BACKGROUND: There is substantial evidence both in humans and in animals that a prolonged reduction in plasma thyroid hormone concentration leads to reproductive problems, including disturbed folliculogenesis, impaired ovulation and fertilization rates, miscarriage and pregnancy complications. The objective of the present study is to examine the consequences of chronic hypothyroidism, induced in adulthood, for the size of the ovarian follicle pool. In order to investigate this, adult female rats were provided either a control or an iodide deficient diet in combination with perchlorate supplementation to inhibit iodide uptake by the thyroid...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294638/potential-targetability-of-multi-walled-carbon-nanotube-loaded-with-silver-nanoparticles-photosynthesized-from-ocimum-tenuiflorum-tulsi-extract-in-fertility-diagnosis
#6
Pradeep K Jha, Rakhi K Jha, Dilip Rout, Sathishkumar Gnanasekar, Suresh Vs Rana, Maidul Hossain
Nanocarrier mediated targeted delivery and biosensing in reproductive health care is a major exploratory domain. This work demonstrates the loading of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) inside the multiwalled Carbon nanotube(MWCNT) and their targetability to the intracellular part of the sperm cell for its further application in biosensing based infertility diagnosis. Ocimum tenuiflorum (tulsi extract) mediated photosynthesized AgNP exhibited spherical shape, 5-40nm size and surface plasmonic resonance at 430 nm...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292619/obesity-and-female-infertility-potential-mediators-of-obesity-s-impact
#7
REVIEW
Darcy E Broughton, Kelle H Moley
The worldwide upward trend in obesity has been dramatic, now affecting more than 20% of American women of reproductive age. Obesity is associated with many adverse maternal and fetal effects prenatally, but it also exerts a negative influence on female fertility. Obese women are more likely to have ovulatory dysfunction due to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome who are also obese demonstrate a more severe metabolic and reproductive phenotype. Obese women have reduced fecundity even when eumenorrheic and demonstrate poorer outcomes with the use of in vitro fertilization...
March 11, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286354/how-did-the-domestication-of-fertile-crescent-grain-crops-increase-their-yields
#8
Catherine Preece, Alexandra Livarda, Pascal-Antoine Christin, Michael Wallace, Gemma Martin, Michael Charles, Glynis Jones, Mark Rees, Colin P Osborne
The origins of agriculture, 10 000 years ago, led to profound changes in the biology of plants exploited as grain crops, through the process of domestication. This special case of evolution under cultivation led to domesticated cereals and pulses requiring humans for their dispersal, but the accompanying mechanisms causing higher productivity in these plants remain unknown. The classical view of crop domestication is narrow, focusing on reproductive and seed traits including the dispersal, dormancy and size of seeds, without considering whole-plant characteristics...
February 2017: Functional Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286118/maternal-exposure-to-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-dehp-promotes-the-transgenerational-inheritance-of-adult-onset-reproductive-dysfunctions-through-the-female-germline-in-mice
#9
Paola Pocar, Nadia Fiandanese, Anna Berrini, Camillo Secchi, Vitaliano Borromeo
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds known to promote transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in subsequent generations after maternal exposure during fetal gonadal development. This study was designed to establish whether gestational and lactational exposure to the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) at environmental doses promotes transgenerational effects on reproductive health in female offspring, as adults, over three generations in the mouse. Gestating F0 mouse dams were exposed to 0, 0...
March 9, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284038/3d-and-4d-studies-from-human-reproduction-to-perinatal-medicine
#10
Sonal Panchal, Asim Kurjak, Chaitanya Nagori
Three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) is a modality of choice for prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformations. But 3D-four-dimensional US(4D US) is of utmost importance also to achieve pregnancy. 3D US plays an important role for diagnosis of PCO, to assess ovarian reserve and response and thus to decide optimum stimulation protocols. It adds to the information on follicular maturity and endometrial receptivity, thus improving the chances to achieve pregnancy for patients under treatment for fertility. 3D hystero-contrast-salpingography (HyCoSy) has also proved itself to be one of the best modalities for assessment of tubal patency...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283672/the-role-of-notch-signaling-in-the-mammalian-ovary
#11
Dallas Vanorny, Kelly Mayo
The Notch pathway is a contact-dependent, or juxtacrine, signaling system that is conserved in metazoan organisms and is important in many developmental processes. Recent investigations have demonstrated that the Notch pathway is active in both the embryonic and postnatal ovary and plays important roles in events including follicle assembly and growth, meiotic maturation, ovarian vasculogenesis, and steroid hormone production. Ovarian pathologies resulting from disruption of the Notch pathway in mice affect meiotic spindle assembly, follicle histogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival, corpora luteal function, and ovarian neovascularization...
