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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237858/humans-as-a-model-for-understanding-biological-fundamentals
#1
REVIEW
Sarah F Brosnan, Erik Postma
How special are humans? This question drives scholarly output across both the sciences and the humanities. Whereas some disciplines, and the humanities in particular, aim at gaining a better understanding of humans per se, most biologists ultimately aim to understand life in general. This raises the question of whether and when humans are acceptable, or even desirable, models of biological fundamentals. Especially for basic biological processes, non-human species are generally accepted as a relevant model to study topics for which studying humans is impractical, impossible, or ethically inadvisable, but the reverse is controversial: are humans 'too unique' to be informative with respect to biological fundamentals relevant to other species? Or are there areas where we share key components, or for which our very uniqueness serves to allow novel explorations? In this special feature, authors from disciplines including biology, psychology, anthropology, neuroscience and philosophy tackle this question...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236806/the-circulation-of-psychoanalytical-knowledge-and-practice-in-the-social-sciences
#2
Luiz Fernando Dias Duarte
A concise but broad-based review is presented of the circulation of knowledge and practices from psychoanalysis in the social sciences, especially anthropology. The different contexts in which the concepts and conceptions of psychoanalysis have been read, refuted, or appropriated by different national schools of thought and intellectual traditions and the ways psychoanalysis itself has interacted with anthropological knowledge and its incorporations of psychoanalytical knowledge are explored. The interpretations of these two major groups of knowledge are referred to as participating in a common cultural horizon with a common epistemological orientation, and the sources of the frequent mistaken beliefs occurring in this interplay are also addressed...
November 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234095/enclaves-of-genetic-diversity-resisted-inca-impacts-on-population-history
#3
Chiara Barbieri, José R Sandoval, Jairo Valqui, Aviva Shimelman, Stefan Ziemendorff, Roland Schröder, Maria Geppert, Lutz Roewer, Russell Gray, Mark Stoneking, Ricardo Fujita, Paul Heggarty
The Inca Empire is claimed to have driven massive population movements in western South America, and to have spread Quechua, the most widely-spoken language family of the indigenous Americas. A test-case is the Chachapoyas region of northern Peru, reported as a focal point of Inca population displacements. Chachapoyas also spans the environmental, cultural and demographic divides between Amazonia and the Andes, and stands along the lowest-altitude corridor from the rainforest to the Pacific coast. Following a sampling strategy informed by linguistic data, we collected 119 samples, analysed for full mtDNA genomes and Y-chromosome STRs...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232962/meaning-in-hoarding-perspectives-of-people-who-hoard-on-clutter-culture-and-agency
#4
David M R Orr, Michael Preston-Shoot, Suzy Braye
Hoarding has become increasingly prominent in clinical practice and popular culture in recent years, giving rise to extensive research and commentary. Critical responses in the social sciences have criticised the cultural assumptions built in to the construct of 'hoarding disorder' and expressed fears that it may generate stigma outweighing its benefits; however, few of these studies have engaged directly with 'hoarders' themselves. This paper reports on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 10 individuals living in England, who received assessment and intervention for hoarding from Social Services...
December 12, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231012/-progress-in-application-of-measuring-skeleton-by-ct-in-forensic-anthropology-research
#5
C Y Miao, L Xu, N Wang, M Zhang, Y S Li, J X Lü
Individual identification by measuring the human skeleton is an important research in the field of forensic anthropology. Computed tomography (CT) technology can provide high-resolution image of skeleton. Skeleton image can be reformed by software in the post-processing workstation. Different skeleton measurement indexes of anthropology, such as diameter, angle, area and volume, can be measured on section and reformative images. Measurement process is barely affected by human factors. This paper reviews the literatures at home and abroad about the application of measuring skeleton by CT in forensic anthropology research for individual identification in four aspects, including sex determination, height infer, facial soft tissue thickness measurement and age estimation...
