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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213907/optimizing-the-analysis-of-dental-enamel-microstructure-in-intact-teeth
#1
Zulieth López Arrieta, Sergio Roberto Peres Line
In most mammalian species enamel prisms are regularly arranged in layers of alternating directions forming an angle of approximately 90°. These successive layers of prisms are known as Hunter-Schreger bands (HSBs). The analysis of HSBs may provide valuable information regarding the species life history, taxon and personal identification, with evident applicability in physical anthropology and forensics. Obtaining good quality digital images of HSBs in intact specimens is not always a feasible task. The major problems are the low contrast of images; the reflection of incident light, which may create areas of intense shine in digital images; and the abrupt decrease in the degree of illumination that occurs after light crosses the vertical cracks, frequently present in enamel...
February 17, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213868/elliptical-fourier-analysis-fundamentals-applications-and-value-for-forensic-anthropology
#2
REVIEW
Jodi Caple, John Byrd, Carl N Stephan
The numerical description of skeletal morphology enables forensic anthropologists to conduct objective, reproducible, and structured tests, with the added capability of verifying morphoscopic-based analyses. One technique that permits comprehensive quantification of outline shape is elliptical Fourier analysis. This curve fitting technique allows a form's outline to be approximated via the sum of multiple sine and cosine waves, permitting the profile perimeter of an object to be described in a dense (continuous) manner at a user-defined level of precision...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212130/periorbital-soft-tissue-anthropometric-analysis-of-young-adults
#3
Turan Ozdemir, Fatma Ezgi Can, Sefa Isiklar, Ilker Ercan, Nedim Simsek Cankur
The authors aim to determine the periorbital soft tissue anthropometric norms for Turkish young adults for right and left eyes using a noninvasive two-dimensional photogrammetric analysis. Anthropometric measurements of the periorbital soft tissue were taken from 172 female and 56 male Turkish adults aged between 18 and 24 years. The periorbital soft tissue profiles (ocular and palpebral) for males and females were digitally analyzed using linear measurements made with standardized photographic records, taken in a natural head position...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199024/anthropology-at-war-robert-h-lowie-and-the-transformation-of-the-culture-concept-1904-to-1954
#4
Stefan Bargheer
The concept of culture used in American anthropology has fundamentally transformed throughout the first half of the twentieth century. The changing resonance of the work of Robert H. Lowie offers revealing insights into this development. Lowie was part of the first generation of students of Franz Boas that highlighted the importance of individual variation for the study of both primitive and civilized societies. Yet, its initial resonance notwithstanding, the culture concept that prevailed in the discipline went into a different direction as the result of anthropologists' involvement in the war effort...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198529/differences-of-craniotype-distribution-and-types-of-face-among-almost-healthy-men-from-different-regions-of-ukraine
#5
Igor Gunas, Mariya Shinkaruk-Dykovytska, Olga Kotsyura, Volodymir Orlovskiy, Svitlana Dmytrenko, Alla Shayuk, Olena Glushak
Established peculiarities of craniotypes distribution and types of faces in somatic healthy men, depending on regional affiliation. In all regions of Ukraine marked greater brachycephaly percentage, indicating the trend of brachycephalisation and prevalence percentage of men with narrow, very narrow face that confirms gracilization. Marked a small number of regional differences in the distribution of certain types of skull and face, indicating that the population of Ukraine is very homogeneous in anthropological composition and each of the presented Ukrainian regional types not beyond anthropological type, common to people in general...
February 15, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194930/representation-archaeology-and-genealogy-three-spatial-metaphors-for-inquiring-into-nursing-phenomena-with%C3%A2-foucauldian-discourse-analysis
#6
Michael E Clinton, Rusla Anne Springer
Foucault used the "Quadrilateral of Language" metaphor to describe how language functioned in what the French called the Classic Age, roughly 1650 to 1800, the period from Descartes to Kant. His purpose was to show how the functions of language changed radically with the arrival of the Modern Age (~1800). Foucault developed his archaeological methods to investigate the impact of this change, but later revised his methods to introduce genealogical strategies to conduct "histories of the present". Our purpose in this paper is to clarify Foucault's thinking about ruptures in the functions of language and to show their implications for analyzing nursing discourse...
