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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241201/cot-death-history-of-an-iatrogenic-disaster
#1
Michael Obladen
Since antiquity, cot death has been explained as accidental suffocation, overlaying, or smothering. Parents were blamed for neglect or drunkenness. A cage called arcuccio was invented around 1570 to protect the sleeping infant. Up to the 19th century, accidents were registered as natural causes of death. From 1830, accidental suffocation became unacceptable for physicians and legislators, and "natural" explanations for the catastrophe were sought, with parents being consoled rather than blamed. Two assumed causes had serious consequences: thymus hyperplasia was irradiated, causing thyroid cancer, and the concept of central apnea was widely accepted, which led to home monitors and distracted from epidemiological evidence...
December 15, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240794/radiocesium-contamination-and-estimated-internal-exposure-doses-in-edible-wild-plants-in-kawauchi-village-following-the-fukushima-nuclear-disaster
#2
Rimi Tsuchiya, Yasuyuki Taira, Makiko Orita, Yoshiko Fukushima, Yuukou Endo, Shunichi Yamashita, Noboru Takamura
Kawauchi Village, in Fukushima Prefecture, is located within a 30-km radius of the nuclear disaster site of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). "Sansai" (edible wild plants) in this village have been evaluated by gamma spectrometry after the residents had returned to their homes, to determine the residents' risk of internal exposure to artificial radionuclides due to consumption of these plants. The concentrations of radiocesium (cesium-134 and cesium-137) were measured in all 364 samples collected in spring 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239566/mapping-displaced-populations-with-reference-to-social-vulnerabilities-for-post-disaster-public-health-management
#3
Junaid Ahmad, Anees Ahmad, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Nafees Ahmad
Millions of people are currently displaced from their homes because of local and international conflicts. In the last two decades, a substantial increase in the number of displaced people has been recorded. We measured the social vulnerabilities of displaced populations using a mathematical approach in combination with application of geographical information systems (GIS) tools and techniques to visualise movement and draw attention to the location of significant concentration of vulnerabilities. A retrospective study approach based on datasets collected from governmental and non-governmental organisations working with refugees and internally displaced persons in Pakistan was used...
November 27, 2017: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238442/reducing-greenhouse-gas-emissions-and-improving-air-quality-two-global-challenges
#4
REVIEW
Larry E Erickson
There are many good reasons to promote sustainable development and reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other combustion emissions. The air quality in many urban environments is causing many premature deaths because of asthma, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and dementia associated with combustion emissions. The global social cost of air pollution is at least $3 trillion/year; particulates, nitrogen oxides and ozone associated with combustion emissions are very costly pollutants...
July 2017: Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238401/health-needs-of-older-populations-affected-by-humanitarian-crises-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#5
Emma Massey, James Smith, Bayard Roberts
Background: The combination of global demographic changes and a growing number of humanitarian crises in middle-income countries that have a higher life expectancy has led to an increase in the number of older populations affected by humanitarian crises. The aim of this review was to systematically examine evidence on the health needs of older populations in humanitarian crises, including both armed conflicts and natural disasters, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: A systematic review methodology was used...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238385/experiences-providing-medical-assistance-during-the-sewol-ferry-disaster-using-traditional-korean-medicine
#6
Kyeong Han Kim, Soobin Jang, Ju Ah Lee, Bo-Hyoung Jang, Ho-Yeon Go, Sunju Park, Hee-Guen Jo, Myeong Soo Lee, Seong-Gyu Ko
Background: This study aimed to investigate medical records using traditional Korean medicine (TKM) in Sewol Ferry disaster in 2014 and further explore the possible role of traditional medicine in disaster situation. Methods: After Sewol Ferry accident, 3 on-site tents for TKM assistance by the Association of Korean Medicine (AKOM) in Jindo area were installed. The AKOM mobilized volunteer TKM doctors and assistants and dispatched each on-site tent in three shifts within 24 hours...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237989/the-characteristics-of-non-respondents-and-respondents-of-a-mental-health-survey-among-evacuees-in-a-disaster-the-fukushima-health-management-survey
#7
Naoko Horikoshi, Hajime Iwasa, Seiji Yasumura, Masaharu Maeda
The Fukushima Medical University conducted a mental health care program for evacuees after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. However, the mental health status of non-respondents has not been considered for surveys using questionnaires. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of non-respondents and respondents. The target population of the survey (FY2011-2013) is people living in the nationally designated evacuation zone of Fukushima prefecture. Among these, the participants were 967 people (20 years or older)...
