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Anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534313/class-based-chronicities-of-suffering-and-seeking-help-comparing-addiction-treatment-programs-in-uganda
#1
Julia Vorhölter
Based on ethnographic fieldwork, this article looks at changing discourses and practices in the field of mental health care in Uganda. In particular, it analyzes two psychotherapeutic institutions designed to treat drug- and alcohol-addiction, and their accessibility and affordability for people from different class backgrounds. The first center is a high-class residential facility near Kampala which offers state-of-the-art addiction therapy, but is affordable only for the rich. The second center, a church-funded organization in Northern Uganda, cares mainly for people from poor, rural families who cannot afford exp/tensive treatment...
May 22, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534146/detection-of-glass-particles-on-bone-lesions-using-sem-eds
#2
Romain Montoriol, Céline Guilbeau-Frugier, Elodie Chantalat, Mathieu Roumiguié, Marie-Bernadette Delisle, Bruno Payré, Norbert Telmon, Frédéric Savall
The problem of identifying the wounding agent in forensic cases is recurrent. Moreover, when several tools are involved, distinguishing the origin of lesions can be difficult. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) equipment is increasingly available to the scientific and medical community, and some studies have reported its use in forensic anthropology. However, at our knowledge, no study has reported the use of SEM-EDS in forensic cases involving glass tools, whether in case reports or experiments...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533946/rethinking-social-cognition-in-light-of-psychosis-reciprocal-implications-for-cognition-and-psychopathology
#3
Vaughan Bell, Kathryn L Mills, Gemma Modinos, Sam Wilkinson
The positive symptoms of psychosis largely involve the experience of illusory social actors and yet our current measures of social cognition, at best, only weakly predict their presence. We review evidence to suggest that the range of current approaches in social cognition is not sufficient to explain the fundamentally social nature of these experiences. We argue that social agent representation is an important organising principle for understanding social cognition and that alterations in social agent representation may be a factor in the formation of delusions and hallucination in psychosis...
May 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523464/the-role-of-ontogeny-in-the-evolution-of-human-cooperation
#4
Michael Tomasello, Ivan Gonzalez-Cabrera
To explain the evolutionary emergence of uniquely human skills and motivations for cooperation, Tomasello et al. (2012, in Current Anthropology 53(6):673-92) proposed the interdependence hypothesis. The key adaptive context in this account was the obligate collaborative foraging of early human adults. Hawkes (2014, in Human Nature 25(1):28-48), following Hrdy (Mothers and Others, Harvard University Press, 2009), provided an alternative account for the emergence of uniquely human cooperative skills in which the key was early human infants' attempts to solicit care and attention from adults in a cooperative breeding context...
May 18, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522228/accessory-subscapularis-muscle%C3%A2-%C3%A2-a-forgotten-variation
#5
L A S Pires, C F C Souza, A R Teixeira, T F O Leite, M A Babinski, C A A Chagas
The quadrangular space is a space in the axilla bounded by the inferior margin of the teres minor muscle, the superior margin of the teres major muscle, the lateral margin of the long head of the triceps brachii muscle and the surgical neck of the humerus, medially. The axillary nerve (C5-C6) and the posterior circumflex humeral artery and veins pass through this space in order to supply their territories. The subscapularis muscle is situated into the scapular fossa and inserts itself into the lesser tubercle of the humerus, thus helping stabilize the shoulder joint...
