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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448161/peaches-for-lunch-creating-and-using-visual-variables
#1
Elizabeth Cartwright, Adam Clegg
In this article, I describe the process of systematically including non-verbal data in medical anthropology research. I demonstrate the process of visualizing and coding videotaped moments of life and show how we can analyze what is being done along with what is being said. I ground my discussion in toddler language socialization and then expand my observations to the realm of language pathologies. Aphasia from strokes, speech difficulties in neurologically based illnesses like Lou Gehrig's disease, and the variety of communication challenges that face those on the autism spectrum can all be studied in interesting ways by including precise descriptions of non-verbal actions...
April 27, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441444/contexts-of-occurrence-of-child-malnutrition-in-the-district-of-villaguay-entre-r%C3%A3-os-argentina-a-multivariate-analysis
#2
María Laura Bergel Sanchís, María Florencia Cesani, Evelia Edith Oyhenart
The analysis of nutritional status is anthropologically important to address the complex interaction of biological, social, political, economic and cultural factors. To deepen the knowledge about contexts of occurrence of child malnutrition, we analyzed nutritional status in relation to socio-environmental conditions of residence in children between three and six years from Villaguay, Entre Ríos, Argentina. We performed a cross-sectional study of 1,435 school children of both sexes. Body weight and height were measured and prevalence of low height/age (LH/A), low weight/age (LW/A), low BMI/age (LBMI/A), overweight (Ow) and obesity (Ob) was calculated using World Health Organization reference charts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432628/design-of-water-quality-monitoring-networks-with-two-information-scenarios-in-tropical-andean-basins
#3
Juan Carlos Bastidas, Jorge Julián Vélez, Jeannette Zambrano, Adela Londoño
Design and redesign of water quality monitoring networks were evaluated for two similarly sized watersheds in the tropical Andes via optimization techniques using geographic information system technology (GIS) and a matter-element analysis of 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and total suspended solids (TSS). This resulted in a flexible, objectively based design for a 1128-km(2) watershed without prior water quality data (La Miel River), and a network redesign of a 1052-km(2) watershed with historical water quality monitoring (Chinchiná River)...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429567/the-tsimane-health-and-life-history-project-integrating-anthropology-and-biomedicine
#4
Michael Gurven, Jonathan Stieglitz, Benjamin Trumble, Aaron D Blackwell, Bret Beheim, Helen Davis, Paul Hooper, Hillard Kaplan
The Tsimane Health and Life History Project, an integrated bio-behavioral study of the human life course, is designed to test competing hypotheses of human life-history evolution. One aim is to understand the bidirectional connections between life history and social behavior in a high-fertility, kin-based context lacking amenities of modern urban life (e.g. sanitation, banks, electricity). Another aim is to understand how a high pathogen burden influences health and well-being during development and adulthood...
April 2017: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428813/perinatal-depression-in-nigeria-perspectives-of-women-family-caregivers-and-health-care-providers
#5
Ademola Adeponle, Danielle Groleau, Lola Kola, Laurence J Kirmayer, Oye Gureje
BACKGROUND: Perinatal maternal depression is common and undertreated in many sub-Saharan African countries, including Nigeria. While culture shapes the social determinants and expression of depressive symptoms, there is a dearth of research investigating these processes in African contexts. METHODS: To address this gap, we conducted in-depth interviews with 14 women with perinatal depression, 14 of their family caregivers and 11 health providers, using the McGill Illness Narrative Interview as part of a larger trial of a stepped-care intervention...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424380/-schizotypy-detachment-or-magical-fusion
#6
János Kállai, Mária Simon, István Hartung, Béla Birkás, Róbert Herold
Nowadays, both in the clinical population, and in general communities, we tend to encounter an increasing number of personality disorder patients, whose social adjustment, partnerships and efficient life management is made difficult by the disorder. The ideas of borderline personality disorder patients, who fluctuate between farfetched expectations and fears of their selves being demolished, schizoid patients, who close their selves in their own alienating prison, avoidant patients, who try to escape difficulties, which would enhance their self-esteem, OCD patients, who build their own mythic superstitious world, and antisocial patients who tend to ignore and aggressively override others' interests are all important in the development of cultures with insecure identities...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417619/human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-class-i-and-ii-polymorphism-in-iranian-healthy-population-from-yazd-province
#7
Behrouz Nikbin, Mohammad Hossein Nicknam, Hossein Hadinedoushan, Bita Ansaripour, Batol Moradi, Mirsaeed Yekaninejad, Mahdi Aminikhah, Mohammad Mehdi Ranjbar, Aliakbar Amirzargar
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are the most polymorphic loci in the human genome and have been widely studied in various populations and ethnic groups. Investigations into the HLA genes and proteins have been useful tool for anthropological, transplantation and disease association studies. The polymorphism of the HLA class I (A, B, C) and class II (DRB1, DQA1, DQB1) genes were investigated in 90 unrelated Iranian individuals from Yazd province located in the center of Iran using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP)...
