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Anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645314/neuromuscular-function-during-knee-extension-exercise-after-cold-water-immersion
#1
Hitoshi Wakabayashi, Titis Wijayanto, Yutaka Tochihara
BACKGROUND: Human adaptability to cold environment has been focused on in the physiological anthropology and related research area. Concerning the human acclimatization process in the natural climate, it is necessary to conduct a research assessing comprehensive effect of cold environment and physical activities in cold. This study investigated the effect of cold water immersion on the exercise performance and neuromuscular function during maximal and submaximal isometric knee extension...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644425/significance-of-parathyroid-scintigraphy-and-correlation-of-findings-with-parathyroid-hormone-values-in-patients-undergoing-hemodialysis
#2
Nermana Ahmetbegović, Nadira Suljagić, Vahidin Katica
Aim To compare finding of thyroid gland scintigraphy with serum concentration of parathyroid hormone in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods This retrospective-prospective study included 50 patients undergoing hemodialysis with established hyperparathyroidism who were treated at Cantonal Hospital Zenica in the period 2009 - 2014. Besides anthropological data, concentration of parathyroid hormone in serum of patients was monitored too. Scintigraphy was performed at the Department of Nuclear Medicine using two-headed gamma camera Prism 2000xp...
August 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641809/re-emerging-infectious-diseases-from-the-past-hysteria-or-real-risk
#3
Charlier Philippe, Claverie Jean-Michel, Sansonetti Philippe, Coppens Yves, Augias Anaïs, Jacqueline Sophie, Rengot Fanny, Deo Saudamini
BACKGROUND: Work on human remains and old biological samples is a potential source of contamination by conventional or atypical infectious agents. Similarly, current and future environmental changes are a source of resurgence of ancient epidemic diseases. To what extent are anthropologists sorcerer apprentices (especially those working on ancient samples, i.e. paleo-anthropologists)? Are ancient skeletons, palaeosols and museum objects with a biological component at risk for current populations? Unless there are unfounded fears and undue risk… What can be learned from the recent scientific literature and the common sense of the researchers? METHODS: We have attempted to compile data from the literature and from our personal experience in the fields of anthropology, clinical medicine and epidemiology, in order to grasp the reality of the risk to the human population...
June 19, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640836/craniofacial-similarity-analysis-through-sparse-principal-component-analysis
#4
Junli Zhao, Fuqing Duan, Zhenkuan Pan, Zhongke Wu, Jinhua Li, Qingqiong Deng, Xiaona Li, Mingquan Zhou
The computer-aided craniofacial reconstruction (CFR) technique has been widely used in the fields of criminal investigation, archaeology, anthropology and cosmetic surgery. The evaluation of craniofacial reconstruction results is important for improving the effect of craniofacial reconstruction. Here, we used the sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) method to evaluate the similarity between two sets of craniofacial data. Compared with principal component analysis (PCA), SPCA can effectively reduce the dimensionality and simultaneously produce sparse principal components with sparse loadings, thus making it easy to explain the results...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635867/-the-investigations-into-the-amino-acid-composition-of-the-tooth-for-the-purpose-of-forensic-medical-personality-identification
#5
Yu I Pigolkin, G V Zolotenkova, P S Velenko, B N Izotov
The increasingly greater requirements for the new approaches to the forensic medical personality identification necessitate the extensive search for and the development of the precise methods enabling the experts to determine the general personality signs in the cases of mass mortality and the large number of victims with the conspicuous post-mortem changes in their appearance including those associated with putrefaction and strong fragmentation of the bodies. This article presents the analytical review demonstrating that determination of the victims' age in the combination with the analysis of the amino acid composition of dental tissues provides a promising tool for the investigations not only in the fields of archeology and anthropology but also for the purpose of personality identification in forensic medicine...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634680/stability-of-upper-face-sexual-dimorphism-in-central-european-populations-czech-republic-during-the-modern-age
#6
Šárka Bejdová, Ján Dupej, Václav Krajíček, Jana Velemínská, Petr Velemínský