February 14, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192712/personal-and-political-histories-in-the-designing-of-health-reform-policy-in-bolivia
#7
Alissa Bernstein
While health policies are a major focus in disciplines such as public health and public policy, there is a dearth of work on the histories, social contexts, and personalities behind the development of these policies. This article takes an anthropological approach to the study of a health policy's origins, based on ethnographic research conducted in Bolivia between 2010 and 2012. Bolivia began a process of health care reform in 2006, following the election of Evo Morales Ayma, the country's first indigenous president, and leader of the Movement Toward Socialism (Movimiento al Socialism)...
January 21, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186608/-study-of-polymorphisms-of-hla-class-%C3%A2-a-b-c-and-class-%C3%A2-drb1-dqa1-dqb1-dpa1-dpb1-genes-among-ethnic-hans-from-southern-china
#8
Shizheng Jin, Hongyan Zou, Jianxin Zhen, Daming Wang, Liumei He, Zhihui Deng
OBJECTIVE: To study the genetic polymorphisms of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)- A, B, C, DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, DPA1and DPB1among ethnic Hans from southern China. METHODS: 481 randomly selected individuals were genotyped using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequence-based typing (SBT) method for the above genes. Their allele frequencies were determined by direct counting. RESULTS: In total, 28 HLA-A, 57 HLA-B, 28 HLA-C, 40 HLA-DRB1, 18 HLA-DQA1, 17 HLA-DQB1, 6 HLA-DPA1and 21 HLA-DPB1alleles were identified...
February 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185072/the-geometrical-precision-of-virtual-bone-models-derived-from-clinical-computed-tomography-data-for-forensic-anthropology
#9
Kerri L Colman, Johannes G G Dobbe, Kyra E Stull, Jan M Ruijter, Roelof-Jan Oostra, Rick R van Rijn, Alie E van der Merwe, Hans H de Boer, Geert J Streekstra
Almost all European countries lack contemporary skeletal collections for the development and validation of forensic anthropological methods. Furthermore, legal, ethical and practical considerations hinder the development of skeletal collections. A virtual skeletal database derived from clinical computed tomography (CT) scans provides a potential solution. However, clinical CT scans are typically generated with varying settings. This study investigates the effects of image segmentation and varying imaging conditions on the precision of virtual modelled pelves...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178909/doctoring-undercover-updating-the-educational-tradition-of-shadowing
#10
Claire D Clark
BACKGROUND: Premedical students are educated in basic biological and health sciences. As a complement to traditional premedical coursework, medical school applicants are encouraged to shadow practitioners, with the hope that observation will introduce students to the culture and practice of healthcare. Yet the shadowing experience varies widely across practitioners and institutions; resources that guide students' critical reflection and structure the experience are scarce. DEVELOPMENT: A pilot experiential learning course, Doctoring Undercover: Shadowing and the Culture of Medicine, was developed to fill this gap...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178098/multivectored-superficial-muscular-aponeurotic-system-suspension-for-facial-paralysis
#11
Garrison Leach, Nicole Kurnik, Jessica Joganic, Edward Joganic
PURPOSE: Facial paralysis is a devastating condition that may cause severe cosmetic and functional deformities. In this study we describe our technique for superficial muscular aponeurotic system (SMAS) suspension using barbed suture and compare the vectors of suspension in relation to the underlying musculature. This study also quantifies the improvements in postoperative symmetry using traditional anthropologic landmarks. METHODS: The efficacy of this procedure for improving facial paralysis was determined by comparing anthropometric indices and using Procrustes distance between 4 groupings of homologous landmarks plotted on each patient's preoperative and postoperative photos...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177148/when-walking-becomes-wandering-representing-the-fear-of-the-fourth-age
#12
Katherine Brittain, Cathrine Degnen, Grant Gibson, Claire Dickinson, Louise Robinson
Dementia is linked to behavioural changes that are perceived as challenging to care practices. One such behavioural change is 'wandering', something that is often deeply feared by carers and by people with dementia themselves. Understanding how behavioural changes like wandering are experienced as problematic is critically important in current discussions about the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. In this article we draw on our secondary analysis of qualitative interviews and focus groups with carers of people with dementia to critically question 'when does walking become wandering'? Drawing on theoretical perspectives from anthropology, sociology and human geography to explore experiences of carers and of people with dementia, we argue that a conceptual shift occurs in how pedestrian activity, usually represented as something purposeful, meaningful and healthy (walking) is seen as something threatening that needs managing (wandering)...