March 10, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281658/cumulative-effects-of-suspended-sediments-organic-nutrients-and-temperature-stress-on-early-life-history-stages-of-the-coral-acropora-tenuis
#12
Adriana Humanes, Gerard F Ricardo, Bette L Willis, Katharina E Fabricius, Andrew P Negri
Coral reproduction is vulnerable to both declining water quality and warming temperatures, with simultaneous exposures likely compounding the negative impact of each stressor. We investigated how early life processes of the coral Acropora tenuis respond to increasing levels of suspended sediments in combination with temperature or organic nutrients. Fertilization success and embryo development were more sensitive to suspended sediments than to high temperatures or nutrient enrichment, while larval development (after acquisition of cilia) and settlement success were predominantly affected by thermal stress...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275162/leptin-signalling-in-agrp-neurons-modulates-puberty-onset-and-adult-fertility-in-mice
#13
Olivia K Egan, Megan A Inglis, Greg M Anderson
The hormone leptin indirectly communicates metabolic information to brain neurons that control reproduction, using GABAergic circuitry. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons in the arcuate nucleus are GABAergic, express leptin receptors (LepR) and are known to influence reproduction. This study tested whether leptin actions on AgRP neurons are required and sufficient for puberty onset and subsequent fertility. Firstly, Agrp-Cre and Lepr-flox mice were used to target deletion of LepR to AgRP neurons. AgRP-LepR knockout female mice exhibited mild obesity and adiposity as previously described, as well as a significant delay in the pubertal onset of estrous cycles compared to control animals...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267227/reproductive-suppression-follows-threats-to-child-survival
#14
Katherine B Saxton, Alison Gemmill, Ralph A Catalano
Natural selection presumably conserved mechanisms that allow females to block or terminate gestation when environmental circumstances threaten the survival of offspring. One example of this adaptive reproductive suppression, the Bruce Effect, has been identified in several species, both in the laboratory and in the wild. Although descriptive epidemiology reports low fertility among women experiencing stressful circumstances, attempts to detect a Bruce Effect in humans have been rare and limited. We contribute to this limited work by examining the relationship between the odds of child death and the sex ratio at birth in Sweden for the years 1751-1840...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267049/the-influence-of-methotrexate-treatment-on-male-fertility-and-pregnancy-outcome-after-paternal-exposure
#15
Anne Grosen, Jens Kelsen, Christian Lodberg Hvas, Emanuelle Bellaguarda, Stephen B Hanauer
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease incidence peaks during the reproductive years. Methotrexate (MTX) is frequently used for inflammatory bowel disease, but its use during pregnancy is contraindicated in women because of teratogenic effects. The aim of this review is to investigate the influence of MTX on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes after paternal MTX exposure. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed by applying 2 focus areas, "methotrexate" and "male fertility or pregnancy outcome...
April 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264757/supplementation-of-sperm-media-with-zinc-d-aspartate-and-co-enzyme-q10-protects-bull-sperm-against-exogenous-oxidative-stress-and-improves-their-ability-to-support-embryo-development
#16
Vincenza Barbato, Riccardo Talevi, Sabrina Braun, Anna Merolla, Sam Sudhakaran, S Longobardi, Roberto Gualtieri
High levels of reactive oxygen species in the semen of infertile patients or spontaneously generated during in vitro sperm handling may impair sperm quality, fertilization and embryo developmental competence. We recently reported that zinc, d-aspartate and co-enzyme Q10, contained in the dietary supplement Genadis® (Merck Serono), have protective effects on human and bull sperm motility, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation in vitro; furthermore, in bovine, treated spermatozoa had an improved ability to support embryo development...
March 7, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261663/zika-virus-causes-testicular-atrophy
#17
Ryuta Uraki, Jesse Hwang, Kellie Ann Jurado, Sarah Householder, Laura J Yockey, Andrew K Hastings, Robert J Homer, Akiko Iwasaki, Erol Fikrig
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently been found to cause fetal infection and neonatal abnormalities, including microcephaly and neurological dysfunction. ZIKV persists in the semen months after the acute viremic phase in humans. To further understand the consequences of ZIKV persistence in males, we infected Ifnar1(-/-) mice via subcutaneous injection of a pathogenic but nonlethal ZIKV strain. ZIKV replication persists within the testes even after clearance from the blood, with interstitial, testosterone-producing Leydig cells supporting virus replication...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260557/the-influence-of-in-vitro-fertilization-and-embryo-culture-on-the-embryo-epigenetic-constituents-and-the-possible-consequences-in-the-bovine-model
#18
M-A Sirard
Medically assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro embryo production, are increasingly being used to palliate infertility. Eggs are produced following a hormonal regimen that stimulates the ovaries to produce a large number of oocytes. Collected oocytes are then fertilized in vitro and allowed to develop in vitro until they are either frozen or transferred to mothers. There are controversial reports on the adverse impacts of these technologies on early embryos and their potential long-term effects...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259137/chronic-endometritis-modifies-decidualization-in-human-endometrial-stromal-cells
#19
Di Wu, Fuminori Kimura, Luyi Zheng, Mitsuaki Ishida, Yoko Niwa, Kimiko Hirata, Akie Takebayashi, Akiko Takashima, Kentaro Takahashi, Ryoji Kushima, Guangmei Zhang, Takashi Murakami
BACKGROUND: Chronic endometritis (CE) is a continuous inflammation of uterine endometrium, and it is usually symptomless. As CE has been thought not to affect the reproductive status and general health of affected women, its significance has not been explored. However, recent studies have shown that CE is related with repeated implantation failures after in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer, unexplained infertility, and recurrent miscarriages. As decidua differentiates to support the implantation process and maintains the pregnancy, we hypothesized that CE may influence the process of decidualization...
March 4, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254221/progesterone-estradiol-ratio-0-25-on-the-day-of-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-administration-is-associated-with-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-in-prolonged-protocols-for-in%C3%A2-vitro-fertilization-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection
#20
Yuan Li, Keli Luo, Yi Tang, Ge Lin, Guangxiu Lu, Fei Gong
OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that a progesterone/estradiol ratio (P/E2) ≥ 1.0 on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration indicates premature luteinization and might be associated with an adverse pregnancy; however, a lower limit of this ratio has not been determined. We aimed to identify a lower limit of P/E2 that correlates significantly with an increase in adverse pregnancies in patients undergoing a prolonged in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection therapy...
February 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
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