February 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414985/sharp-and-blunt-force-trauma-concealment-by-thermal-alteration-in-homicides-an-in-vitro-experiment-for-methodology-and-protocol-development-in-forensic-anthropological-analysis-of-burnt-bones
#8
Ioana Macoveciuc, Nicholas Márquez-Grant, Ian Horsfall, Peter Zioupos
Burning of human remains is one method used by perpetrators to conceal fatal trauma and expert opinions regarding the degree of skeletal evidence concealment are often disparate. This experiment aimed to reduce this incongruence in forensic anthropological interpretation of burned human remains and implicitly contribute to the development of research methodologies sufficiently robust to withstand forensic scrutiny in the courtroom. We have tested the influence of thermal alteration on pre-existing sharp and blunt trauma on twenty juvenile sheep radii in the laboratory using an automated impact testing system and an electric furnace...
March 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399499/occurrence-of-personal-care-products-as-emerging-chemicals-of-concern-in-water-resources-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Diana Montes-Grajales, Mary Fennix-Agudelo, Wendy Miranda-Castro
Personal care products (PCPs) are a diverse group of common household substances used for health, beauty and cleaning purposes. These include disinfectants, fragrances, insect repellents, preservatives and UV filters, among others. Some of them are considered chemicals of emerging concern due to their presence and negative impact on aquatic ecosystems, specially related to endocrine disruption and reproductive disorders. The entry of those chemicals to water bodies occurs mainly through the sewage effluents from wastewater treatment plants due to their incomplete or inefficient removal...
April 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398912/sharp-force-trauma-death-in-a-young-individual-from-medieval-gloucester
#10
Satu Valoriani, Constantine Eliopoulos, Matteo Borrini
The authors of the present work evaluate the trauma observed on the skeletal remains of an individual from medieval Gloucester and reconstruct the events that led to his death. The almost complete skeleton was recovered from the cemetery of St Owen and dates to the late medieval period. Several methods were used to determine the sex and age of the individual. The anthropological examination showed that the remains belonged to a young male, between the ages of 17 and 19 years. The young man also had antemortem pathologies that were related to his diet and lifestyle, as he appears to have had iron-deficiency anemia and Schmorl nodes...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397029/introduction-to-moral-and-other-laboratories
#11
EDITORIAL
Teresa Kuan, Lone Grøn
"Moral (and other) laboratories" is a special issue that draws on Cheryl Mattingly's notion of the "moral laboratory" to explore the uncanny interface between laboratory ethnography and moral anthropology, and to examine the relationship between experience and experiment. We ask whether laboratory work may provoke new insights about experimental practices in other social spaces such as homes, clinics, and neighborhoods, and conversely, whether the study of morality may provoke new insights about laboratory practices as they unfold in the day-to-day interactions between test tubes, animals, apparatuses, scientists, and technicians...
April 10, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396476/engaging-communities-anthropological-insights-from-the-west-african-ebola-epidemic
#12
REVIEW
A Wilkinson, M Parker, F Martineau, M Leach
The recent Ebola epidemic in West Africa highlights how engaging with the sociocultural dimensions of epidemics is critical to mounting an effective outbreak response. Community engagement was pivotal to ending the epidemic and will be to post-Ebola recovery, health system strengthening and future epidemic preparedness and response. Extensive literatures in the social sciences have emphasized how simple notions of community, which project solidarity onto complex hierarchies and politics, can lead to ineffective policies and unintended consequences at the local level, including doing harm to vulnerable populations...
