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Jinghao Lu, Chunyuan Li, Jonnathan Singh-Alvarado, Zhe Charles Zhou, Flavio Fröhlich, Richard Mooney, Fan Wang
In vivo calcium imaging using a 1-photon-based miniscope and a microendoscopic lens enables studies of neural activities in freely behaving animals. However, the high and fluctuating background, the inevitable movements and distortions of imaging field, and the extensive spatial overlaps of fluorescent signals emitted from imaged neurons inherent in this 1-photon imaging method present major challenges for extracting neuronal signals reliably and automatically from the raw imaging data. Here, we develop a unifying algorithm called the miniscope 1-photon imaging pipeline (MIN1PIPE), which contains several stand-alone modules and can handle a wide range of imaging conditions and qualities with minimal parameter tuning and automatically and accurately isolate spatially localized neural signals...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
Elvan Yilmaz, David Bier, Xavier Guillory, Jeroen Briels, Yasser Ruiz-Blanco, Elsa Sanchez-Garcia, Christian Ottmann, Markus Kaiser
Previous studies have indicated the presence of defined interactions between oligo or poly(ethylene glycol) (OEG or PEG) and lysine residues. In these interactions, the OEG or PEG residues 'wrap around' the lysine amino group, thereby enabling complexation of the amino group by the ether oxygen residues. The resulting biochemical binding affinity and thus biological relevance of this supramolecular interaction however remains unclear so far. Here, we report that OEG-containing phosphophenol ether inhibitors of 14-3-3 proteins also display such a 'lysine-wrapping' binding mode...
June 20, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Claudia Corti, Geraldina Poggi, Romina Romaniello, Sandra Strazzer, Cosimo Urgesi, Renato Borgatti, Alessandra Bardoni
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric brain damage is associated with various cognitive deficits. Cognitive rehabilitation may prevent and reduce cognitive impairment. In recent years, home-based computerized cognitive training (CCT) has been introduced in clinical practice to increase treatment opportunities for patients (telerehabilitation). However, limited research has been conducted thus far on investigating the effects of remote CCT for the juvenile population in contexts other than English-speaking countries...
2018: PloS One
Tomokazu Urakawa, Kazuma Nagano, Yuki Matsumoto, Osamu Araki
By focusing on the automatic visual change detection process, the present study attempted to clarify neural processing relevant to the exogenously driven perceptual alternation (ePA) of a bistable image. In our recent electroencephalographic study, the oddball paradigm was adopted to the continuous presentation of a bistable image to record visual mismatch negativity (vMMN, a relative enhancement in the brain response to a deviant over a repetitively presented standard, reflecting the visual change detection process and prediction error to the deviant over the standard)...
June 19, 2018: Neuroreport
Jingyang Zhang, Guotai Wang, Hongzhi Xie, Shuyang Zhang, Zhenghui Shi, Lixu Gu
Effective vessel enhancement in X-ray coronary angiogram (XCA) is essential for diagnosis of coronary artery disease, yet challenged by complex background structures with varying intensities and motion patterns. As a typical layer separation method, robust principal component analysis (RPCA) has been proposed to automatically improve the vessel visibility via sparse and low-rank decomposition. However, the attenuate motion of vessels in X-ray angiogram leads to unsatisfactory vessel enhancement performance of the decomposition framework...
June 20, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Cassio Henrique Taques Martins, Catarina De Marchi Assunção
It is a fundamental element in both research and clinical applications of electroencephalography to know the frequency composition of brain electrical activity. The quantitative analysis of brain electrical activity uses computer resources to evaluate the electroencephalography and allows quantification of the data. The contribution of the quantitative perspective is unique, since conventional electroencephalography based on the visual examination of the tracing is not as objective. A systematic review was performed on the MEDLINE database in October 2017...