February 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223292/can-we-refine-body-mass-estimations-based-on-femoral-head-breadth
#6
Markku Niskanen, Juho-Antti Junno, Heli Maijanen, Brigitte Holt, Vladimir Sladék, Margit Berner
Femoral head breadth is widely used in body mass estimation in biological anthropology. Earlier research has demonstrated that reduced major axis (RMA) equations perform better than least squares (LS) equations. Although a simple RMA equation to estimate body size from femoral head breadth is sufficient in most cases, our experiments with male skeletons from European data (including late Pleistocene and Holocene skeletal samples) and the Forensic Anthropology Data Bank data (including the W. M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection sample) show that including femoral length or anatomically estimated stature in an equation with femoral head breadth improves body mass estimation precision...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221721/factors-affecting-the-precision-of-lesion-sizing-with-contrast-enhanced-spectral-mammography
#7
M Del Mar Travieso-Aja, P Naranjo-Santana, C Fernández-Ruiz, W Severino-Rondón, D Maldonado-Saluzzi, M Rodríguez Rodríguez, V Vega-Benítez, O P Luzardo
AIM: To evaluate the precision of the pre-surgical measurement of the size of breast cancer by contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 204 breast cancers. Variables related to tumour biology and anthropometric variables were recorded and considered when evaluating the efficacy of CESM in predicting tumour size. Microscopic measurement of the largest diameter of the tumour at pathology was chosen as the reference standard...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221651/-the-myth-of-virgin-cleansing-latest-news-on-an-archaic-magico-religious-practice
#8
P Charlier, F Bou Abdallah, L Brun, V Hoang-Oppermann, S Deo, Y Mostefai-Dulac, M-F Mamzer, C Hervé
BACKGROUND: In the medical anthropology section of the Nanterre Hospital (France) for migrants and refugees, three cases were recorded of "virgin cleansing" in sub-Saharan African countries. PATIENTS AND METHODS: These consisted of sexual assaults (2 instances of rape and 1 of sexual interference) on sexually immature females (young girls) by patients with sexually transmitted infections (mainly HIV, syphilis) hoping they might thereby be cured. DISCUSSION: These particularly atrocious hetero-aggressive sexual practices based on magical arguments are unfortunately universal and are not limited to a specific culture...
December 5, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212722/first-satellite-tracks-of-south-atlantic-sea-turtle-lost-years-seasonal-variation-in-trans-equatorial-movement
#9
Katherine L Mansfield, Milagros L Mendilaharsu, Nathan F Putman, Maria A G Dei Marcovaldi, Alexander E Sacco, Gustave Lopez, Thais Pires, Yonat Swimmer
In the South Atlantic Ocean, few data exist regarding the dispersal of young oceanic sea turtles. We characterized the movements of laboratory-reared yearling loggerhead turtles from Brazilian rookeries using novel telemetry techniques, testing for differences in dispersal during different periods of the sea turtle hatching season that correspond to seasonal changes in ocean currents. Oceanographic drifters deployed alongside satellite-tagged turtles allowed us to explore the mechanisms of dispersal (passive drift or active swimming)...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203231/a-test-of-four-innominate-bone-age-assessment-methods-in-a-modern-skeletal-collection-from-medellin-colombia
#10
Javier Rivera-Sandoval, Timisay Monsalve, Cristina Cattaneo
Studying bone collections with known data has proven to be useful in assessing reliability and accuracy of biological profile reconstruction methods used in Forensic Anthropology. Thus, it is necessary to calibrate these methods to clarify issues such as population variability and accuracy of estimations for the elderly. This work considers observations of morphological features examined by four innominate bone age assessment methods: (1) Suchey-Brooks Pubic Symphysis, (2) Lovejoy Iliac Auricular Surface, (3) Buckberry and Chamberlain Iliac Auricular Surface, and (4) Rouge-Maillart Iliac Auricular Surface and Acetabulum...
November 10, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198399/influence-of-physiological-stress-on-the-presence-of-hypoplasia-and-fluctuating-asymmetry-in-a-medieval-population-from-the-village-of-sypniewo
#11
Aleksandra Gawlikowska-Sroka, Pawel Dabrowski, Jacek Szczurowski, Edyta Dzieciolowska-Baran, Tomasz Staniowski
This study aims to estimate the levels of physiological stress in the medieval rural population of Sypniewo by evaluating patterns of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and enamel hypoplasia (EH), and provide information on the influence of physiological stress during the prenatal and perinatal period on early childhood development. Stress is defined as any external or internal condition that challenges homeostasis of an organism. FA is associated with physiological stress occurring mainly during prenatal development and early childhood...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195663/forensic-age-at-death-estimation-from-the-sternum-in-a-black-south-african-population
#12
Nicholas Bacci, Elsie Koketso Nchabeleng, Brendon Kurt Billings
Age-at-death estimation is a crucial component of any forensic anthropological analysis. Despite a variety of research in this field, uncertainties still exist when estimating adult age. The sternum is an under-considered element in terms of adult age estimation. Previous research on an Indian population suggested that this may be a usable region of the skeleton, although results were ambivalent. This study observed the fusion phases of 461 sterna from a black South African population in an attempt to match true age of an individual with the different phases of synostosis of the manubrio-sternal and the sterno-xiphoidal junctions...
