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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333235/ovarian-hormones-and-obesity
#1
Brigitte Leeners, Nori Geary, Philippe N Tobler, Lori Asarian
BACKGROUND: Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE...
March 2, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282466/fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-gene-fto-is-associated-to-eating-disorders-susceptibility-and-moderates-the-expression-of-psychopathological-traits
#2
Giovanni Castellini, Marica Franzago, Silvia Bagnoli, Lorenzo Lelli, Michela Balsamo, Milena Mancini, Benedetta Nacmias, Valdo Ricca, Sandro Sorbi, Ivana Antonucci, Liborio Stuppia, Giovanni Stanghellini
Eating Disorders (EDs) show a multifactorial etiopathogenesis including environmental, psychological and biological factors. In the present study, we propose a model of interactions between genetic vulnerability-represented by Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) gene-and stable psychopathological traits, such as bodily disorders and emotion dysregulation for EDs patients. The distribution of a polymorphism of the FTO (rs9939609 T>A) was evaluated in a series of 250 EDs patients and in a group of 119 healthy control subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259721/neuroendocrinology-and-brain-imaging-of-reward-in-eating-disorders-a-possible-key-to-the-treatment-of-anorexia-nervosa-and-bulimia-nervosa
#3
REVIEW
Alessio Maria Monteleone, Giovanni Castellini, Umberto Volpe, Valdo Ricca, Lorenzo Lelli, Palmiero Monteleone, Mario Maj
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are severe eating disorders whose etiopathogenesis is still unknown. Clinical features suggest that eating disorders may develop as reward-dependent syndromes, since eating less food is perceived as rewarding in anorexia nervosa while consumption of large amounts of food during binge episodes in bulimia nervosa aims at reducing the patient's negative emotional states. Therefore, brain reward mechanisms have been a major focus of research in the attempt to contribute to the comprehension of the pathophysiology of these disorders...
March 1, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242313/eating-behaviour-among-nutrition-students-and-social-desirability-as-a-confounder
#4
Dóris Freitas, Bruno Mpm Oliveira, Flora Correia, Sílvia Pinhão, Rui Poínhos
INTRODUCTION: The study of eating behaviour should consider the presence of potential sources of bias, including social desirability. This is particularly relevant among students of Nutrition Sciences, since they have a higher risk of eating disorders. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effect of social desirability in the assessment of eating behaviour dimensions among nutrition students. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analysed data from 149 students of Nutrition Sciences...
February 27, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238701/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-subcallosal-cingulate-for-treatment-refractory-anorexia-nervosa-1-year-follow-up-of-an-open-label-trial
#5
Nir Lipsman, Eileen Lam, Matthew Volpini, Kalam Sutandar, Richelle Twose, Peter Giacobbe, Devin J Sodums, Gwenn S Smith, D Blake Woodside, Andres M Lozano
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa is a life-threatening illness. Brain circuits believed to drive anorexia nervosa symptoms can be accessed with surgical techniques such as deep brain stimulation (DBS). Initial results suggest that DBS of the subcallosal cingulate is safe and associated with improvements in mood and anxiety. Here, we investigated the safety, clinical, and neuroimaging outcomes of DBS of the subcallosal cingulate in a group of patients during 12 months of active stimulation...
February 23, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230907/estrogenic-suppression-of-binge-like-eating-elicited-by-cyclic-food-restriction-and-frustrative-nonreward-stress-in-female-rats
#6
Maria Vittoria Micioni Di Bonaventura, Thomas A Lutz, Adele Romano, Mariangela Pucci, Nori Geary, Lori Asarian, Carlo Cifani
Because binge eating and emotional eating vary through the menstrual cycle in human females, we investigated cyclic changes in binge-like eating in female rats and their control by estrogens. Binge-like eating was elicited by three cycles of 4 days of food restriction and 4 days of free feeding followed by a single frustrative nonreward-stress episode (15 min visual and olfactory exposure to a familiar palatable food) immediately before presentation of the palatable food. Intact rats showed binge-like eating during the diestrous and proestrous phases of the ovarian cycle, but not during the estrous (periovulatory) phase...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212499/validation-of-the-french-version-of-the-dsm-5-yale-food-addiction-scale-in-a-nonclinical-sample
#7
Paul Brunault, Robert Courtois, Ashley N Gearhardt, Philippe Gaillard, Kevin Journiac, Sarah Cathelain, Christian Réveillère, Nicolas Ballon
OBJECTIVE: The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) is the only questionnaire that assesses food addiction (FA) based on substance dependence criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Following recent updating of addiction criteria, a new DSM-5 version (YFAS 2.0) has been developed. Our study tested the psychometric properties of the French YFAS 2.0 in a nonclinical population. METHOD: We assessed 330 nonclinical participants for FA (French YFAS 2...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211586/social-cognition-and-emotional-functioning-in-patients-with-binge-eating-disorder
#8
Matteo Aloi, Marianna Rania, Mariarita Caroleo, Pasquale De Fazio, Cristina Segura-García
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the theory of mind ability in a sample of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and to explore the correlations between emotional and clinical assessments. METHODS: Overall, 20 non-BED, 16 under-threshold BED and 22 BED obese patients completed a battery of tests assessing social cognition and eating disorder psychopathology. RESULTS: Binge eating disorder, non-BED and under-threshold-BED obese patients showed similar ability to recognise others' emotions, but BED obese patients exhibited a deficit in recognising their own emotions as demonstrated by more impaired levels of alexithymia and interoceptive awareness and were more depressed...
