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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023874/multidisciplinary-studies-of-wildlife-trade-in-primates-challenges-and-priorities
#1
Mary E Blair, Minh D Le, Eleanor J Sterling
Wildlife trade is increasingly recognized as an unsustainable threat to primate populations and informing its management is a growing focus and application of primatological research. However, management policies based on ecological research alone cannot address complex socioeconomic or cultural contexts as drivers of wildlife trade. Multidisciplinary research is required to understand trade complexity and identify sustainable management strategies. Here, we define multidisciplinary research as research that combines more than one academic discipline, and highlight how the articles in this issue combine methods and approaches to fill key gaps and offer a more comprehensive understanding of underlying drivers of wildlife trade including consumer demand, enforcement patterns, source population status, and accessibility of targeted species...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023637/anthropmmd-an-r-package-with-a-graphical-user-interface-for-the-mean-measure-of-divergence
#2
Frédéric Santos
The mean measure of divergence is a dissimilarity measure between groups of individuals described by dichotomous variables. It is well suited to datasets with many missing values, and it is generally used to compute distance matrices and represent phenograms. Although often used in biological anthropology and archaeozoology, this method suffers from a lack of implementation in common statistical software. A package for the R statistical software, AnthropMMD, is presented here. Offering a dynamic graphical user interface, it is the first one dedicated to Smith's mean measure of divergence...
October 10, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023628/ethnic-derivation-of-the-ainu-inferred-from-ancient-mitochondrial-dna-data
#3
Noboru Adachi, Tsuneo Kakuda, Ryohei Takahashi, Hideaki Kanzawa-Kiriyama, Ken-Ichi Shinoda
OBJECTIVES: The Ainu, the indigenous people living on the northernmost island of Japan, Hokkaido, have long been a focus of anthropological interest because of their cultural, linguistic, and physical identity. A major problem with genetic studies on the Ainu is that the previously published data stemmed almost exclusively from only 51 modern-day individuals living in Biratori Town, central Hokkaido. To clarify the actual genetic characteristics of the Ainu, individuals who are less influenced by mainland Japanese, who started large-scale immigration into Hokkaido about 150 years ago, should be examined...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023204/bury-your-gays-and-social-media-fan-response-television-lgbtq-representation-and-communitarian-ethics
#4
Erin B Waggoner
While visibility has increased, there are still harmful television tropes used that can have potentially harmful effects on LGBTQ persons seeking identification through television characters. This essay explores women-loving women (wlw) representation in television and how fans respond via social media with regards to their identity and representation. Specifically, by examining the fan culture through a communitarian ethics lens (with an emphasis on duty and mutuality), fans are explored pre and post a lesbian character's death and how their responses created a social movement regarding the current television environment's treatment of wlw characters...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021672/the-size-and-shape-of-the-foramen-magnum-in-man
#5
Matthew J Zdilla, Michelle L Russell, Kaitlyn N Bliss, Kelsey R Mangus, Aaron W Koons
BACKGROUND: The foramen magnum (FM) has garnered broad interest across the disciplines of anthropology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, and clinical sciences. Most studies regarding the structure of the FM in humans have been intrapopulation morphometric studies rather than interpopulation morphologic studies. The few studies assessing the morphology of the foramen have utilized ambiguous and subjective descriptors to describe foraminal shape and are, consequently, difficult to reproduce...
July 2017: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017576/traditional-knowledge-hiding-in-plain-sight-twenty-first-century-ethnobotany-of-the-ch%C3%A3-cobo-in-beni-bolivia
#6
Narel Y Paniagua Zambrana, Rainer W Bussmann, Robbie E Hart, Araceli L Moya Huanca, Gere Ortiz Soria, Milton Ortiz Vaca, David Ortiz Álvarez, Jorge Soria Morán, María Soria Morán, Saúl Chávez, Bertha Chávez Moreno, Gualberto Chávez Moreno, Oscar Roca, Erlin Siripi
BACKGROUND: The Chácobo are a Panoan speaking tribe of about 1000 members (300+ adults) in Beni, Bolivia. Originally nomadic, the Chácabo were relocated to their current main location in the 1960s. Researchers have visited the Chácabo since 1911. A first more detailed anthropological report exists from the late 1960s, and ecological-ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the 1980s and 1990s. The presented work represents a complete ethnobotanical inventory of the entire adult Chácobo population, with interviews and plant collection conducted directly by Chácobo counterparts...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993149/relationship-of-blood-pressure-and-erectile-dysfunction-in-men-without-previously-diagnosed-hypertension
#7
Arto Heikkilä, Antti Kaipia, Maarit Venermo, Hannu Kautiainen, Päivi Korhonen
BACKGROUND: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common male sexual disorder that affects all age groups and has a close association with essential hypertension. AIM: To characterize the relation of blood pressure and ED in detail. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study of 45- to 70-year-old men without previously diagnosed hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, renal disease, or diabetes was conducted from 2005 to 2007 in southwestern Finland...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988069/2018-tallied-facial-soft-tissue-thicknesses-for-adults-and-sub-adults
#8
Carl N Stephan
The tallied facial soft tissue thicknesses (or T-Tables) represent grand means of published facial soft tissue thickness sample means. These sample means have been drawn from across the full-breadth of the facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) literature, including forensic science, anthropology and odontology. The report of new summary statistics for >1290 new sub-adults and >2200 new adults since the last T-Table calculation, in 2008 for sub-adults and 2013 for adults respectively, makes their update timely...