May 15, 2017: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511513/sexual-dimorphism-of-maxillary-sinus-a-morphometric-analysis-using-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#6
Ayeesha Urooge, Bharati A Patil
INTRODUCTION: Age and sex determination in forensic sciences are primary components of any skeletal analysis. As most bones used for sex determination are recovered in incomplete state, it is often necessary to use bones that are recovered intact e.g., the maxillary sinus. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) can provide precise information about complex anatomical structures, as it is characterized by rapid volumetric image acquisition with high resolution. AIM: The present study was designed to evaluate the size and volume of Maxillary Sinus (MS) in determining gender by CBCT...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511408/estimation-of-total-length-of-femur-from-its-proximal-and-distal-segmental-measurements-of-disarticulated-femur-bones-of-nepalese-population-using-regression-equation-method
#7
Laxman Khanal, Sandip Shah, Sarun Koirala
INTRODUCTION: Length of long bones is taken as an important contributor for estimating one of the four elements of forensic anthropology i.e., stature of the individual. Since physical characteristics of the individual differ among different groups of population, population specific studies are needed for estimating the total length of femur from its segment measurements. AIM: Since femur is not always recovered intact in forensic cases, it was the aim of this study to derive regression equations from measurements of proximal and distal fragments in Nepalese population...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507860/aging-and-sexual-differences-of-the-human-skull
#8
Luiz Eduardo Toledo Avelar, Márcio Alberto Cardoso, Leonardo Santos Bordoni, Lorena de Miranda Avelar, João Victor de Miranda Avelar
BACKGROUND: The aging process of the face comprises all layers: skin, subcutaneous fat, muscles, and skeleton, and the signs of aging depend mainly on which layer is mostly affected. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the aging facial skeleton, as well as establish the sexual differences, areas with a strong predisposition to resorption, and aesthetic repercussion for better treatment approach. METHODS: Skulls from the Forensic Anthropology Department of the Institute of Forensic Medicine of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, were classified according to gender and age group (i...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504330/analytical-practice-do-the-new-technologies-have-an-impact
#9
Davide Favero, Stefano Candellieri
Through commentary on four clinical vignettes, this article focuses on the anthropological transformations taking place in contemporary society, underlining their differences from the anthropologies of reference of the founding fathers of psychoanalysis. Hybridization between man and machine and the speeding up and alteration of communications which the new technologies promote are now crucial issues facing psychoanalysis. Social media and a 24/7 internet connection have produced deep changes in the way people live and perceive relationships...
June 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500464/global-skin-colour-prediction-from-dna
#10
Susan Walsh, Lakshmi Chaitanya, Krystal Breslin, Charanya Muralidharan, Agnieszka Bronikowska, Ewelina Pospiech, Julia Koller, Leda Kovatsi, Andreas Wollstein, Wojciech Branicki, Fan Liu, Manfred Kayser
Human skin colour is highly heritable and externally visible with relevance in medical, forensic, and anthropological genetics. Although eye and hair colour can already be predicted with high accuracies from small sets of carefully selected DNA markers, knowledge about the genetic predictability of skin colour is limited. Here, we investigate the skin colour predictive value of 77 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 37 genetic loci previously associated with human pigmentation using 2025 individuals from 31 global populations...
May 12, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499931/empowered-to-cook-the-crucial-role-of-food-agency-in-making-meals
#11
Amy B Trubek, Maria Carabello, Caitlin Morgan, Jacob Lahne
What makes an individual, on any given occasion, able and willing to prepare a meal for themselves: that is, to cook? As home cooking has increasingly become the focus of public-health, nutrition, and policy interventions and campaigns, the need for a better understanding has become apparent. It is clear that cooking is not merely a matter of mechanical skill or rote training; beyond this, it is difficult to explain why similar individuals have such different capacities for setting and achieving food-related goals...
May 9, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495330/relationships-between-age-and-microarchitectural-descriptors-of-iliac-trabecular-bone-determined-by-microct
#12
C Deguette, A Ramond-Roquin, C Rougé-Maillart
AIM: Estimation of age at death is a major issue in anthropology. The main anthropological histological methods propose studying the architecture of cortical bone. In bone histomorphometry, researches on metabolic bone diseases have provided normative tables for trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) according to age and gender of individuals on trans-iliac bone biopsies. We have used microCT, a non-destructive tool for measuring bone volume and trabecular descriptors to compare the French tables to a series of forensic anthropological population and if the two iliac bones could be used interchangeably...
May 8, 2017: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492737/the-use-of-medicinal-plants-and-the-role-of-faith-in-family-care
#13
Crislaine Alves Barcellos de Lima, Ângela Roberta Alves Lima, Cledenir Vergara Mendonça, Caroline Vasconcellos Lopes, Rita Maria Heck
Objective: To understand the use of medicinal plants and the role of faith in the family care system. Method: The adopted methodology is qualitative research, conducted in April and July 2015, in a municipality of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, Brazil, with three informants who have knowledge of the healthcare practices. The data were interpreted using interpretive anthropology. Results: Data interpretation led to two categories: Medicinal plants in health care and Care with the use of plants in the blessing ritual...