2018: Neurodiagnostic Journal
Neil M Carleton, George Lee, Anant Madabhushi, Robert W Veltri
Nuclear alterations are a hallmark of many types of cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). Recent evidence shows that subvisual changes, ones that may not be visually perceptible to a pathologist, to the nucleus and its ultrastructural components can precede visual histopathological recognition of cancer. Alterations to nuclear features, such as nuclear size and shape, texture, and spatial architecture, reflect the complex molecular-level changes that occur during oncogenesis. Quantitative nuclear morphometry, a field that uses computational approaches to identify and quantify malignancy-induced nuclear changes, can enable a detailed and objective analysis of the PCa cell nucleus...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Yusuke Watanabe, Hiroshi Muraishi, Hideyuki Takei, Hidetake Hara, Tsuyoshi Terazaki, Nobuaki Shuto, Takahiro Shimo, Marika Nozawa, Hiromichi Ishiyama, Kazushige Hayakawa, Tsutomu Gomi
The transportation accuracy of sealed radioisotope sources influences the therapeutic effect of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. We have developed a pinhole imaging system for tracking an Ir-192 radiation source during HDR brachytherapy treatment. Our system consists of a dual-pinhole collimator, a scintillator, and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We acquired stereo-shifted images to infer the source position in three dimensions using a dual pinhole collimator with 1.0 mm diameter pinholes. The CCD camera captured consecutive images of scintillation light that corresponds to the source positions every 2 s...
June 20, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Piotr J Slomka, Julian Betancur, Joanna X Liang, Yuka Otaki, Lien-Hsin Hu, Tali Sharir, Sharmila Dorbala, Marcelo Di Carli, Mathews B Fish, Terrence D Ruddy, Timothy M Bateman, Andrew J Einstein, Philipp A Kaufmann, Edward J Miller, Albert J Sinusas, Peyman N Azadani, Heidi Gransar, Balaji K Tamarappoo, Damini Dey, Daniel S Berman, Guido Germano
BACKGROUND: We aim to establish a multicenter registry collecting clinical, imaging, and follow-up data for patients who undergo myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with the latest generation SPECT scanners. METHODS: REFINE SPECT (REgistry of Fast Myocardial Perfusion Imaging with NExt generation SPECT) uses a collaborative design with multicenter contribution of clinical data and images into a comprehensive clinical-imaging database. All images are processed by quantitative software...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Nuan Wang, Hao Zhou, Hongli Huang, Deqin Geng, Xiuhua Yang, Chunyu Yu, Di Shi
Background: We determined the diagnostic and therapeutic effects of SRM-IV vestibular function diagnosis and treatment system on benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Methods: Overall, 120 patients with BPPV diagnosed in the outpatient and in-patient departments of the Vertigo Treatment Center of the First People's Hospital of Xuzhou from January 2013 to December 2015 were selected for this study. They were randomly divided into three groups. Automatic repositioning procedure was conducted for 40 patients in the equipment repositioning group by SRM-IV vestibular function diagnosis and treatment system, conventional manual repositioning procedure was used for 40 patients in the manual repositioning group, and combination of treatment drugs (alprostadil and safflower injection) with acclimatization training was adopted in 40 patients in the drug therapy group...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Ignacio Ferrés, Gregorio Iraola
Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a standard tool in population genetics and bacterial epidemiology that assesses the genetic variation present in a reduced number of housekeeping genes (typically seven) along the genome. This methodology assigns arbitrary integer identifiers to genetic variations at these loci which allows us to efficiently compare bacterial isolates using allele-based methods. Now, the increasing availability of whole-genome sequences for hundreds to thousands of strains from the same bacterial species has allowed us to apply and extend MLST schemes by automatic extraction of allele information from the genomes...
2018: PeerJ
T Shin, D Lim, Y S Kim, S C Kim, W L Jo, Y W Lim
Objectives: Laser-engineered net shaping (LENS) of coated surfaces can overcome the limitations of conventional coating technologies. We compared the in vitro biological response with a titanium plasma spray (TPS)-coated titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) surface with that of a Ti6Al4V surface coated with titanium using direct metal fabrication (DMF) with 3D printing technologies. Methods: The in vitro ability of human osteoblasts to adhere to TPS-coated Ti6Al4V was compared with DMF-coating...
May 2018: Bone & Joint Research
Marco Beato, Mikael Jamil, Gavin Devereux
The Video Tracking multiple cameras system (VTS) is a technology that records two-dimensional position data (x and y) at high sampling rates (over 25 Hz). The VTS is of great interest because it can record external load variables as well as collect technical and tactical parameters. Performance analysis is mainly focused on physical demands, yet less attention has been afforded to technical and tactical factors. Digital.Stadium® VTS is a performance analysis device widely used at national and international levels (i...