September 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988068/decapitation-in-reality-and-fine-art-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Valentina Nikolić, Slobodan Savić, Vaso Antunović, Slobodan Marinković, Charlotte Andrieux, Irina Tomić
The aim of our study was to examine all types of decapitation from forensic literature, including our own case, and to analyze the presentation of beheading in fine art, popular literature, and music. To do this, over 200 scientific articles in regard to decapitation were analyzed, as well as more than 10,000 artworks, and several hundreds of literary works and music pieces. In addition, a macroscopic examination of a decapitated victim was performed. Finally, a multislice computerized tomography (MSCT) examination of the cervical spine in two live volunteers was undertaken to present the osteological relationships...
September 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987535/blood-sweat-and-plaster-casts-reviewing-the-history-composition-and-scientific-value-of-the-raymond-a-dart-collection-of-african-life-and-death-masks
#10
T M R Houlton, B K Billings
This paper addresses the history, composition and scientific value of one of the most comprehensive facemask collections in Africa, the Raymond A. Dart Collection of African Life and Death Masks. Housed within the School of Anatomical Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa), it comprises 1110 masks (397 life, 487 death, 226 unknown). Life masks represent populations throughout Africa; death masks predominately southern Africa. Males preponderate by 75%. Recorded ages are error prone, but suggest most life masks are those of <35 year-olds, death masks of 36+ year-olds...
September 14, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981664/the-gendered-micropolitics-of-hiding-and-disclosing-assessing-the-spread-and-stagnation-of-information-on-two-new-emtct-policies-in-a-malawian-village
#11
Janneke Verheijen
Analysing why certain information spreads-or not-can be highly relevant for understanding an intervention's potential impact. Two recently implemented policy changes related to EMTCT (elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV) in the Balaka district of Malawi give ample opportunity to assess how new information trickles through a targeted rural community. One of the policies entails the lifetime provision of ART (anti-retroviral therapy) to all HIV+ pregnant women-a governmental strategy to EMTCT first initiated in Malawi and now being expanded throughout the region...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981246/-drug-therapy-misunderstanding-and-omission-in-patientdoctor-communication
#12
S Mokrane, M Bujold
Patient-doctor communication is fraught with misunderstanding and omission, especially around the drug therapy. In this article we mobilize health anthropology to illustrate this phenomenon. Beyond the biomedical effect, the drug is also an object of meaning: it objectifies the disease and is appealing but also raising uncertainities. It simultaneously promises a certain autonomy and a dependency on the doctor. Drug prescription also serves as a communication tool between the suffering patient and the caring doctor...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980733/living-the-social-determinants-of-health-assemblages-in-a-remote-aboriginal-community
#13
Richard D Chenhall, Kate Senior
This article provides a critical discussion of the social determinants of health framework and compares it with theoretical perspectives, such as that offered by assemblage theory, offering an alternative view of the complex interplay between human relationships and the structures around us. We offer an ethnographic perspective, discussing the lived experiences of the social determinants in an Indigenous community in a remote part of northern Australia. [Indigenous health, social determinants of health, assemblages, ethnography, medical anthropology] This article is protected by copyright...
October 5, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977277/-reflections-on-ethnography-in-the-emergency-department
#14
Janaína de Souza Aredes, Josélia Oliveira Araújo Firmo, Annette Leibing, Karla Cristina Giacomin
: Ethnography is the principal research method in Anthropology. With a broad scope, it allows using different data collection techniques and incorporates elements observed and obtained in the field into the analysis. In Public Health, it can contribute to understanding the health/disease process and health professionals' and patients' values and attitudes in different healthcare settings. The aim of this article is to present and discuss the ethnographic method based on an empirical study of physicians' hospital work in the face of the limits between life and death...
