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The White Book (WB) of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe is produced by the 4 European PRM Bodies (European Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine - EARM, European Society of PRM - ESPRM, European Union of Medical Specialists - PRM Section, European College of PRM-ECPRM served by the European Union of Medical Specialists-PRM Board) and constitutes the reference book for PRM physicians in Europe. It has now reached its third edition; the first was published in 1989 and the second in 2006/2007...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Yao-Hui Huang, Yao-Yu Lin, Shih-Kai Lee, Ming-Feng Lee, Ching-Lan Esther Lin
BACKGROUND: The ideology of recovery addresses the autonomy of patients with mental illness and their ability to reconstruct a normal life. Empirical knowledge of this process of recovery and related factors remains unclear. PURPOSE: To assess the process of recovery and related factors in patients with mental illness. METHODS: This cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted on a convenience sample in a psychiatric hospital. Two-hundred and fifty patients with mental illness were recruited and were assessed using 3 instruments: Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery (QPR), Perceived Psychiatric Stigma Scale (PPSS), and Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP)...
April 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
M Heinemann, S G Welker, F G Holz, R P Finger
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Physical activity (PA) impacts age-related diseases but its measurement is difficult. The acceptance of wrist-worn accelerometers (ACC) in older patients with eye diseases was evaluated and the results were compared with a validated activity questionnaire. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study 50 patients underwent a clinical examination and were interviewed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). They then wore an ACC for 7 days and then for 30 days...
March 21, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Alonzo T Folger, Emily A Eismann, Nicole B Stephenson, Robert A Shapiro, Maurizio Macaluso, Maggie E Brownrigg, Robert J Gillespie
OBJECTIVES: The study objective was to determine if maternal and paternal exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have a significant association with negative offspring development at 24 months of age in a suburban pediatric primary care population. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 311 mother-child and 122 father-child dyads who attended a large pediatric primary care practice. Children were born from October 2012 to June 2014, and data were collected at the 2-, 4-, and 24-month well-child visits...
March 21, 2018: Pediatrics
Brandie D Taylor, Xiaojing Zheng, Catherine M O'Connell, Harold C Wiesenfeld, Sharon L Hillier, Toni Darville
OBJECTIVE: Assess risk factors for incident and endometrial Mycoplasma genitalium infection and determine if M. genitalium is associated with histological endometritis, an indicator of pelvic inflammatory disease. METHODS: This study was a secondary data analysis within the T cell Response Against Chlamydia (TRAC) Study, a prospective evaluation of 246 women with or at risk for Chlamydia trachomatis from urban outpatient clinics, who were followed quarterly for 12 months...
March 21, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Kerry Johanna Smith, Catriona George, Nuno Ferriera
BACKGROUND: Caring for persons with dementia (PWD) can create "caregiver burden," which is associated with negative outcomes for caregivers and PWD. The ZBI (Zarit Burden Interview) is a widely used unitary measure of caregiver burden. However, recent research has found caregiver burden to be multi-dimensional. The purpose of this study was to explore the factor structure of the ZBI within a sample of UK caregivers. A secondary aim was to identify variables that predicted burden dimensions found...
March 22, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Jacob Callesen, Davide Cattaneo, John Brincks, Ulrik Dalgas
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by a demyelination that results in reduced conductivity in the somatosensory nervous system, decreased muscle strength, vestibular alteration, and severe fatigue. Progressive resistance training (PRT) has proven to be a promising intervention showing a positive effect on muscle strength. Another promising intervention frequently used in neuro-rehabilitation is task specific training where also Balance and Motor Control Training (BMCT) are incorporated...
2018: NeuroRehabilitation
Beatrice Xuan Ho, Nicole Min Qian Pek, Boon-Seng Soh
The rising interest in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived organoid culture has stemmed from the manipulation of various combinations of directed multi-lineage differentiation and morphogenetic processes that mimic organogenesis. Organoids are three-dimensional (3D) structures that are comprised of multiple cell types, self-organized to recapitulate embryonic and tissue development in vitro. This model has been shown to be superior to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture methods in mirroring functionality, architecture, and geometric features of tissues seen in vivo...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nikolaos P Daskalakis, Allison C Provost, Richard G Hunter, Guia Guffanti
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a pathologic response to trauma that impacts ∼8% of the population and is highly comorbid with other disorders, such as traumatic brain injury. PTSD affects multiple biological systems throughout the body, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, cortical function, and the immune system, and while the study of the biological underpinnings of PTSD and related disorders are numerous, the roles of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are just emerging. Moreover, deep sequencing has revealed that ncRNAs represent most of the transcribed mammalian genome...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Nora E Fritz, Nicholas R Boileau, Julie C Stout, Rebecca Ready, Joel S Perlmutter, Jane S Paulsen, Kimberly Quaid, Stacey Barton, Michael K McCormack, Susan L Perlman, Noelle E Carlozzi
Up to 90% of individuals with Huntington's disease (HD)-a progressive, inherited neurodegenerative disorder-experience apathy. Apathy is particularly debilitating because it is marked by a reduction in goal-directed behaviors, including self-care, social interactions, and mobility. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between variables of apathy, functional status, physical function, cognitive function, behavioral status/emotional function, and health-related quality of life. Clinician-rated measures of physical, cognitive, and behavioral function, including one clinician-rated item on apathy, and self-reported measures of physical function, health-related quality of life, and emotional, cognitive, and social function were collected in a single session from 487 persons with the HD mutation (prodromal, N=193; early-stage manifest, N=186; late-stage manifest, N=108)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Savita Yadav, Pinaki Chakraborty, Prabhat Mittal, Udit Arora
AIM: Parents sometimes show young children YouTube videos on their smartphones. We studied the interaction of 55 Indian children born between December 2014 and May 2015 who watched YouTube videos when they were 6-24 months old. METHODS: The children were recruited by the researchers using professional and personal contacts and visited by the same two observers at four ages, for at least 10 minutes. The observers recorded the children's abilities to interact with touch screens and identify people in videos and noted what videos attracted them the most...