February 17, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160693/a-comprehensive-model-of-food-addiction-in-patients-with-binge-eating-symptomatology-the-essential-role-of-negative-urgency
#9
Ines Wolz, Roser Granero, Fernando Fernández-Aranda
BACKGROUND: Food addiction has been widely researched in past years. However, there is a debate on the mechanisms underlying addictive eating and a better understanding of the processes associated to these behaviors is needed. Previous studies have found characteristic psychological correlates of food addiction, such as high negative urgency, emotion regulation difficulties and low self-directedness, in different samples of adults with addictive eating patterns. Still, it seems difficult to disentangle effects independent from general eating disorder psychopathology...
January 23, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135808/behavioral-assessment-of-the-negative-emotion-aspect-of-distress-tolerance
#10
Jennifer C Veilleux, Garrett A Pollert, Melissa J Zielinski, Jennifer A Shaver, Morgan A Hill
The current behavioral tasks assessing distress tolerance measure tolerance to frustration and tolerance to physical discomfort, but do not explicitly assess tolerance to negative emotion. We closely evaluated the conceptual distinctions between current behavioral tasks and self-report tasks assessing distress tolerance, and then developed a new behavioral distress tolerance task called the Emotional Image Tolerance (EIT) task. The EIT task retains elements of existing behavioral tasks (e.g., indices of persistence) while augmenting the reliability and content sufficiency of existing measures by including multiple trials, including a variety of negative affect stimuli, and separating overall task persistence from task persistence after onset of distress...
January 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131965/the-importance-of-thinking-styles-in-predicting-binge-eating
#11
A V Nikčević, C Marino, G Caselli, M M Spada
Impulsivity, Body Mass Index, negative emotions and irrational food beliefs are often reported as predictors of binge eating. In the current study we explored the role played by two thinking styles, namely food thought suppression and desire thinking, in predicting binge eating among young adults controlling for established predictors of this condition. A total of 338 university students (268 females) participated in this study by completing a battery of questionnaires measuring the study variables. Path analysis revealed that impulsivity was not associated with binge eating, that Body Mass Index and negative emotions predicted binge eating, and that irrational food beliefs only influenced binge eating via food thought suppression and desire thinking...
January 10, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131963/a-mediational-model-of-obesity-related-disordered-eating-the-roles-of-childhood-emotional-abuse-and-self-perception
#12
Genna Hymowitz, Jessica Salwen, Katie Lee Salis
The extant literature indicates negative self-perceptions are a risk factor for disordered eating (DE) and DE is a risk factor for overweight and obesity. While childhood emotional abuse (EA) is often linked to DE and obesity, it is typically not included in comprehensive models of these health problems. Further investigation of interactions among EA, self-perception, and DE is needed to refine treatments for overweight, obesity, and DE. This study evaluated a model of DE and weight difficulties in which negative self-perception mediate the relationship between EA and DE, and DE predicts body mass index (BMI) in a population of emerging adults...
January 6, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117906/the-effects-of-psychotherapy-treatment-on-outcome-in-bulimia-nervosa-examining-indirect-effects-through-emotion-regulation-self-directed-behavior-and-self-discrepancy-within-the-mediation-model
#13
Carol B Peterson, Kelly C Berg, Ross D Crosby, Jason M Lavender, Erin C Accurso, Anna C Ciao, Tracey L Smith, Marjorie Klein, James E Mitchell, Scott J Crow, Stephen A Wonderlich
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the indirect effects of Integrative Cognitive-Affective Therapy (ICAT-BN) and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy-Enhanced (CBT-E) on bulimia nervosa (BN) treatment outcome through three hypothesized maintenance variables: emotion regulation, self-directed behavior, and self-discrepancy. METHOD: Eighty adults with BN were randomized to 21 sessions of ICAT-BN or CBT-E. A regression-based bootstrapping approach was used to test the indirect effects of treatment on outcome at end of treatment through emotion regulation and self-directed behavior measured at mid-treatment, as well as the indirect effects of treatment at follow-up through emotion regulation, self-directed behavior, and self-discrepancy measured at end of treatment...