June 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
Olivia Hautier-Suply, Yasmin Friedmann, Julian Shapley
Technological advances have led to innovative insulin delivery systems for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. In particular, the combination of miniature engineering and software algorithms contained in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) system pumps provide the user and the healthcare practitioner with an opportunity to review and adjust blood glucose (BG) levels according to system feedback, and to modify or programme their regimen according to their needs. While CSII pumps record a number of data parameters such as BG level, carbohydrate intake, activity and insulin delivered, these data are generally 'locked in' and can only be accessed by uploading to a cloud-based system, thus information is not contemporaneous...
April 2018: European Endocrinology
Antti Tolonen, Hanneke F M Rhodius-Meester, Marie Bruun, Juha Koikkalainen, Frederik Barkhof, Afina W Lemstra, Teddy Koene, Philip Scheltens, Charlotte E Teunissen, Tong Tong, Ricardo Guerrero, Andreas Schuh, Christian Ledig, Marta Baroni, Daniel Rueckert, Hilkka Soininen, Anne M Remes, Gunhild Waldemar, Steen G Hasselbalch, Patrizia Mecocci, Wiesje M van der Flier, Jyrki Lötjönen
Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) hold potential for the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. We developed a novel CDSS, the PredictND tool, designed for differential diagnosis of different types of dementia. It combines information obtained from multiple diagnostic tests such as neuropsychological tests, MRI and cerebrospinal fluid samples. Here we evaluated how the classifier used in it performs in differentiating between controls with subjective cognitive decline, dementia due to Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Isabelle Riederer, Alexander A Fingerle, Thomas Baum, Jan S Kirschke, Ernst J Rummeny, Peter B Noël, Daniela Pfeiffer
The aim was to evaluate Virtual Non-Contrast (VNC)-CT images for the detection of acute infarcts in the brain after mechanical thrombectomy using a dual-layer spectral CT. 29 patients between September 2016 and February 2017 with unenhanced head spectral-CT after mechanical thrombectomy and available follow-up images (MRI, n:26; CT, n:3) were included. VNC-CT and conventional CT (CT) images were reconstructed using dedicated software. Based on those, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and the volume of infarction were measured semi-automatically in VNC-CT, CT and MRI...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Megumi Matsuo, Yoriko Ando, Yasuhiro Kamei, Shoji Fukamachi
The optomotor response (OMR) is a locomotor behavior of animals that is induced by moving repetitive visual stimuli. This characteristic helps animals particularly when stabilizing and maintaining position in schools and herds. Here, we developed a simple but sensitive method for quantifying the OMR using medaka ( Oryzias latipes ) as a model. This method, which simply requires video-recorded behavior, free tracking software, and a generic spreadsheet program, enables the evaluation of spectral sensitivity by researchers with little knowledge about the behavioral characteristics of the test animal or of the OMR...
June 19, 2018: Biology Open
J T Lennon, M E Muscarella, S A Placella, B K Lehmkuhl
Extracellular or "relic" DNA is one of the largest pools of nucleic acids in the biosphere. Relic DNA can influence a number of important ecological and evolutionary processes, but it may also affect estimates of microbial abundance and diversity, which has implications for understanding environmental, engineered, and host-associated ecosystems. We developed models capturing the fundamental processes that regulate the size and composition of the relic DNA pools to identify scenarios leading to biased estimates of biodiversity...
June 19, 2018: MBio
N Wang, H Zhou, H L Huang
The purpose of this investigation was to compare the efficacy of automatic to manual reposition treatment for patients with horizontal semicircular canal paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Sixty patients diagnosed with BPPV were equally and randomly divided into either a manual reposition treatment group or an automatic reposition treatment group. The groups were compared regarding difference in pain [visual analog scale (VAS)], extent of vertigo disorder [dizziness handicap inventory (DHI)], quality of life (SF-36), and therapeutic effect...
May 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Chengyi Zheng, Yi Luo, Cheryl Mercado, Lina Sy, Steven J Jacobsen, Brad Ackerson, Bruno Lewin, Hung Fu Tseng
IMPORTANCE: Diagnosis codes are inadequate for accurately identifying herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). There is significant lack of population-based studies on HZO due to the high expense of manual review of medical records. BACKGROUND: To assess whether HZO can be identified from the clinical notes using natural language processing (NLP). To investigate the epidemiology of HZO among HZ population based on the developed approach. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort analysis...
June 19, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
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