November 10, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193109/skeletal-trauma-resulting-from-fatal-low-%C3%A2-3%C3%A2-m-free-falls-an-analysis-of-fracture-patterns-and-morphologies
#13
Samantha K Rowbotham, Soren Blau, Jacqueline Hislop-Jambrich, Victoria Francis
The skeletal trauma resulting from fatal low (≤3 m) free falls is poorly researched and understood by forensic practitioners. The aim of this study was to identify the types of skeletal trauma resulting from low falls through investigating fracture patterns and morphologies. Skeletal trauma was analyzed using full-body postmortem computed tomography scans of 145 individuals who died from a low free fall. Trauma was then contextualized to the variables that influence how a person falls using multiple logistic regression...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193064/a-morphometric-outline-analysis-of-ancestry-and-sex-differences-in-cranial-shape
#14
Rachel E Murphy, Heather M Garvin
Forensic anthropological techniques that utilize nonmetric cranial traits to estimate sex and ancestry have historically been criticized for their subjectivity and qualitative nature. Nonmetric traits, however, continue to be valuable tools in identifying remains in forensic investigations. In this study, geometric morphometric analyses of cranial outlines were performed to quantitatively assess population and sex variation in modern human cranial shapes and to verify group differences in previously reported qualitative traits...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188349/-understanding-in-psychiatry-part%C3%A2-2-from-incomprehensibility-to-an-attitude-of-participative-communication
#15
REVIEW
J Valdés-Stauber
BACKGROUND: Starting from a systematic research of "incomprehensibility" we propose a turn from an epistemological analysis of "to understand" to an anthropological perspective relying on participative communication in a shared space of resonance. METHOD: We propose a systematization of the modes of understanding and of incomprehensibility based on a two-dimensional model combining epistemological and ontological perspectives. Finally, we outline "understanding" as a medical stance related to the healing relationship, which implies a disposition to get involved in a participative communication...
November 29, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188347/-from-boxing-to-geriatric-psychiatry-facets-from-the-work-of-east-german-social-psychiatrist-bernhard-schwarz-1918-1991
#16
REVIEW
K Bart, H Steinberg
For the first time, this study presents publications representative for the work of the neurologist and sports physician Bernhard Schwarz, whose career spans from the 1950s to the 1970s. His work is characterized by exceptional originality. Schwarz acted as the physician of the GDR national boxing team and conducted a systematic long-term study of 800 boxers. He found increased occurrences of depression, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and suggested that these were linked to recurring craniocerebral injury...
November 29, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187319/ethnoveterinary-botanical-survey-of-medicinal-plants-in-abergelle-sekota-and-lalibela-districts-of-amhara-region-northern-ethiopia
#17
Ayalew Assefa, Adane Bahiru
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The study area is known by its huge livestock resources with extensive ethnoveterinary practice. This knowledge was not documented scientifically until we proposed to do so. The study can aid in future planning of endangered species conservation as well as for experimental studies in search of modern pharmacotherapy. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study objective was to understand the extent of ethnoveterinary practice, methods, types of medicinal plant species used and to generate a comprehensive baseline data that can be used as a basis for further studies...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187175/standards-for-permanent-tooth-emergence-in-czech-children
#18
Romana Šindelářová, Lucie Žáková, Zdeněk Broukal
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to develop a population-specific reference for permanent tooth emergence among 4-15 years old Czech Republic children. The reference derived from this sample population are essential for pediatric dental diagnostics, orthodontic treatment planning, as well as anthropological and forensic applications. METHODS: In this cross-sectional epidemiological survey, dental examinations of 1,370 Czech children (696 girls (50,8%) and 674 boys (49,2%), whose parents or legal guardians all signed informed consent forms) from 11 elementary schools and kindergartens were performed in the classroom...
November 29, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186153/the-peer-review-gap-a-longitudinal-case-study-of-gendered-publishing-and-occupational-patterns-in-a-female-rich-discipline-western-north-america-1974-2016
#19
Shannon Tushingham, Tiffany Fulkerson, Katheryn Hill
Researchers have repeatedly demonstrated that women continue to be underrepresented in publication output in the sciences. This is true even in female-rich fields such as archaeology. Since most gender-related publication studies rely on data from peer-reviewed journals, it would be instructive, though challenging, to also track publication output in non-refereed and professional or industry venues, which tend to be more accessible to those working in extra-academic settings. This comparison is important in fields such as archaeology in which the vast majority (approximately 90%) of practitioners in the USA work for private sector cultural resource management firms and federal and state agencies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181739/stochasticity-in-cultural-evolution-a-revolution-yet-to%C3%A2-happen
#20
Sylvain Billiard, Alexandra Alvergne
Over the last 40 years or so, there has been an explosion of cultural evolution research in anthropology and archaeology. In each discipline, cultural evolutionists investigate how interactions between individuals translate into group level patterns, with the aim of explaining the diachronic dynamics and diversity of cultural traits. However, while much attention has been given to deterministic processes (e.g. cultural transmission biases), we contend that current evolutionary accounts of cultural change are limited because they do not adopt a systematic stochastic approach (i...
November 27, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
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