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Rick Janssen, Scott R Moisik, Dan Dediu
People vary at most levels, from the molecular to the cognitive, and the shape of the hard palate (the bony roof of the mouth) is no exception. The patterns of variation in the hard palate are important for the forensic sciences and (palaeo)anthropology, and might also play a role in speech production, both in pathological cases and normal variation. Here we describe a method based on Bézier curves, whose main aim is to generate possible shapes of the hard palate in humans for use in computer simulations of speech production and language evolution...
2018: PloS One
Jason M Kamilar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Evolutionary Anthropology
Robin Yong, Sarbin Ranjitkar, Dimitra Lekkas, Demetrios Halazonetis, Alistair Evans, Alan Brook, Grant Townsend
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate size and shape variation of human premolars between Indigenous Australians and Australians of European ancestry, and to assess whether sex and ancestry could be differentiated between these groups using 3D geometric morphometrics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy dental casts from each group, equally subdivided by sex, were scanned using a structured-light scanner. The 3D meshes of upper and lower premolars were processed using geometric morphometric methods...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Temitope A Esan, Lynne A Schepartz
Current dental maturity charts, such as the widely applied London atlas, do not take into consideration advanced tooth emergence and formation patterns observed in children of African ancestry. The result is inaccurate age estimation in Southern Africa, a region where there is great forensic and anthropological need for reliable age estimation. OBJECTIVES: To develop a population-specific atlas of permanent tooth emergence and formation for age estimation of Black Southern Africans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using data from a cross-sectional study of 642 school children aged 5-20 years, panoramic radiographs taken during routine dental examination in a mobile treatment van were analyzed using the Demirjian method of eight (A-H) tooth formation stages...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Karen Lutfey Spencer
The term patient noncompliance emerged in the 1970s as a tool for analyzing why people do not follow medical directives. Despite its early popularity, the term has languished in sociology while flourishing in biomedical arenas. It seems flaccid in a contemporary healthcare context as it overestimates physician authority and is tone-deaf to biomedicalization. I draw from sociological and anthropological traditions, as well as qualitative interviews with terminally ill patients ( N = 26) and their caregivers ( N = 16), to consider facets of a biomedicalized health experience and implications for an updated vision of compliance...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Temitope A Esan, Lynne A Schepartz
The accuracies of the original Demirjian, modified Demirjian and Willems dental age estimation methods were compared for a Black Southern African population to determine their usefulness for forensic and anthropological purposes. Data were collected using a community-based prospective study design. Panoramic radiographs of seven left mandibular teeth from 540 children aged 5-15.99 years were scored using the three methods. Obtained estimates were compared to the chronological ages and mean absolute errors were calculated...
February 1, 2018: Legal Medicine
Stephan A Schwartz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 23, 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Emily Hammad Mrig, Karen Lutfey Spencer
A growing body of social science literature is devoted to describing processes of biomedicalization. The issue of biomedicalization is especially relevant for individuals suffering from end-stage cancer and hoping that aggressive end-of-life interventions, which are riddled with uncertainty around quantity or quality of life, will produce a 'cure'. To examine hospice underutilization among end-stage cancer patients, we apply the anthropological concept 'political economy of hope,' which describes how personal and collective 'hope' is associated with the political and economic structures that produce biomedicalization processes...
January 27, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Gabriel Girard, Véronique Doré
Research on homosexuality and HIV/AIDS in the social sciences has evolved into a vast and multiform field of study since the beginning of the epidemic in the Global North. Studies from France in this domain have remained relatively unknown at the international level. This article offers a narrative review of publications that resulted from research on homosexuality and HIV/AIDS, from 1985 to 2016. It offers an analysis of how the constitution of a field of research conditions the ways scientific questions are asked (and answered)...
February 7, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Richard McMahon
A recently blossoming historiographical literature recognizes that physical anthropologists allied with scholars of diverse aspects of society and history to racially classify European peoples over a period of about a hundred years. They created three successive race classification coalitions - ethnology, from around 1840; anthropology, from the 1850s; and interwar raciology - each of which successively disintegrated. The present genealogical study argues that representing these coalitions as 'transdisciplinary' can enrich our understanding of challenges to disciplinary specialization...
February 8, 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
Ana Maria Canesqui
This paper discusses the legitimacy and non-legitimacy of selected experiences of long-term illness and suffering, which are, or are not, considered diseases by medical diagnoses, such as pain, chronic fatigue, and "high blood pressure" using international and national sociological and anthropological research in health. It explores their implications, reflexes and ambiguities for the identity, moral and physical suffering perceived by the subjects and in their relationship with others and with the health services...
