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Claudia Bozzaro, Joachim Boldt, Mark Schweda
The elderly are often considered a vulnerable group in public and academic bioethical debates and regulations. In this paper, we examine and challenge this assumption and its ethical implications. We begin by systematically delineating the different concepts of vulnerability commonly used in bioethics, before then examining whether these concepts can be applied to old age. We argue that old age should not, in and of itself, be used as a marker of vulnerability, since ageing is a process that can develop in a variety of different ways and is not always associated with particular experiences of vulnerability...
May 2018: Bioethics
Joseph T Hefner
The development of identification standards in forensic anthropology requires large and appropriate reference samples comprising individuals with modern birth years. Recent advances in macromorphoscopic trait data collection and analysis have created a need for reference data for classification models and biological distance analyses. The Macromorphoscopic Databank (N ∼ 7,397) serves that function, making publicly available trait scores for a large sample (n = 2,363) of modern American populations and world-wide groups of various geographic origins (n = 1,790)...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Tanya Sella-Tunis, Ariel Pokhojaev, Rachel Sarig, Paul O'Higgins, Hila May
Understanding how and to what extent forces applied to the mandible by the masticatory muscles influence its form, is of considerable importance from clinical, anthropological and evolutionary perspectives. This study investigates these questions. Head CT scans of 382 adults were utilized to measure masseter and temporalis muscle cross-sectional areas (CSA) as a surrogate for muscle force, and 17 mandibular anthropometric measurements. Sixty-two mandibles of young individuals (20-40 years) whose scans were without artefacts (e...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qutsia Tabasum, Jagmahender Singh Sehrawat, Manjit Kaur Talwar, Raj Kamal Pathak
Background: Different dental features have contributed significantly toward sex determination in the forensic anthropological contexts. Population-specific standards (discriminant functions or regression formulae) have been suggested for various population groups to identify the sex of an unknown individual from dental dimensions and other odontometric features. The main purpose of the present investigation was to examine the degree of sexual dimorphism exhibited by the human teeth of North Indians and identify importance as a forensic tool in sex determination...
September 2017: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Sandipamu Thabitha Rani
Background: Teeth morphology varies among different population groups as they are exposed to various environmental conditions. Teeth being the most stable and hard tissue, human identification can be made when the other tissues are unavailable. Odontometric analysis can be considered for anthropological and forensic investigations. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the reliability of odontometric mesiodistal (MD) width dimensions and indices in sexual dimorphism among Nalgonda population...
September 2017: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Ankita Singh, Gadiputi Sreedhar, Jiji George, Abhilasha Shukla, Vaibhav Vashishta, M P S Negi
Background: Gender is one of the main characteristics analyzed for positive human identification in forensic medicine. The methods involving physical anthropology present high rate of accuracy for human identification and gender estimation. Aim: This study aimed to determine gender through different craniofacial variables using physical anthropometric methods. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 individuals (50 males and 50 females) in Lucknow...
September 2017: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Ralph V Katz, Samuel E Prophete, Christina Lafontant, Bette Gebrian, Louis C Bourdeau, Jr Ernst Joseph, Gladys J Lafontant, H Ludwig St Jean, Paul E Rundberg
This paper reports the changed findings over a 40-year period on oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of a very remote and rural population living the Jeremie region of Haiti. The far-sighted investigators of that original 1970 survey stated in their published 1972 paper that our "…findings are descriptive, but have to be accepted tentatively rather than definitively because time was short, transportation was difficult, and the small sample that had to be used could not random." They further insightfully stated their hopes that their "…results may be regarded as an anthropological cultural baseline from which to review further findings concerning Haitian dental beliefs...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
Guanglin He, Zheng Wang, Xing Zou, Xu Chen, Jing Liu, Mengge Wang, Yiping Hou
Non-CODIS STRs, with high polymorphism and allele frequency difference among ethnically and geographically different populations, play a crucial role in population genetics, molecular anthropology, and human forensics. In this work, 332 unrelated individuals from Sichuan Province (237 Tibetan individuals and 95 Yi individuals) are firstly genotyped with 21 non-CODIS autosomal STRs, and phylogenetic relationships with 26 previously investigated populations (9,444 individuals) are subsequently explored. In the Sichuan Tibetan and Yi, the combined power of discrimination (CPD) values are 0...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dawnie Wolfe Steadman, Angela Dautartas, Michael W Kenyhercz, Lee M Jantz, Amy Mundorff, Giovanna M Vidoli
Different animal species have been used as proxies for human remains in decomposition studies for decades, although few studies have sought to validate their use in research aimed at estimating the postmortem interval. This study examines 45 pig, rabbit, and human subjects placed in three seasonal trials at the Anthropology Research Facility. In an earlier paper, we found that overall decomposition trends did vary between species that could be due to differential insect and scavenger behavior. This study specifically examines if scavenger behavior differs by carrion species...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Eun Jin Woo, Hyunwoo Jung, Tanvaa Tansatit
The present research aims to examine the cranial index in a modern people of Thai ancestry. Ultimately, this study will help to create a databank containing a cranial index for the classifications of the people from Asia. In this study, 185 modern crania of people of supposed Thai ancestry were examined. They were collected from the Department of Anatomy at Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok, Thailand. The maximum cranial length and breadth were measured using standard anthropometric instruments based on Martin's methods...