December 12, 2017: Fukushima Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236725/roles-of-children-and-their-parents-in-the-reduction-of-radiation-risk-after-the-2011-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#8
Maya Sophia Fujimura, Yukako Komasa, Shinzo Kimura, Akira Shibanuma, Akiko Kitamura, Masamine Jimba
INTRODUCTION: On March 11, 2011, Japan experienced its largest recorded earthquake with a magnitude of 9.0. The resulting tsunami caused massive damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant reactors, and the surrounding environment was contaminated with radioactive materials. During this period, some residents were exposed to high levels of radiation (up to 5 millisieverts [mSv]), but since then, many residents have been exposed to low levels of radiation (<1 mSv). This study was conducted to assess the effects of lifestyle and attitude factors on external radiation exposure among Fukushima residents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236580/measures-of-emergency-preparedness-contributing-to-nursing-home-resilience
#9
Sandi J Lane, Elizabeth McGrady
Resilience approaches have been successfully applied in crisis management, disaster response, and high reliability organizations and have the potential to enhance existing systems of nursing home disaster preparedness. This study's purpose was to: Determine how the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) "Emergency Preparedness Checklist Recommended Tool for Effective Health Care Facility Planning" contributes to organizational resilience by identifying the benchmark resilience items addressed by the CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist and items not addressed by the CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist, and to recommend tools and processes to improve resilience for nursing homes...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236288/disaster-preparedness-biological-threats-and-treatment-options
#10
Navaneeth Narayanan, Clifton R Lacy, Joseph E Cruz, Meghan Nahass, Jonathan Karp, Joseph A Barone, Evelyn Hermes-DeSantis
Biological disasters can be natural, accidental, or intentional. Biological threats have made a lasting impact on civilization. This review will focus on agents of clinical significance, bioterrorism, and national security; specifically Category A agents (anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, and smallpox), as well as briefly discuss other naturally-emerging infections of public health significance including Ebola virus (also a Category A agent) and Zika virus. The role of the pharmacist in disaster preparedness and disaster response is multifaceted and important...
December 13, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236028/beyond-disaster-preparedness-building-a-resilience-oriented-workforce-for-the-future
#11
REVIEW
Jaime Madrigano, Anita Chandra, Tracy Costigan, Joie D Acosta
Enhancing citizens' and communities' resilience is critical to adapt successfully to ongoing challenges faced by communities, as well as acute shocks resulting from disasters. While significant progress has been made in this area, several research and practice gaps remain. A crucial next step to advance resilience is the development of a resilience-oriented workforce. This narrative review examines existing literature to determine key components of a resilience-oriented workforce, with a focus on organizational structures, training and education, and leadership models...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233358/prosthetic-valve-on-valve-mitral-valve-re-replacement-a-novel-approach
#12
Sarin Mathew, Melissa Bouchard, J Andreas Hoschtitzky
Repeat mitral valve replacement in patients who underwent mechanical replacement during infancy may be technically very difficult due to the small-sized annulus accommodating the prosthesis. That can lead to dense fibrosis of the small annulus onto the sewing cuff. An attempt at explanting the prosthesis carries high risk of circumflex coronary artery injury or atrioventricular junction disruption. We present a novel approach to prevent a disaster in such a difficult scenario-implanting the new prosthesis above the previous prosthetic housing after removing the prosthetic leaflets...
January 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233200/first-rescue-under-the-rubble-the-medical-aid-in-the-first-hours-after-the-earthquake-in-amatrice-italy-on-august-24-2016
#13
Angelo Geremia Blasetti, Emiliano Petrucci, Vincenza Cofini, Barbara Pizzi, Paolo Scimia, Tullio Pozone, Stefano Necozione, Pierfrancesco Fusco, Franco Marinangeli
Specific Event Identifiers a. Event Type: Earthquake measuring 6.2 (SD=0.016) on the moment magnitude; b. Event Onset: August 24, 2016 - 03:36:32 CEST (01:36 UTC); c. Location of Event: Central Italy, in the town of Amatrice; d. Geographic Coordinates: latitude (DMS): 42°37'45.77″N; longitude (DMS): 13°17'18.14″E; elevation: 955 meters above sea-level; e. Dates: August 24, 2016 at 4:48 AM; f. Response Type: Medical Relief. ABSTRACT: On August 24, 2016, an earthquake hit the town of Amatrice (Italy)...
