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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166593/neural-correlates-of-improvements-in-personality-and-behavior-following-a-neurological-event
#1
Marcie L King, Kenneth Manzel, Joel Bruss, Daniel Tranel
Research on changes in personality and behavior following brain damage has focused largely on negative outcomes, such as increased irritability, moodiness, and social inappropriateness. However, clinical observations suggest that some patients may actually show positive personality and behavioral changes following a neurological event. In the current work, we investigated neuroanatomical correlates of positive personality and behavioral changes following a discrete neurological event (e.g., stroke, benign tumor resection)...
November 19, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166388/associations-between-thyroid-dysfunction-and-developmental-status-in-children-with-excessive-iodine-status
#2
Inger Aakre, Tor A Strand, Khalil Moubarek, Ingrid Barikmo, Sigrun Henjum
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Adequate iodine status and normal thyroid hormone synthesis are important for optimal child development. In this study, we explored whether young children's developmental status is associated with thyroid dysfunction in an area of chronic excessive iodine exposure. METHODS: We included 298 children between 18 and 48 months of age residing in Algerian refugee camps. Early child development was measured using the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, third edition (ASQ-3), consisting of five domains: Communication, Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Problem Solving and Personal-Social...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165801/sex-and-rank-affect-how-infant-rhesus-macaques-look-at-faces
#3
Annika Paukner, Emily M Slonecker, Ashley M Murphy, Lauren J Wooddell, Amanda M Dettmer
We investigated how differences in infant sex and mothers' dominance status affect infant rhesus macaques' (Macaca mulatta) interest in visually exploring emotional facial expressions. Thirty-eight infants were presented with animated avatars of macaque facial expressions during the first month of life. Sons of high-ranking mothers looked more at faces, especially the eye region, than sons of low-ranking mothers, but no difference in looking duration was found for daughters. Males looked significantly more at eyes than females, but this effect was reversed in infants who were reared without mothers in a primate nursery facility...
November 22, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165223/health-status-of-asylum-seekers-spain
#4
Núria Serre-Delcor, Carlos Ascaso, Antoni Soriano-Arandes, Francisco Collazos Sanchez, Begoña Treviño Maruri, Elena Sulleiro, Diana Pou Ciruelo, Cristina Bocanegra Garcia, Israel Molina Romero
The rising rate of conflicts and the unsafe situation caused by reasons of ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, political opinion, or nationality entail an increase in the number of migratory movements. The goal of this article is to describe the health status of asylum seekers visited in an international health center. We conducted a retrospective study of the asylum seekers visited between July 2013 and June 2016. A total of 303 cases were included. The median age was 28.0 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 21-35), and 203 (67...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164939/using-cbpr-to-decrease-health-disparities-in-a-suburban-latino-neighborhood
#5
Maren J Coffman, Brisa Urquieta de Hernandez, Heather A Smith, Andrew McWilliams, Yhenneko J Taylor, Hazel Tapp, Johanna Claire Schuch, Owen Furuseth, Michael Dulin
INTRODUCTION: This project tested the feasibility of using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to deliver health and social resources in two high-risk, suburban neighborhoods. METHOD: An established research network was used to engage stakeholders to design and deliver a neighborhood-based intervention targeting a Latino immigrant population. The intervention provided screenings for hypertension, diabetes, and depression; primary care provider visits; and information about navigating health care delivery systems and related community-based resources...
September 2017: Hispanic Health Care International: the Official Journal of the National Association of Hispanic Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164595/frequency-of-leaving-the-house-and-mortality-from-age-70-to-95
#6
Jeremy M Jacobs, Aliza Hammerman-Rozenberg, Jochanan Stessman
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between frequency of leaving the house and mortality. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up of an age-homogenous, representative, community-dwelling birth cohort (born 1920-21) from the Jerusalem Longitudinal Study (1990-2015). SETTING: Home. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 70 (n = 593), 78 (n = 973), 85 (n = 1164), and 90 (n = 645), examined in 1990, 1998, 2005, and 2010, respectively...