February 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Elizabeth M Miller
Richard E. Scammon's article, "The First Seriatim Study of Human Growth," provided one of the best-known visuals in the field of human biology. Scammon resurrected longitudinal height data of one child from Buffon's Histoire Naturelle, converted them to metric, and plotted these measurements as a function of age. The result was the first graph of one individual's growth curve from birth to 18 years of age. This image was subsequently reproduced in numerous texts on human growth and biology. Published in 1927, Scammon's article provides a snapshot of the state of growth research at the time and gives a (literal) picture of the future of human biology...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Alexandra Houssaye, Maxime Taverne, Raphaël Cornette
Long bone inner structure and cross-sectional geometry display a strong functional signal, leading to convergences, and are widely analyzed in comparative anatomy at small and large taxonomic scales. Long bone microanatomical studies have essentially been conducted on transverse sections but also on a few longitudinal ones. Recent studies highlighted the interest in analyzing variations of the inner structure along the diaphysis using a qualitative as well as a quantitative approach. With the development of microtomography, it has become possible to study three-dimensional (3D) bone microanatomy and, in more detail, the form-function relationships of these features...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Natchagorn Lumlerdkij, Jaturapat Tantiwongse, Suksalin Booranasubkajorn, Ranida Boonrak, Pravit Akarasereenont, Tawee Laohapand, Michael Heinrich
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Thai traditional medicine (TTM) is widely practiced in Thailand and continues to gain importance in cancer management, but little is known about the TTM practitioners' emic concepts and practice. AIM OF THE STUDY: With this study we firstly aim to document the practice of cancer treatment and prevention by TTM practitioners and, secondly, to evaluate how such traditional concepts and practices are correlated with biomedical ones. This in turn can form the basis for developing novel strategies for designing pharmacological experiments and longer term strategies to develop TTM practice...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Antonio Casciano
Ethical and bioethical problems, which are typical of the practice of surrogate motherhood, refer to its protagonists: the couple that orders it, due to its demand to satisfy the desire of paternity and maternity and the promptness of having a female body to fulfill its aspirations; the expectant mother, and the physical and psychic repercussions coming from the role performed in the surrogacy contract, as well as the risks of manipulation and exploitation, related to her position; the baby and his right to grow counting on the certainty of his parental relationships and on the preservation of his emotional balance...
January 2018: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
Christina Dillahunt-Aspillaga, Gail Powell-Cope
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been called the signature injury of the post-9/11 wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and neighboring countries. Although similarities exist between veterans and service members with TBI, levels of severity and different constellations of coexisting comorbid conditions affect them differently. These conditions affect physical, cognitive, and emotional function, which in turn can complicate community reintegration (CR), or the ability to return to family, vocational, and community life...
February 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Mengge Wang, Zheng Wang, Guanglin He, Zhenjun Jia, Jing Liu, Yiping Hou
Short tandem repeats (STRs) are attractive to genetic applications like forensic, anthropological and population genetics studies. The Huaxia Platinum System was specifically developed to allow co-amplification and detection of all markers in the expanded CODIS core loci and the Chinese National Database. In this study, in continuation to our previous validation study, 568 unrelated individuals were firstly genotyped to investigate the effectiveness of this novel assay in 3 main ethnic groups of China (Han, Tibetan and Yi)...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Konstantinos N Zafeiris, Stamatina Kaklamani
This study aimed to delineate temporal trends and differentials of completed fertility and their relationship with some characteristics of the marriage system in specific anthropological populations of northern Greece. The analysis was based on the life history of quinquennial and decennial birth cohorts of married women born in the 20th century who reproduced solely within the settlements studied. The variables studied were: children ever born, mean age of mother at first marriage, mean age of mother at first child (live birth), mean age of mother at last child and reproductive span...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Ramya Kollipara, Bridget Walker, Ashley Sturgeon
Objective: Most literature regarding lip augmentation refers to Caucasian anthropometric measurements, but ethnic differences affect facial dimensions and the evaluation of beauty. Specifically with regard to Asians and Hispanics, dermatology does not have much literature on the subject. This review investigates the differences in lip measurements and preferences of Asians and Hispanics compared with those of Caucasians. Design: A literature search of other fields, including plastic surgery, maxillofacial surgery, orthodontics, and forensic anthropology, was conducted, and relevant articles were selected that applied to the discussion of lip measurements and preferences in Asians and Hispanics...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
Tricia M Ross
Approximately thirty almost entirely overlooked books appeared in Europe between 1500 and 1700 that include the word anthropologia in their titles. At first glance, the content of these works bears no resemblance to anthropology as we think of it. They present a combination of medieval traditions, cutting-edge medical practices, and evolving natural philosophical and theological systems found in universities of all confessions across Europe. But these largely overlooked sources reveal that the disciplines we use to study ourselves may have developed from an intertwined natural philosophical and religious system...
2018: Journal of the History of Ideas
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