December 13, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230995/-individual-identification-of-cartilage-by-direct-amplification-in-mass-disasters
#14
C H Wang, C Xu, X Q Li, Y Wu, Z Du
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effectiveness of direct amplification for the STR analysis of cartilage, and to accelerate the effectiveness of disaster victim identification. METHODS: Eighty-eight cartilage samples were directly amplified by PowerPle® 21 kit, and the results of genotyping were compared with that obtained by the magnetic beads method. RESULTS: In 88 cartilage samples, the STR genotypes were successfully detected from 84 samples by direct amplification and magnetic beads method, and both the results of genotyping by two method were consistent...
June 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230312/internet-and-mobile-technologies-addressing-the-mental-health-of-trauma-survivors-in-less-resourced-communities
#15
REVIEW
J I Ruzek, C M Yeager
Internet and mobile technologies offer potentially critical ways of delivering mental health support in low-resource settings. Much evidence indicates an enormous negative impact of mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and many of these problems are caused, or worsened, by exposure to wars, conflicts, natural and human-caused disasters, and other traumatic events. Though specific mental health treatments have been found to be efficacious and cost-effective for low-resource settings, most individuals living in these areas do not have access to them...
2017: Global Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230254/a-cross-lingual-mobile-medical-communication-system-prototype-for-foreigners-and-subjects-with-speech-hearing-and-mental-disabilities-based-on-pictograms
#16
Krzysztof Wołk, Agnieszka Wołk, Wojciech Glinkowski
People with speech, hearing, or mental impairment require special communication assistance, especially for medical purposes. Automatic solutions for speech recognition and voice synthesis from text are poor fits for communication in the medical domain because they are dependent on error-prone statistical models. Systems dependent on manual text input are insufficient. Recently introduced systems for automatic sign language recognition are dependent on statistical models as well as on image and gesture quality...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227375/impact-of-evacuation-onstrends-in-the-prevalence-treatment-and-control-of-hypertension-before-and-after-a-disaster
#17
Masato Nagai, Tetsuya Ohira, Hideto Takahashi, Hironori Nakano, Akira Sakai, Shigeatsu Hashimoto, Seiji Yasumura, Masafumi Abe
OBJECTIVE: After the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors increased in victims. We examined the trends in the prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension before and after the disaster, as well as the impact of evacuation. METHODS: Study participants were approximately 10 000 men and 12 000 women aged 40-74 years in each year from 2008 to 2014. All of the participants had lived in radiation evacuation zones prior to the Fukushima nuclear crisis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223186/willingness-of-firefighting-program-students-to-work-in-disasters-turkey
#18
Edip Kaya, Hakan Altintas
Introduction Firefighting is an important profession during disasters. Firefighters are on duty for many vital functions, including fire extinguishing, search and rescue work, and evacuation of disaster victims to a safe zone. In case of a disaster situation, it is vital to have willing personnel to work in disasters. In the literature, type of disaster, individual demographic factors, family factors, and workplace factors have been identified as factors that influence health care personnel's willingness to work during a disaster...
December 10, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223176/the-influence-of-exposure-to-natural-disasters-on-depression-and-ptsd-symptoms-among-firefighters
#19
Michelle L Pennington, Thomas P Carpenter, Samantha J Synett, Victoria A Torres, Jennifer Teague, Sandra B Morissette, Jeffrey Knight, Barbara W Kamholz, Terence M Keane, Rose T Zimering, Suzy B Gulliver
Introduction Firefighters represent an important population for understanding the consequences of exposure to potentially traumatic stressors. Hypothesis/Problem The researchers were interested in the effects of pre-employment disaster exposure on firefighter recruits' depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms during the first three years of fire service and hypothesized that: (1) disaster-exposed firefighters would have greater depression and PTSD symptoms than non-exposed overall; and (2) depression and PTSD symptoms would worsen over years in fire service in exposed firefighters, but not in their unexposed counterparts...
December 10, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222486/the-role-of-personality-and-subjective-exposure-experiences-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-depression-symptoms-among-children-following-wenchuan-earthquake
#20
Xiacan Chen, Jiajun Xu, Bin Li, Na Li, Wanjun Guo, Mao-Sheng Ran, Jun Zhang, Yanchun Yang, Junmei Hu
This study aims to investigate the role of personality traits and subjective exposure experiences in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. In Qingchuan, 21,652 children aged 7 to 15 years were assessed using face-to-face interviews one year after the Wenchuan earthquake in China. The Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, a modified earthquake exposure scale, the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (adolescent), and the Adolescent Depression Inventory were used to assess personality characteristics, trauma experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms, respectively...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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