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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481261/attenuating-the-biologic-drive-for-weight-regain-following-weight-loss-must-what-goes-down-always-go-back-up
#1
REVIEW
Christopher L Melby, Hunter L Paris, Rebecca M Foright, James Peth
Metabolic adaptations occur with weight loss that result in increased hunger with discordant simultaneous reductions in energy requirements-producing the so-called energy gap in which more energy is desired than is required. The increased hunger is associated with elevation of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin and decrements in anorexigenic hormones. The lower total daily energy expenditure with diet-induced weight loss results from (1) a disproportionately greater decrease in circulating leptin and resting metabolic rate (RMR) than would be predicted based on the decline in body mass, (2) decreased thermic effect of food (TEF), and (3) increased energy efficiency at work intensities characteristic of activities of daily living...
May 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460140/thyroid-function-variation-in-the-normal-range-energy-expenditure-and-body-composition-in-l-t4-treated-subjects
#2
Mary H Samuels, Irina Kolobova, Megan Antosik, Meike Niederhausen, Jonathan Q Purnell, Kathryn G Schuff
Purpose: It is not clear whether upper limits of the TSH reference range should be lowered. This debate can be better informed by investigation of whether variations in thyroid function within the reference range have clinical effects. Thyroid hormone plays a critical role in determining energy expenditure, body mass, and body composition, and therefore clinically relevant variations in these parameters may occur across the normal range of thyroid function. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 140 otherwise healthy hypothyroid subjects receiving chronic replacement therapy with levothyroxine (L-T4) who had TSH levels across the full span of the laboratory reference range (0...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443785/acute-and-long-term-impact-of-high-protein-diets-on-endocrine-and-metabolic-function-body-composition-and-exercise-induced-adaptations
#3
Flor E Morales, Grant M Tinsley, Paul M Gordon
BACKGROUND: High-protein diets have been shown to improve body composition through alterations in satiety, muscle protein synthesis, and the thermic effect of food. AIM: Given these findings, the purpose of this review is to discuss the integration of the specific hormonal and metabolic effects of high-protein diets following both acute and long-term usage, especially with regard to body composition. METHODS: Full-text articles were obtained through PubMed by using the terms "high-protein diet and body composition," "high-protein diet and exercise," "high-protein diet risk," "high-protein diet side effects," "protein quality PDCAAS," "RDA for protein," and "daily protein recommendation...
May 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419028/physical-activity-assessment-with-the-actigraph-gt3x-and-doubly-labeled-water
#4
Andrea K Chomistek, Changzheng Yuan, Charles E Matthews, Richard P Troiano, Heather R Bowles, Jennifer Rood, Junaidah B Barnett, Walter C Willett, Eric B Rimm, David R Bassett
PURPOSE: To compare the degree to which four accelerometer metrics-total activity counts per day (TAC/d), steps per day (steps/d), physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE, kcal/kg/day), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA, min/d)- were correlated with PAEE measured by doubly-labeled water (DLW). Additionally, accelerometer metrics based on vertical axis counts and triaxial counts were compared. METHODS: This analysis included 684 women and 611 men aged 43 - 83 years...
April 18, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318688/impact-of-phenylketonuria-type-meal-on-appetite-thermic-effect-of-feeding-and-postprandial-fat-oxidation
#5
Hani Alfheeaid, Konstantinos Gerasimidis, Ana-Maria Năstase, Mie Elhauge, Barbara Cochrane, Dalia Malkova
BACKGROUND: Dietary management of phenylketonuria (PKU) requires the replacement of natural protein-containing foods with special low protein foods. The effect of a PKU type diet on factors contributing to energy balance requires investigation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of a PKU type meal on appetite ratings, gut appetite hormones, thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and fat oxidation. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 24...
March 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928114/thorough-mastication-prior-to-swallowing-increases-postprandial-satiety-and-the-thermic-effect-of-a-meal-in-young-women
#6
Naho Komai, Naoko Motokubota, Maki Suzuki, Ikuyo Hayashi, Toshio Moritani, Narumi Nagai
There is evidence to support that mastication may contribute to the prevention of weight gain via reduction of appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. However, the metabolic effect of mastication after consumption of a daily meal, composed of the staple food (rice), soup, main and side dishes, is limited. Therefore, the effect of thorough mastication on greater satiety and the thermic effect of a meal (TEM) was investigated in young women. In study 1, energy expenditure (EE) derived from masticatory muscle activity for 20 min was measured while chewing hard, tasteless, non-caloric gum in seven subjects...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848941/indirect-calorimetry-an-indispensable-tool-to-understand-and-predict-obesity
#7
REVIEW
Y Y Lam, E Ravussin
Obesity is a physiological condition of chronic positive energy balance. While the regulation of energy metabolism varies widely among individuals, identifying those who are metabolically prone to weight gain and intervening accordingly is a key challenge for reversing the course of the obesity epidemic. Indirect calorimetry is the most commonly used method to measure energy expenditure in the research setting. By measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production, indirect calorimetry provides minute-by-minute energy expenditure data that makes it the most valuable tool to distinguish the various components of energy expenditure, that is, sleeping and resting metabolic rate, thermic effect of food and the energy cost of activity...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561011/human-energy-expenditure-allocation-and-interactions-in-natural-temperate-hot-and-cold-environments
#8
Cara Ocobock
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research is to analyze how energy is allocated differently in temperate, hot, and cold environments among National Outdoor Leadership School students. METHOD: Basal metabolic rate, physical activity, thermoregulation, and the thermic effect of food were estimated to determine the total energy expenditure and energy allocation differences among a group of healthy, highly active adults (N = 59) participating in National Outdoor Leadership School courses in the western United States...