One of the most fundamental issues in forensic anthropology is the determination of sex and population affinity based on various skeletal elements. Therefore, we compared the sexual dimorphism of the upper facial skeleton from a recent Czech population (twenty-first century) with that of a population from Early Modern Age Bohemia (sixteenth to eighteenth centuries). Methods of geometric morphometrics were applied. According to the results, sexual dimorphism in terms of size, shape, and form was statistically significant in both populations...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632068/subversions-on-the-border-of-life-and-deathremaking-life-death-toward-an-anthropology-of-the-biosciences-edited-by-sarah-franklin-and-margaret-lock-santa-fe-nm-school-of-american-research-press-2003-372-pp-isbn-1-930618-20-4-34-95-hardcover-reviewed-by-anna
#7
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625158/a-minimally-invasive-method-for-sampling-human-petrous-bones-from-the-cranial-base-for-ancient-dna-analysis
#8
Kendra A Sirak, Daniel M Fernandes, Olivia Cheronet, Mario Novak, Beatriz Gamarra, Tímea Balassa, Zsolt Bernert, Andrea Cséki, János Dani, József Zsolt Gallina, Gábor Kocsis-Buruzs, Ivett Kővári, Orsolya László, Ildikó Pap, Róbert Patay, Zsolt Petkes, Gergely Szenthe, Tamás Szeniczey, Tamás Hajdu, Ron Pinhasi
Ancient DNA (aDNA) research involves invasive and destructive sampling procedures that are often incompatible with anthropological, anatomical, and bioarcheological analyses requiring intact skeletal remains. The osseous labyrinth inside the petrous bone has been shown to yield higher amounts of endogenous DNA than any other skeletal element; however, accessing this labyrinth in cases of a complete or reconstructed skull involves causing major structural damage to the cranial vault or base. Here, we describe a novel cranial base drilling method (CBDM) for accessing the osseous labyrinth from the cranial base that prevents damaging the surrounding cranial features, making it highly complementary to morphological analyses...
June 1, 2017: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622932/an-evolutionary-medicine-perspective-on-neandertal-extinction
#9
Alexis P Sullivan, Marc de Manuel, Tomas Marques-Bonet, George H Perry
The Eurasian sympatry of Neandertals and anatomically modern humans - beginning at least 45,000 years ago and possibly lasting for more than 5000 years - has sparked immense anthropological interest into the factors that potentially contributed to Neandertal extinction. Among many different hypotheses, the "differential pathogen resistance" extinction model posits that Neandertals were disproportionately affected by exposure to novel infectious diseases that were transmitted during the period of spatiotemporal sympatry with modern humans...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621706/nada-ear-acupuncture-an-adjunctive-therapy-to-improve-and-maintain-positive-outcomes-in-substance-abuse-treatment
#10
Kenneth Carter, Michelle Olshan-Perlmutter, Jonathan Marx, Janet F Martini, Simon B Cairns
The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association protocol (NADA) is an adjunctive therapy using 1 to 5 invariant ear acupuncture/acupressure points. This is a randomized prospective study to determine if NADA plus traditional treatment enhance outcomes: quality of life, depression, anxiety and abstinence from substance abuse. There were 100 patients enrolled in the Keystone Substance Abuse Services-Winthrop University Department of Sociology and Anthropology NADA study. All patients completed Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES) prior to starting the program and at program completion...
June 16, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619033/social-representations-of-malaria-in-the-guna-indigenous-population-of-comarca-guna-de-madungandi-panama
#11
Lorenzo Cáceres, José E Calzada, Amanda Gabster, Josue Young, Ricardo Márquez, Rolando Torres, Margarita Griffith
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to recognize the social representation of the Guna indigenous population by identifying cultural elements related to malaria, in order to create an intercultural approach to any health intervention to control and prevent the disease. METHODS: This qualitative study has an anthropological focus that used participant observation, informal conversations, focus groups, interviews, in-depth interviews with key actors. Analyses included review, classification and categorization of interviews...
June 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614519/historical-and-cultural-aspects-of-the-provision-of-care-at-an-indigenous-healthcare-service-facility
#12
Aridiane Alves Ribeiro, Cássia Irene Spinelli Arantes, Dulce Maria Rosa Gualda, Lídia Aparecida Rossi
This case study aimed to interpret the underlying historical and cultural aspects of the provision of care at an indigenous healthcare service facility. This is an interpretive, case study-type research with qualitative approach, which was conducted in 2012 at the Indigenous Health Support Center (CASAI) of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected by means systematic observation, documentary analyses and semi-structured interviews with ten health professionals. Data review was performed according to an approach based on social anthropology and health anthropology...