November 22, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164123/income-gradient-in-renal-disease-mortality-in-the-united-states
#7
Shervin Assari, Maryam Moghani Lankarani
Background: Non-communicable diseases and associated mortality follow a social gradient and chronic kidney disease is not an exception to this rule. Intermediate behavioral and medical factors that may explain such social gradients are, however, still unknown. Objectives: Using nationally representative data in the United States, this study was conducted to investigate the mediating effect of medical and behavioral risk factors on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and renal disease mortality...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164090/feasibility-of-classifying-life-stages-and-searching-for-the-determinants-results-from-the-medical-expenditure-panel-survey-1996-2011
#8
Yi-Sheng Chao, Hau-Tieng Wu, Chao-Jung Wu
Background: Life stages are not clearly defined and significant determinants for the identification of stages are not discussed. This study aims to test a data-driven approach to define stages and to identify the major determinants. Methods: This study analyzed the data on the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey interviewees from 1996 to 2011 in the United States. This study first selected features with the Spearman's correlation to remove redundant variables and to increase computational feasibility...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164080/the-incidence-and-short-term-outcomes-of-acute-respiratory-illness-with-cough-in-children-from-a-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-urban-community-in-australia-a-community-based-prospective-cohort-study
#9
Kerry K Hall, Anne B Chang, Jennie Anderson, Daniel Arnold, Vikas Goyal, Melissa Dunbar, Michael Otim, Kerry-Ann F O'Grady
Background: Acute respiratory illnesses with cough (ARIwC) are predominant causes of morbidity in Australian Indigenous children; however, data on disease burden in urban communities are scarce. This study aimed to determine the incidence of ARIwC, the predictors of recurrent (≥4 episodes) ARIwC, and development of chronic cough following an ARIwC in urban, predominantly Indigenous, children aged <5 years from northern Brisbane, Australia. Methods: Prospective cohort study of children aged <5 years registered with a primary healthcare center...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163979/use-of-a-social-media-network-to-reduce-early-neonatal-mortality-a-preliminary-report-from-a-quality-improvement-project-in-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon
#10
Adidja Amani, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Evelyn M Mah, Clemence Meguejio Vougmo, Seidou Moluh Moluh, Robinson Mbu
Background: Perinatal networks have yielded substantial contribution in decreasing the neonatal mortality rate. We present here the process of implementation of a perinatal network in Yaoundé (Cameroon) based on the WhatsApp messenger application as well as some preliminary results and achievements. Methods: In December 2016, the Yaoundé Perinatal Network was launched, regrouping a multidisciplinary team of health professionals dealing with perinatal care in Yaoundé, Cameroon...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163865/associations-between-neurocognitive-functioning-and-social-and-occupational-resilience-among-south-african-women-exposed-to-childhood-trauma
#11
C A Denckla, N S Consedine, G Spies, M Cherner, D C Henderson, K C Koenen, S Seedat
Background: Prior research on adaptation after early trauma among black South African women typically assessed resilience in ways that lacked contextual specificity. In addition, the neurocognitive correlates of social and occupational resilience have not been investigated. Objective: The primary aim of this exploratory study was to identify domains of neurocognitive functioning associated with social and occupational resilience, defined as functioning at a level beyond what would be expected given exposure to childhood trauma...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163282/from-querulous-to-suicidal-self-immolation-in-public-places-as-a-symbolic-response-to-the-feeling-of-injustice
#12
Benjamin T Lévy, Cécile Prudent, Florian Liétard, Renaud Evrard
Aim: This paper sheds light on the context that leads some querulous patients to self-immolate in front of, or into, public buildings (e.g., tribunals, city halls, and employment agencies). Method: The author defines paranoid querulousness. A psychoanalytic perspective, but also a judicial and a psychiatric point of view, over querulous claimants is presented. The links between political or social claims and self-immolation are studied. The expression of suicidal thoughts voiced by four querulous subjects is analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163247/how-to-dax-preschool-children-s-prosocial-behavior-but-not-their-social-norm-enforcement-relates-to-their-peer-status
#13
Markus Paulus
The current study examined correlates of preschool children's (n = 82) peer status. In particular, we assessed children's prosocial behavior, social problem behavior, norm enforcement, language abilities, and temperament. Children's prosocial behavior, pragmatic language abilities, and gender correlated with peer status. A regression analysis revealed that prosocial behavior and gender were independent predictors. There was some evidence for a mediation effect: The link between pragmatic language and peer status was mediated by prosocial behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163090/community-violence-exposure-and-conduct-problems-in-children-and-adolescents-with-conduct-disorder-and-healthy-controls