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391747/a-foetal-tile-from-an-archaeological-site-anthropological-investigation-of-human-remains-recovered-in-a-medieval-cemetery-in-northern-italy
#13
Marta Licata, Chiara Rossetti, Adelaide Tosi, Paola Badino
BACKGROUND: The recovery of foetal remains is very sporadic in archaeology, especially due the scarce degree of bone mineralisation. This paper presents the singular archaeological discovery of a foetal tile preserving the bone remains, object of our anthropological examination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The foetal tile was discovered during an archaeological excavation in a medieval site (Northern Italy). The tile was analysed by CT scan and later, human remains were anthropologically examined...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390151/from-biography-to-osteobiography-an-example-of-anthropological-historical-identification-of-the-remains-of-st-paul
#14
Frane Mihanović, Ivan Jerković, Ivana Kružić, Šimun Anđelinović, Stipan Janković, Željana Bašić
In the identification process of historical figures, and especially in cases of Saint's bodies or mummified remains, any method that includes physical encroachment or sampling is often not allowed. In these cases, one of the few remaining possibilities is the application of nondestructive radiographical and anthropological methods. However, although there have been a few attempts of such analyses, no systematic standard methodology has been developed until now. In this study, we developed a methodological approach that was used to test the authenticity of the alleged body of Saint Paul the Confessor...
April 8, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389681/-adna-research-from-a%C3%A2-historical-perspective
#15
Elsbeth Bösl
aDNA studies are a cooperative field of research with a broad range of applications including evolutionary biology, genetics, anthropology and archaeology. Scientists are using ancient molecules as source material for historical questions. Colleagues from the humanities are observing this with both interest and concern because aDNA research is affecting academic identities and both concepts of history and historiography. aDNA research developed in a way that can be described as a Hype Cycle (Chackie Fenn)...
April 7, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389648/root-anatomy-and-canal-morphology-of-mandibular-first-premolars-in-a-chinese-population
#16
Lei Dou, Duojiao Li, Tingting Xu, Yin Tang, Deqin Yang
This study was to investigate root anatomy and root canal morphology of mandibular first premolars in a Chinese population. 178 human permanent mandibular first premolars extracted from a native Chinese population were collected, scanned using micro-computed tomography and reconstructed three-dimensionally. The number of roots and canals, canal configuration and radicular grooves were investigated. The root canal morphology was categorized according to Vertucci's criteria. The radicular grooves were scored according to the Arizona State University dental anthropology scoring system (ASUDAS), and the correlation between scores for radicular grooves and root canal morphology was analyzed...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379960/gc-ms-and-proteomics-to-unravel-the-painting-history-of-the-lost-giant-buddhas-of-b%C3%A4-miy%C3%A4-n-afghanistan
#17
Anna Lluveras-Tenorio, Roberto Vinciguerra, Eugenio Galano, Catharina Blaensdorf, Erwin Emmerling, Maria Perla Colombini, Leila Birolo, Ilaria Bonaduce
A chemical investigation of the organic paint binders of the Giant Buddhas of Bāmiyān was performed using an analytical approach based on mass spectrometry, combining traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry protocols with advanced proteomics methodologies. The research was carried out on a selection of rescued fragments. The data revealed the use of egg proteins as the paint binders of the original layers, in accordance with the traditional use of this proteinaceous medium in antiquity, spanning from the Mediterranean basin to the Far East, and already in the Bronze Age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375646/careography-staff-experiences-of-navigating-decisions-in-neonatology-in-denmark
#18
Laura E Navne, Mette N Svendsen
In this article, we explore medical doctors' moral experiences of being responsible for decisions on the lives and sometimes deaths of infants in a Danish Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Drawing on fieldwork, we investigate how clinicians navigate the tension between exercising medical authority and enabling parental involvement in decisions. Introducing the term "careography", we call attention to how the doctors steer this tension through care for the infant, parents, colleagues, and society in ways that help them overcome moral ambivalences...
April 4, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371957/-impact-of-anthropologic-psychiatry-on-psychiatrie-enquete-and-psychiatric-reform-in-west-germany
#19
Felicitas Söhner, Thomas Becker, Heiner Fangerau
Objectives Analysis of the perception of effects of anthropological psychiatry on the Psychiatrie-Enquete and psychiatric reform in the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). Methods Qualitative content analysis of expert interviews and systematic literature search. Results Literary sources and expert interviews point to the impact of the anthropologic concept on discourse on and approach to those suffering from mental illness. The attention focused on the visualisation of material-social and subjective living conditions of persons with mental illness...
April 3, 2017: Psychiatrische Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370807/a-call-for-action-why-anthropologists-can-and-should-join-the-discussion-on-climate-change-through-education
#20
Lauren N Butaric, Lydia E O Light, Sara L Juengst
Anthropologists, human biologists, and researchers in related fields have been investigating the human-environment interaction and its effects on health for decades. While there have been numerous studies from the medical- and health-sectors pointing to the connection between climate change and health needs, as well as studies advocating for the incorporation of appropriate curricula addressing these needs in medical schools and health-professional programs, this connection is not being systematically taught to our future healthcare professionals...
March 29, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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