June 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613039/sex-estimation-standards-for-medieval-and-contemporary-croats
#13
Željana Bašić, Ivana Kružić, Ivan Jerković, Deny Anđelinović, Šimun Anđelinović
AIM: To develop discriminant functions for sex estimation on medieval Croatian population and test their application on contemporary Croatian population. METHODS: From a total of 519 skeletons, we chose 84 adult excellently preserved skeletons free of antemortem or postmortem changes and took all standard measurements. Sex was estimated/determined using standard anthropological procedures and ancient DNA (amelogenin analysis) where pelvis was insufficiently preserved or where sex morphological indicators were not consistent...
June 14, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612898/sex-estimation-by-femur-in-modern-thai-population
#14
T Monum, S Prasitwattanseree, S Das, P Siriphimolwat, P Mahakkanukrauh
Sex estimation is an important step of postmortem investigation and the femur is a useful bone for sex estimation by using metric analysis method. Even though there have been a reported sex estimation method by using femur in Thais, the temporal change related to time and anthropological data need to be renewed. Thus the aim of this study is to re-evaluate sex estimation by femur in Thais. 97 adult male and 103 female femora were random chosen from Forensic osteology research center and 6 measurements were applied tend to...
May 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611035/metabolic-anthropology-selection-pressure-shapes-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-greenlandic-inuit-populations
#15
EDITORIAL
Robert W McGarrah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606333/sex-estimation-from-the-scapula-in-a-contemporary-thai-population-applications-for-forensic-anthropology
#16
Tanya R Peckmann, Shelby Scott, Susan Meek, Pasuk Mahakkanukrauh
The impact of climate change is estimated to be particularly severe in Thailand. Overall, the country faces an increase in surface temperatures, severe storms and floods, and a possible increase in the number of mass disasters in the region. It is extremely important that forensic scientists have access to sex estimation methods developed for use on a Thai population. The goal of this project is to evaluate the accuracy of sex estimation discriminant functions, created using contemporary Mexican and Greek populations, when applied to a contemporary Thai sample...
July 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606330/recognition-of-children-on-age-different-images-facial-morphology-and-age-stable-features
#17
Zuzana Caplova, Valentina Compassi, Silvio Giancola, Daniele M Gibelli, Zuzana Obertová, Pasquale Poppa, Remo Sala, Chiarella Sforza, Cristina Cattaneo
The situation of missing children is one of the most emotional social issues worldwide. The search for and identification of missing children is often hampered, among others, by the fact that the facial morphology of long-term missing children changes as they grow. Nowadays, the wide coverage by surveillance systems potentially provides image material for comparisons with images of missing children that may facilitate identification. The aim of study was to identify whether facial features are stable in time and can be utilized for facial recognition by comparing facial images of children at different ages as well as to test the possible use of moles in recognition...
July 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600906/giuseppe-sergi-the-portrait-of-a-positivist-scientist
#18
Giovanni Cerro
Giuseppe Sergi (1841-1936) was one of the most important anthropologists and psychologists of the age of positivism and this article focuses on three domains of his scientific research: degeneration, eugenics and race. His concept of degeneration is defined as the development of special forms of human adaptation to the environment. This issue is closely related to his theory of the "stratification of character", which had a profound impact on Italian psychiatry and criminal anthropology in the late nineteenth century...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587264/being-in-the-chemotherapy-suite-versus-being-in-the-oncology-ward-an-analytical-view-of-two-hospital-sites-occupied-by-people-experiencing-cancer
#19
Catherine Hughes, Kate van Heugten, Sally Keeling, Francisc Szekely
How do people with cancer occupy places within the health system during their journey through palliative care? The answer to this question was explored by the authors as part of a wider ethnographic study of eight people's journeys from referral to palliative care services to the end of life. This article reports on findings that have emerged from ongoing analysis that has been completed in the years proceeding data collection. An ethnographic research design was used to collect data about the participants and their family members over a three-year period...
June 5, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586275/good-food-bad-food-and-white-rice-understanding-child-feeding-using-visual-narrative-elicitation
#20
Chelsea Wentworth
Visual-narrative elicitation, a process combing photo elicitation and pile sorting in applied medical anthropology, sheds light on food consumption patterns in urban areas of Vanuatu where childhood malnutrition is a persistent problem. Groups of participants took photographs of the foods they feed their children, and the resources and barriers they encounter in accessing foodstuffs. This revealed how imported and local foods are assigned value as "good" or "bad" foods when contributing to dietary diversity and creating appropriate meals for children, particularly in the context of consuming white rice...
June 6, 2017: Medical Anthropology
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