March 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Yen-Kuang Lin, Mu-Tsu Hsu, Ming-Chen Hsieh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
Marco J Haenssgen, Nutcha Charoenboon, Giacomo Zanello, Mayfong Mayxay, Felix Reed-Tsochas, Caroline O H Jones, Romyen Kosaikanont, Pollavat Praphattong, Pathompong Manohan, Yoel Lubell, Paul N Newton, Sommay Keomany, Heiman F L Wertheim, Jeffrey Lienert, Thipphaphone Xayavong, Penporn Warapikuptanun, Yuzana Khine Zaw, Patchapoom U-Thong, Patipat Benjaroon, Narinnira Sangkham, Kanokporn Wibunjak, Poowadon Chai-In, Sirirat Chailert, Patthanan Thavethanutthanawin, Krittanon Promsutt, Amphayvone Thepkhamkong, Nicksan Sithongdeng, Maipheth Keovilayvanh, Nid Khamsoukthavong, Phaengnitta Phanthasomchit, Chanthasone Phanthavong, Somsanith Boualaiseng, Souksakhone Vongsavang, Rachel C Greer, Thomas Althaus, Supalert Nedsuwan, Daranee Intralawan, Tri Wangrangsimakul, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Proochista Ariana
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health priority. Leading UK and global strategy papers to fight AMR recognise its social and behavioural dimensions, but current policy responses to improve the popular use of antimicrobials (eg, antibiotics) are limited to education and awareness-raising campaigns. In response to conceptual, methodological and empirical weaknesses of this approach, we study people's antibiotic-related health behaviour through three research questions...
2018: BMJ Global Health
A Desclaux, A Touré
After the Ebola outbreak in West Africa (2013-2016), preparedness is on the agenda of health institutions. However, key questions remain about the scope of preparedness and activities related to the socio-cultural dimension of epidemics. A multidisciplinary short-course Infectious Diseases and Anthropology in West Africa (MIAA) was held at CERFIG, Conakry, in November 2017. Its evaluation provides some answers to key questions, such as who should be trained, and what its objectives, pedagogical contents, and methods should be...
February 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Sarah Bradley, C Ann Vitous, Aria Walsh-Felz, David Himmelgreen
This article examines the relationship between food insecurity and health-care decision-making among mobile food pantry clients in Tampa Bay, Florida. Results show a high rate of food insecurity, high stress levels, and chronic health conditions among mobile pantry clients, many of whom are long-term users of food pantry services. The fruits and vegetables supplied by the pantry allow clients to manage chronic health conditions and mitigate some of the financial burden of health-care costs. Research was conducted in cooperation with the Anthropology Department at the University of South Florida, Feeding Tampa Bay, and WellCare ...
April 3, 2018: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Elaine Eggleston Doherty, Brittany Jaecques, Kerry M Green, Margaret E Ensminger
The interrelationship between victimization, violence, and substance use/abuse has been well established, yet those who experience victimization do not necessarily respond with violence or substance use or escalate to experiencing substance abuse symptoms. Drawing on literature from both the syndemic research from medical anthropology and the resilience research from psychology, this study examines the interaction between early childhood adversity and young adult violent victimization on later substance use/abuse and violent offending to provide insight into conditional effects...
April 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Gianni Gallello, Elisabetta Cilli, Fulvio Bartoli, Massimo Andretta, Lucio Calcagnile, Agustin Pastor, Miguel de la Guardia, Patrizia Serventi, Alberto Marino, Stefano Benazzi, Giorgio Gruppioni
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Angelo Poliziano were two of the most important humanists of the Italian Renaissance. They died suddenly in 1494 and their deaths have been for centuries a subject of debate. The exhumation of their remains offered the opportunity to study the cause of their death through a multidisciplinary research project. Anthropological analyses, together with documentary evidences, radiocarbon dating and ancient DNA analysis supported the identification of the remains attributed to Pico...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Molly Fox, Zaneta M Thayer, Isabel F Ramos, Sarah J Meskal, Pathik D Wadhwa
BACKGROUND: Hispanic Americans consistently exhibit an intergenerational increase in the prevalence of many noncommunicable chronic physical and mental disorders. METHODS: We review and synthesize evidence suggesting that a constellation of prenatal and postnatal factors may play crucial roles in explaining this trend. We draw from relevant literature across several disciplines, including epidemiology, anthropology, psychology, medicine (obstetrics, neonatology), and developmental biology...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
Nicholas V Passalacqua
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Nicola Carrara, Cinzia Scaggion, Emily Holland
OBJECTIVE: Documented and undocumented skeletal collections offer unique windows into life in the past and are integral for research in biological anthropology. The objective of this article is to describe the documented and undocumented collections curated by the Museum of Anthropology at Padua University (Italy) to demonstrate their potential for research and encourage researchers to consider them for future projects. MATERIALS: The collection was established by Prof...
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Darryl Stellmach, Isabel Beshar, Juliet Bedford, Philipp du Cros, Beverley Stringer
Recent outbreaks of Ebola virus disease (2013-2016) and Zika virus (2015-2016) bring renewed recognition of the need to understand social pathways of disease transmission and barriers to care. Social scientists, anthropologists in particular, have been recognised as important players in disease outbreak response because of their ability to assess social, economic and political factors in local contexts. However, in emergency public health response, as with any interdisciplinary setting, different professions may disagree over methods, ethics and the nature of evidence itself...
2018: BMJ Global Health
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