December 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356102/no-evidence-for-metabolic-adaptation-in-thermic-effect-of-food-by-dietary-protein
#9
Elizabeth F Sutton, George A Bray, Jeffrey H Burton, Steven R Smith, Leanne M Redman
OBJECTIVE: Determine whether prolonged consumption of high- or low-protein diets modifies the thermogenic response to a standard meal. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy individuals were randomized to overfeeding diets containing low (5%, n = 8), normal (15%, n = 9), or high (25%, n = 7) protein for 56 days while inpatients. The thermic effect of food (TEF) was measured over 4 h by indirect calorimetry following a standard meal (20% of energy, 20% protein) or a meal that matched the study diet ("study meal")...
August 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27305952/irregular-meal-pattern-effects-on-energy-expenditure-metabolism-and-appetite-regulation-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-healthy-normal-weight-women
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Maha H Alhussain, Ian A Macdonald, Moira A Taylor
BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing in parallel with greater all-day food availability. The latter may promote meal irregularity, dysregulation of the energy balance, and poor metabolic health. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of meal irregularity on the thermic effect of food (TEF), lipid concentrations, carbohydrate metabolism, subjective appetite, and gut hormones in healthy women. DESIGN: Eleven normal-weight women (18-40 y of age) were recruited in a randomized crossover trial with two 14-d isoenergetic diet periods (identical foods provided and free living) that were separated by a 14-d habitual diet washout period...
July 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273068/key-determinants-of-energy-expenditure-in-cancer-and-implications-for-clinical-practice
#11
S A Purcell, S A Elliott, V E Baracos, Q S C Chu, C M Prado
Great discrepancies exist in the reported prevalence of altered energy metabolism (hypo- or hypermetabolism) in cancer patients, which is likely due to the vast array of phenomena that can affect energy expenditure in these patients. The purpose of this review was to critically evaluate key determinants of energy expenditure in cancer and the relevance for clinical practice. Resting energy expenditure (REE) is the largest and most commonly measured component of total energy expenditure. In addition to the energetic demand of the tumor itself, REE may be increased due to changes in inflammation, body composition and brown adipose tissue activation...
June 8, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190431/the-thermic-response-to-food-intake-in-persons-with-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Ryota Asahara, Masahiro Yamasaki
[Purpose] To investigate the influence of the level of spinal cord injury on the thermic effect of food intake (TEF) in persons with thoracic spinal cord injury. [Subjects and Methods] Seven male subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI; age, 40 ± 6 years) and six able-bodied subjects (AB; age, 37 ± 8 years) volunteered to participate in the present study. The subjects consumed an identical test meal consisting of 7.9 kcal/kg of body weight. Energy expenditure and plasma norepinephrine concentrations were measured over a 3-hour period...
April 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26908716/a-novel-approach-to-calculating-the-thermic-effect-of-food-in-a-metabolic-chamber
#13
Hitomi Ogata, Fumi Kobayashi, Masanobu Hibi, Shigeho Tanaka, Kumpei Tokuyama
The thermic effect of food (TEF) is the well-known concept in spite of its difficulty for measuring. The gold standard for evaluating the TEF is the difference in energy expenditure between fed and fasting states (ΔEE). Alternatively, energy expenditure at 0 activity (EE0) is estimated from the intercept of the linear relationship between energy expenditure and physical activity to eliminate activity thermogenesis from the measurement, and the TEF is calculated as the difference between EE0 and postabsorptive resting metabolic rate (RMR) or sleeping metabolic rate (SMR)...
February 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26700485/effects-of-levothyroxine-replacement-or-suppressive-therapy-on-energy-expenditure-and-body-composition
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Mary H Samuels, Irina Kolobova, Anne Smeraglio, Dawn Peters, Jonathan Q Purnell, Kathryn G Schuff
BACKGROUND: Thyrotropin (TSH)-suppressive doses of levothyroxine (LT4) have adverse effects on bone and cardiac function, but it is unclear whether metabolic function is also affected. The objective of this study was to determine whether women receiving TSH-suppressive LT4 doses have alterations in energy expenditure or body composition. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional comparison between three groups of women: 26 women receiving chronic TSH-suppressive LT4 doses, 80 women receiving chronic replacement LT4 doses, and 16 untreated euthyroid control women...