September 28, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968028/-features-of-anthropometric-and-component-indicators-of-women-75-90-years-of-russian-nationality-in-yakutsk
#15
V A Alekseyeva, A B Guryeva
Anthropometric examination of 128 women of russian nationality of senile age (75-90 years) in Yakutsk was carried out. All the examined were born and permanently resided in the territory of Yakutia. Anthropometric measurements were carried out according to the method of V. V. Bunak (1941), body components (the total amount of fat, muscle tissue, bone tissue) were calculated according to the method of J. Matiegka (1921). The resulting material was processed using the variation statistics method. The anthropometric and component indices of russian women of old age in Yakutsk are determined, the characteristics of body mass index (BMI) and of the body components of the examined ethno-age group of women was given...
2017: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966344/acculturation-and-health-the-moderating-role-of-socio-cultural-context
#16
Molly Fox, Zaneta Thayer, Pathik D Wadhwa
Acculturation represents an important construct for elucidating the determinants and consequences of health disparities in minority populations. However, the processes and mechanisms underlying acculturation's effects on health are largely undetermined and warrant further study. We integrate concepts from anthropology and statistics to describe the role of sociocultural context as a putative modifier of the relationship between acculturation and health. Sociocultural context may influence the extent to which exposure to host culture leads to internalization of host cultural orientation, and may influence the extent to which acculturation leads to stress and adoption of unhealthy behaviors...
September 2017: American Anthropologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954139/family-and-neglect-an-analysis-of-the-concept-of-child-negligence
#17
Natália Teixeira Mata, Liane Maria Braga da Silveira, Suely Ferreira Deslandes
The aim of this paper is to specify and investigate the types of negligence practiced on families in the context of healthcare that are considered to be insufficient or inappropriate for children and adolescents. These reflections are part of a previous study that analyzed how the concept of negligence is defined and applied in Brazilian academic studies, and indicated that a large part of the cases of negligence practiced against children is attributed to the sphere of the family. This present discussion seeks to consider families in their plurality...
September 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953824/charity-hospitality-and-the-human-person
#18
Mark Agius, Anna McKeever
We believe that in order to properly interpret all aspects of human scientific enquiry in terms of its impact on human beings it is necessary to have an adequate all encompassing model of the human person. We began this presentation by discussing the differences between the 'Cartesian' Dualistic model of the human Person and that of Aquinas and Augustine (which depend on Aristotle and Plato respectively). While the 'Cartesian' describes a completely separate 'soul' or 'mind' from the physical body, the Thomistic model of the Human Person is that of an Embodied Spirit, in which every aspect of the human spirit is reflected in an aspect or function of the physical body...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950836/vcftotree-a-user-friendly-tool-to-construct-locus-specific-alignments-and-phylogenies-from-thousands-of-anthropologically-relevant-genome-sequences
#19
Duo Xu, Yousef Jaber, Pavlos Pavlidis, Omer Gokcumen
BACKGROUND: Constructing alignments and phylogenies for a given locus from large genome sequencing studies with relevant outgroups allow novel evolutionary and anthropological insights. However, no user-friendly tool has been developed to integrate thousands of recently available and anthropologically relevant genome sequences to construct complete sequence alignments and phylogenies. RESULTS: Here, we provide VCFtoTree, a user friendly tool with a graphical user interface that directly accesses online databases to download, parse and analyze genome variation data for regions of interest...
September 26, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944604/the-social-practice-of-medical-guanxi-personal-connections-and-patient-physician-trust-in-china-an-anthropological-and-ethical-tsudy
#20
Xiang Zou, Yu Cheng, Jing-Bao Nie
In China's healthcare sector, a popular and socio-culturally distinctive phenomenon known as guanxi jiuyi (medical guanxi), whereby patients draw on their guanxi (personal connections) with physicians when seeking healthcare, is thriving. Integrating anthropological investigation with normative inquiry, this paper examines medical guanxi through the lens of patient-physician trust and mistrust. The first-hand empirical data acquired - on the lived experiences and perspectives of both patients and physicians - is based on six months' fieldwork carried out in a county hospital in Guangdong, southern China, which included in-depth interviews with 20 patients and 20 medical professionals...
September 25, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
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