March 20, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Kimberly S Chiew, Jordan Hashemi, Lee K Gans, Laura Lerebours, Nathaniel J Clement, Mai-Anh T Vu, Guillermo Sapiro, Nicole E Heller, R Alison Adcock
Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes...
2018: PloS One
Casey M Theriot
Over the past 10 years, microbiome research has focused on defining the structures associated with different disease states in multiple systems, but has fallen short on showing causation. Prior omic studies have generated many new hypotheses, but moving forward we need to start dissecting the function of each bacterium alone and in concert with complex bacterial communities in well-characterized systems. Over the next 5 years, we need a merging of new omic technologies for exploratory studies with classical bacterial genetics, bacterial physiology, protein engineering, and biochemistry to further define the biochemical mechanisms of the gut microbiota...
March 2018: MSystems
Michael Lehrer, Anindya Bhadra, Sathvik Aithala, Visweswaran Ravikumar, Youyun Zheng, Basak Dogan, Emerlinda Bonaccio, Elizabeth S Burnside, Elizabeth Morris, Elizabeth Sutton, Gary J Whitman, Jose Net, Kathy Brandt, Marie Ganott, Margarita Zuley, Arvind Rao
Background: Imaging features derived from MRI scans can be used for not only breast cancer detection and measuring disease extent, but can also determine gene expression and patient outcomes. The relationships between imaging features, gene/protein expression, and response to therapy hold potential to guide personalized medicine. We aim to characterize the relationship between radiologist-annotated tumor phenotypic features (based on MRI) and the underlying biological processes (based on proteomic profiling) in the tumor...
January 2018: Oncoscience
Tamara J Somers, Sarah A Kelleher, Caroline S Dorfman, Rebecca A Shelby, Hannah M Fisher, Krista Rowe Nichols, Keith M Sullivan, Nelson J Chao, Gregory P Samsa, Amy P Abernethy, Francis J Keefe
BACKGROUND: Pain is a challenge for patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a Web-based mobile pain coping skills training (mPCST) protocol designed to address the needs of HCT patients. METHODS: Participants had undergone HCT and reported pain following transplant (N=68). To guide intervention development, qualitative data were collected from focus group participants (n=25) and participants who completed user testing (n=7)...
March 19, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Hajime Kanamori, David J Weber, Maria F Gergen, Lauren M DiBiase, Emily E Sickbert-Bennett, William A Rutala
BACKGROUND: Single outbreaks have often been reported in health care settings, but the frequency of outbreaks at a hospital over time has not been described. We examined epidemiologic features of all health care-associated outbreak investigations at an academic hospital during a 5-year period. METHODS: Health care-associated outbreak investigations at an academic hospital (2012-2016) were retrospectively reviewed through data on comprehensive hospital-wide surveillance and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Pankti A Gheewala, Gregory M Peterson, Syed Tabish R Zaidi, Matthew D Jose, Ronald L Castelino
BACKGROUND: Screening programs may help to address the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Australia. Public awareness is an important determinant of the uptake of screening programs. However, data on the public knowledge of CKD in Australia is lacking. The aim of this study was to develop a validated questionnaire and assess the Australian public knowledge of CKD. METHODS: A CKD knowledge questionnaire was developed after reviewing the literature and discussions with nephrology experts...
March 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Li-Tzy Wu, Udi E Ghitza, He Zhu, Susan Spratt, Marvin Swartz, Paolo Mannelli
BACKGROUND: The majority of the U.S. healthcare resources are utilized by a small population characterized as high-risk, high-need persons with complex care needs (e.g., adults with multiple chronic conditions). Substance use disorders (SUDs) and mental health disorders (MHDs) are a driver of poor health and additional healthcare costs, but they are understudied among high-need patients. OBJECTIVE: We examine the prevalence and correlates of SUDs and MHDs among adults with high-risk diabetes, who are patients at the top 10% risk score for developing poor outcomes (hospital admission or death)...
March 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Hyoungnae Kim, Misol Lee, Min-Uk Cha, Ki Heon Nam, Seong Yeong An, Seohyun Park, Jong Hyun Jhee, Hae-Ryong Yun, Youn Kyung Kee, Jung Tak Park, Tae-Hyun Yoo, Shin-Wook Kang, Seung Hyeok Han
Background: Although asymptomatic microscopic hematuria (MH) is a common finding in clinical practice, its long-term outcome remains unknown. Aim: This study evaluated the clinical implication of MH in the general population using a large-scale long-term longitudinal cohort database. Methods: This study included 8719 participants from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study between 2001 and 2014. MH was defined as ≥ 5 red blood cells per high-power field in random urinalysis without evidence of pyuria...
March 14, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Ipek Ensari, Julia M Balto, Elizabeth A Hubbard, Lara A Pilutti, Robert W Motl
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence that motor and cognitive impairments often co-occur in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is little research on influences of cognitive-motor coupling, particularly depressive symptoms. This study examined depressive symptoms as a moderator and/or confounder of cognitive-motor coupling in persons with MS. METHOD: The sample included 131 persons with MS who were allocated into elevated and nonelevated depressive symptom groups based on a cutoff score of 8 on the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale...
February 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
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