February 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170092/quantifying-the-impact-of-%C3%A2%C2%B5ct-scanning-of-human-fossil-teeth-on-esr-age-results
#13
Mathieu Duval, Laura Martín-Francés
Fossil human teeth are nowadays systematically CT-scanned by palaeoanthropologists prior to any further analysis. It has been recently demonstrated that this noninvasive technique has, in most cases, virtually no influence on ancient DNA preservation. However, it may have nevertheless an impact on other techniques, like Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dating, by artificially ageing the apparent age of the sample. To evaluate this impact, we µCT-scanned several modern enamel fragments following the standard analytical procedures employed by the Dental Anthropology Group at CENIEH, Spain, and then performed ESR dose reconstruction for each of them...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169420/parents-and-informal-caregivers-views-and-experiences-of-communication-about-routine-childhood-vaccination-a-synthesis-of-qualitative-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Heather Mr Ames, Claire Glenton, Simon Lewin
BACKGROUND: Childhood vaccination is an effective way to prevent serious childhood illnesses, but many children do not receive all the recommended vaccines. There are various reasons for this; some parents lack access because of poor quality health services, long distances or lack of money. Other parents may not trust vaccines or the healthcare workers who provide them, or they may not see the need for vaccination due to a lack of information or misinformation about how vaccinations work and the diseases they can prevent...
February 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168702/biparietal-thinning-accidental-death-by-a-fall-from-standing-height
#15
Robert W Mann, Masahiko Kobayashi, Alan L Schiller
Biparietal thinning resulting in bilateral and symmetrical resorption and loss of thickness of the parietal bones is an uncommon to rare condition in the anthropological and clinical literature. This enigmatic condition of unknown etiology was first reported in the 18th century and has been variously described as a nonmetric trait, anatomical variant, anomaly, and pathology. Biparietal thinning presents grossly and radiographically as oval-shaped depressions in 0.25-0.8% and 0.4-0.5% of individuals and with a higher frequency in females over the age of 60 years...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167335/dental-occlusion-analysis-in-the-mesolithic-neolithic-age-bronze-age-and-roman-to-medieval-times-in-serbia-tooth-size-comparison-in-skeletal-samples
#16
Tina Pajević, Branislav Glišić
OBJECTIVE: Anthropological studies have reported that tooth size decreases in the context of diet changes. Some investigations have found a reverse trend in tooth size from the prehistoric to the modern times. The aims of this study were to analyze tooth size in skeletal samples from Mesolithic-Neolithic Age, Bronze Age, and Roman to Medieval times to determine sex differences and establish a temporal trend in tooth size in the aforementioned periods. DESIGN: Well-preserved permanent teeth were included in the investigation...
January 20, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161999/the-fortieth-anniversary-of-the-founding-of-the-laboratory-of-biological-anthropology
#17
Michael H Crawford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161998/paternal-genetic-structure-in-contemporary-mennonite-communities-from-the-american-midwest
#18
Kristine G Beaty, M J Mosher, Michael H Crawford, Phillip Melton
Over the last 35 years, researchers from the Laboratory of Biological Anthropology at the University of Kansas have been working with Mennonite communities to better understand evolutionary patterns of fission-fusion in relationship to their genetic history and population structure. In this study, short tandem repeat (STR) markers from the nonrecombining region of the Y chromosome (NRY) provided increased resolution of the molecular population structure for these groups. NRY is known to be informative for determining paternal genetic ancestral patterns in recently derived human populations...
April 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161996/minutes-of-the-business-meeting-of-the-american-association-of-anthropological-genetics
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161995/population-history-and-mitochondrial-genetic-substructure-of-the-rama-amerindians-from-nicaragua
#20
Norberto F Baldi, Michael H Crawford
The Rama are a coastal population from southern Nicaragua who in large part were able to resist, at least for a time, the cultural changes and social reorganization brought on by colonial and modern influences. Historical information leaves the Rama origins and biological relationships with nearby extinct and extant groups ambiguous. The objective of this study was to examine the internal genetic microdifferentiation based on the first hypervariable region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of approximately 20% of the population, and to expand the few available historical and anthropological data on the Rama by exploring the effects of cultural practices and historical events on genetic structure, providing an integrative perspective on the Rama genetic history...
April 2016: Human Biology
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