March 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26457990/the-allocation-and-interaction-model-a-new-model-for-predicting-total-energy-expenditure-of-highly-active-humans-in-natural-environments
#15
Cara Ocobock
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a new model, the Allocation and Interaction Model (AIM), to better predict human total energy expenditure (TEE) among a group of highly active humans living in a variety of natural environments. AIM estimates were tested to determine if it produces more accurate TEE predictions than the Factorial Method. METHODS: AIM includes metabolic cost terms for basal metabolic rate, thermoregulation, and the thermic effect of food, as well as more accurate activity cost estimations...
May 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26042200/integration-of-body-temperature-into-the-analysis-of-energy-expenditure-in-the-mouse
#16
Gustavo Abreu-Vieira, Cuiying Xiao, Oksana Gavrilova, Marc L Reitman
OBJECTIVES: We quantified the effect of environmental temperature on mouse energy homeostasis and body temperature. METHODS: The effect of environmental temperature (4-33 °C) on body temperature, energy expenditure, physical activity, and food intake in various mice (chow diet, high-fat diet, Brs3 (-/y) , lipodystrophic) was measured using continuous monitoring. RESULTS: Body temperature depended most on circadian phase and physical activity, but also on environmental temperature...
June 2015: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25823387/higher-visceral-adiposity-is-associated-with-an-enhanced-early-thermogenic-response-to-carbohydrate-rich-food
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Yftach Gepner, Nitzan Bril, Ilan Shelef, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Dana Serfaty, Michal Rein, Noa Cohen, Elad Shemesh, Osnat Tangi-Rosental, Benjamin Sarusi, Eyal Goshen, Shira Kenigsbuch, Yoash Chassidim, Rachel Golan, Shula Witkow, Yaakov Henkin, Meir J Stampfer, Assaf Rudich, Iris Shai
BACKGROUND: Studies examining the dynamics of the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) of specific food items and the relationship of TEF to visceral adiposity are limited. METHODS: We measured resting energy expenditure (REE) and early-TEF (40-min postprandial, e-TEF) after 8-h fast by indirect calorimetry in 40 obese men, and imaged abdominal fat tissues by magnetic resonance imaging. Each participant was examined on two occasions, 3-weeks apart. At each examination we measured fasting REE and then postprandial REE following the isocaloric [∼380 kcal] consumption of either 56 gr walnuts [(8% carbohydrates; 84% fat, of which 72% polyunsaturated fat)], or 5-slices (150gr) of whole-grain bread (48% carbohydrates; 32% fat)...
April 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25609562/the-effect-of-fast-eating-on-the-thermic-effect-of-food-in-young-japanese-women
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kenji Toyama, Xifan Zhao, Sachi Kuranuki, Yasuo Oguri, Eriko Kashiwa Kato, Yutaka Yoshitake, Teiji Nakamura
The relationship between eating speed and the thermic effect of food (TEF) remains unclear. We investigated the difference in the TEF when meals containing the same amount of energy were eaten in 5 min (fast eating) or 15 min (regular eating). Subjects were nine non-obese young women. Following a 350 kcal (1464 kJ) meal, energy expenditure and autonomic nervous system activity were measured. The frequency of mastication was also calculated. The TEF for the 15-min period after the start of eating with fast eating was significantly lower than with regular eating (p < 0...
March 2015: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25563734/a-cross-over-experiment-to-investigate-possible-mechanisms-for-lower-bmis-in-people-who-habitually-eat-breakfast
#19
S Reeves, J W Huber, L G Halsey, M Villegas-Montes, J Elgumati, T Smith
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The body mass index (BMI) of breakfast eaters is frequently reported to be lower compared with that of breakfast skippers. This is not explained by differences in energy intakes, indicating there may be other mechanisms serving to drive this paradoxical association between breakfast and BMI. This study aimed to investigate the effect of eating breakfast versus morning fasting on measures predominantly of metabolism in lean and overweight participants who habitually eat or skip breakfast...
May 2015: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25489333/a-high-protein-diet-for-reducing-body-fat-mechanisms-and-possible-caveats
#20
REVIEW
Dominik H Pesta, Varman T Samuel
High protein diets are increasingly popularized in lay media as a promising strategy for weight loss by providing the twin benefits of improving satiety and decreasing fat mass. Some of the potential mechanisms that account for weight loss associated with high-protein diets involve increased secretion of satiety hormones (GIP, GLP-1), reduced orexigenic hormone secretion (ghrelin), the increased thermic effect of food and protein-induced alterations in gluconeogenesis to improve glucose homeostasis. There are, however, also possible caveats that have to be considered when choosing to consume a high-protein diet...
2014: Nutrition & Metabolism
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