May 4, 2017: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492085/self-managing-hiv-aids-cultural-competence-and-health-among-women-in-nairobi-kenya
#14
Toni Copeland
Despite recent efforts to supply antiretroviral therapy, many in Africa are not receiving medication, instead relying on self-management in their attempts to remain healthy. In Kenya, the majority of those infected are women who are below the extreme poverty level. Building on research demonstrating a link between knowledge of HIV/AIDS management and the length of time HIV-positive women have lived in Nairobi, this article uses a cognitive anthropological approach that conceives of culture as shared models and explores the relationship between how well women know a cultural model of self-managing HIV/AIDS and health among women who are not receiving biomedical treatment...
May 11, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484621/the-mountains-of-giants-an-anthropometric-survey-of-male-youths-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#15
Pavel Grasgruber, Stevo Popović, Dominik Bokuvka, Ivan Davidović, Sylva Hřebíčková, Pavlína Ingrová, Predrag Potpara, Stipan Prce, Nikola Stračárová
The aim of this anthropometric survey, conducted between 2015 and 2016 in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), was to map local geographical differences in male stature and some other anthropometric characteristics (sitting height, arm span). In addition, to investigate the main environmental factors influencing physical growth, the documented values of height would be compared with available nutritional and socioeconomic statistics. Anthropometric data were collected in 3192 boys aged approximately 18.3 years (17-20 years), from 97 schools in 37 towns...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468153/long-term-evaluation-of-mandibular-growth-in-children-with-fgfr2-mutations
#16
John C Kolar, Kanlaya Ditthakasem, Jeffrey A Fearon
BACKGROUND: Understanding mandibular growth in children with fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) mutations is important for planning the degree of midface advancement, and for determining the best treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. Yet, relatively little is known about growth of the unoperated mandible in affected children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mandibular growth through skeletal maturity in Apert, Crouzon, and Pfeiffer syndromes. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed...
May 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467888/auditory-object-perception-a-neurobiological-model-and-prospective-review
#17
Julie A Brefczynski-Lewis, James W Lewis
Interaction with the world is a multisensory experience, but most of what is known about the neural correlates of perception comes from studying vision. Auditory inputs enter cortex with its own set of unique qualities, and leads to use in oral communication, speech, music, and the understanding of emotional and intentional states of others, all of which are central to the human experience. To better understand how the auditory system develops, recovers after injury, and how it may have transitioned in its functions over the course of hominin evolution, advances are needed in models of how the human brain is organized to process real-world natural sounds and "auditory objects"...
April 30, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467343/a-reading-of-archaeological-and-anthropological-results-of-the-second-half-of-the-19th-century-on-paleoanthropological-skull-in-a-prehistoric-cave-of-north-west-lombardy
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466436/three-dimensional-geometric-morphometric-analysis-reveals-ethnic-dimorphism-in-the-shape-of-the-femur
#19
Etienne Cavaignac, Ke Li, Marie Faruch, Frederic Savall, Philippe Chiron, W Huang, Norbert Telmon
BACKGROUND: Ethnic dimorphism in the distal femur has never been studied in a three-dimensional analysis focused on shape instead of size. Yet, this dimorphism has direct implications in orthopedic surgery and in anthropology. The goal of this study was to show that differences in distal femur shape related to ethnic dimorphism could be identified, visualized, and quantified using 3D geometric morphometric analysis. METHODS: CT scans of the distal femur were taken from 482 patients who were free of any bone-related pathology: 240 patients were European (E) and 242 were Asian (A)...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464294/skeletal-indicators-of-shark-feeding-on-human-remains-evidence-from-florida-forensic-anthropology-cases
#20
Michala K Stock, Allysha P Winburn, George H Burgess
This research examines a series of six Florida forensic anthropology cases that exhibit taphonomic evidence of marine deposition and shark-feeding activities. In each case, we analyzed patterns of trauma/damage on the skeletal remains (e.g., sharp-force bone gouges and punctures) and possible mechanisms by which they were inflicted during shark predation/scavenging. In some cases, shark teeth were embedded in the remains; in the absence of this evidence, we measured interdental distance from defects in the bone to estimate shark body length, as well as to draw inferences about the potential species responsible...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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