January 24, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100288/childhood-maltreatment-and-eating-disorder-pathology-a-systematic-review-and-dose-response-meta-analysis
#14
M L Molendijk, H W Hoek, T D Brewerton, B M Elzinga
BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses have established a high prevalence of childhood maltreatment (CM) in patients with eating disorders (EDs) relative to the general population. Whether the prevalence of CM in EDs is also high relative to that in other mental disorders has not yet been established through meta-analyses nor to what extent CM affects defining features of EDs, such as number of binge/purge episodes or age at onset. Our aim is to provide meta-analyses on the associations between exposure to CM (i...
January 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089590/using-the-presurgical-psychological-evaluation-to-predict-5-year-weight-loss-outcomes-in-bariatric-surgery-patients
#15
Ryan J Marek, Yossef S Ben-Porath, Manfred H M van Dulmen, Kathleen Ashton, Leslie J Heinberg
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial factors contribute to poorer weight loss outcomes following bariatric surgery; however, findings on associations between preoperative psychiatric diagnoses, psychological testing, and weight loss are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: Examine associations between presurgical psychiatric diagnoses derived from a semi-structured clinical interview and test scores from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality-Inventory-2 - Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) and 5-year Body Mass Index (BMI) outcomes...
November 11, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078092/severe-obesity-emotions-and-eating-habits-a-case-control-study
#16
M Koski, H Naukkarinen
BACKGROUND: Obesity has a multifaceted etiology that involves genetic, biological and behavioral factors, body growth, eating habits, energy expenditure and the function of adipose tissue. The present study aimed to expand upon knowledge about the relationships among obesity, emotions and eating habits in severely obese individuals using a case-control method. METHODS: The subject group consisted of 112 individuals (81 females and 31 males) receiving a permanent disability pension primarily for obesity...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064111/modification-of-the-medical-exclusion-criterion-in-dsm-5-social-anxiety-disorder-comorbid-obesity-as-an-example
#17
Kristy L Dalrymple, Emily Walsh, Lia Rosenstein, Iwona Chelminski, Mark Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: The DSM 5 modified the medical exclusion criterion from DSM-IV, which now allows for a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD) to be given if the fears are related only to the medical condition (e.g., obesity) yet cause significant impairment or distress. METHODS: To examine this modification, the current study compared bariatric surgery candidates with DSM-IV SAD (n=135), modified SAD (clinically significant social fears related to obesity only; n=40), and no history of Axis I disorders (n=616) on variables related to pre-surgical problematic eating behaviors, body image dissatisfaction, functional impairment, and other characteristics related to bariatric surgery...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038437/internalization-of-appearance-ideals-mediates-the-relationship-between-appearance-related-pressures-from-peers-and-emotional-eating-among-adolescent-boys-and-girls
#18
Katherine A Thompson, Nichole R Kelly, Natasha A Schvey, Sheila M Brady, Amber B Courville, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, Susan Z Yanovski, Jack A Yanovski, Lauren B Shomaker
Appearance-related pressures have been associated with binge eating in previous studies. Yet, it is unclear if these pressures are associated with emotional eating or if specific sources of pressure are differentially associated with emotional eating. We studied the associations between multiple sources of appearance-related pressures, including pressure to be thin and pressure to increase muscularity, and emotional eating in 300 adolescents (Mage=15.3, SD=1.4, 60% female). Controlling for age, race, puberty, body mass index (BMI) z-score, and sex, both pressure to be thin and pressure to be more muscular from same-sex peers were positively associated with emotional eating in response to feeling angry/frustrated and unsettled (ps<0...
January 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013169/clinical-presentation-and-outcome-of-avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder-in-a-japanese-sample
#19
Yoshikatsu Nakai, Kazuko Nin, Shun'ichi Noma, Seiji Hamagaki, Ryuro Takagi, Satoshi Teramukai, Stephen A Wonderlich
We conducted a study of the clinical presentation and outcome in patients with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), aged 15-40years, and compared this group to an anorexia nervosa (AN) group in a Japanese sample. A retrospective chart review was completed on 245 patients with feeding and eating disorders (FEDs), analyzing prevalence, clinical presentation, psychopathological properties, and outcomes. Using the DSM-5 criteria, 27 (11.0%) out of the 245 patients with a FED met the criteria for ARFID at entry...
December 21, 2016: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989564/behavioral-evidence-of-emotion-dysregulation-in-binge-eaters
#20
Dawn M Eichen, Eunice Chen, Kerri N Boutelle, Michael S McCloskey
Binge eating is the most common disordered eating symptom and can lead to the development of obesity. Previous self-report research has supported the hypothesis that individuals who binge eat report greater levels of general emotion dysregulation, which may facilitate binge-eating behavior. However, to date, no study has experimentally tested the relation between binge eating history and in-vivo emotion dysregulation. To do this, a sample of female college students who either endorsed binge eating (n = 40) or denied the presence of any eating pathology (n = 47) completed the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) and a behavioral distress tolerance task (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task-Computer: PASAT-C) known to induce negative affect and distress...
December 15, 2016: Appetite
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