#14
Linda Kersten, Noortje Vriends, Martin Steppan, Nora M Raschle, Martin Praetzlich, Helena Oldenhof, Robert Vermeiren, Lucres Jansen, Katharina Ackermann, Anka Bernhard, Anne Martinelli, Karen Gonzalez-Madruga, Ignazio Puzzo, Amy Wells, Jack C Rogers, Roberta Clanton, Rosalind H Baker, Liam Grisley, Sarah Baumann, Malou Gundlach, Gregor Kohls, Miguel A Gonzalez-Torres, Eva Sesma-Pardo, Roberta Dochnal, Helen Lazaratou, Zacharias Kalogerakis, Aitana Bigorra Gualba, Areti Smaragdi, Réka Siklósi, Dimitris Dikeos, Amaia Hervás, Aranzazu Fernández-Rivas, Stephane A De Brito, Kerstin Konrad, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Graeme Fairchild, Christine M Freitag, Arne Popma, Meinhard Kieser, Christina Stadler
Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD). Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162184/in-the-eye-of-the-beholder-perceptions-of-neighborhood-adversity-and-psychotic-experiences-in-adolescence
#15
Joanne B Newbury, Louise Arseneault, Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E Moffitt, Candice L Odgers, Jessie R Baldwin, Helena M S Zavos, Helen L Fisher
Adolescent psychotic experiences increase risk for schizophrenia and other severe psychopathology in adulthood. Converging evidence implicates urban and adverse neighborhood conditions in the etiology of adolescent psychotic experiences, but the role of young people's personal perceptions of disorder (i.e., physical and social signs of threat) in their neighborhood is unknown. This was examined using data from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative birth cohort of 2,232 British twins...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162035/reliability-and-validity-of-the-international-dementia-alliance-schedule-for-the-assessment-and-staging-of-care-in-china
#16
Xiao Wang, Zhenghai Sun, Lingchuan Xiong, Maya Semrau, Jianhua He, Yang Li, Jianzhong Zhu, Nan Zhang, Aimin Wang, Qinpu Jiang, Nan Mu, Yuping Zhao, Wei Chen, Donghui Wu, Zhanjie Zheng, Yongan Sun, Jing Zhang, Jun Xu, Xue Meng, Mei Zhao, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaozhen Lv, Norman Sartorius, Tao Li, Xin Yu, Huali Wang
BACKGROUND: Clinical and social services both are important for dementia care. The International Dementia Alliance (IDEAL) Schedule for the Assessment and Staging of Care was developed to guide clinical and social care for dementia. Our study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the IDEAL schedule in China. METHODS: Two hundred eighty-two dementia patients and their caregivers were recruited from 15 hospitals in China. Each patient-caregiver dyad was assessed with the IDEAL schedule by a rater and an observer simultaneously...
November 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161600/monitoring-wastewater-for-assessing-community-health-sewage-chemical-information-mining-scim
#17
Christian G Daughton
Timely assessment of the aggregate health of small-area human populations is essential for guiding the optimal investment of resources needed for preventing, avoiding, controlling, or mitigating human exposure risks, as well as for maintaining or promoting health. Seeking those interventions yielding the greatest benefit with respect to the allocation of resources is critical for making progress toward community sustainability, reducing health disparities, promoting social justice, and maintaining or improving collective health and well-being...
November 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161361/trajectories-of-frailty-among-chinese-older-people-in-hong-kong-between-2001-and-2012-an-age-period-cohort-analysis
#18
Ruby Yu, Moses Wong, K C Chong, Billy Chang, C M Lum, T W Auyeung, Jenny Lee, Ruby Lee, Jean Woo
Background: there is little evidence to suggest that older people today are living in better health than their predecessors did at the same age. Only a few studies have evaluated whether there are birth cohort effects on frailty, an indicator of health in older people, encompassing physical, functional and mental health dimensions. Objectives: this study examined longitudinal trajectories of frailty among Chinese older people in Hong Kong. Methods: this study utilised data from the 18 Elderly Health Centres of the Department of Health comprising a total of 417,949 observations from 94,550 community-dwelling Chinese people aged ≥65 years in one early birth cohort (1901-23) and four later birth cohorts (1924-29, 1930-35, 1936-41, 1942-47) collected between 2001 and 2012, to examine trajectories of the frailty index and how birth cohorts may have contributed to the trends using an age-period-cohort analysis...
November 17, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161171/at-the-expense-of-a-life-race-class-and-the-meaning-of-buprenorphine-in-pharmaceuticalized-care
#19
Alexandrea E Hatcher, Sonia Mendoza, Helena Hansen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Office-based buprenorphine maintenance has been legalized and promoted as a treatment approach that not only expands access to care, but also reduces the stigma of addiction treatment by placing it in a mainstream clinical setting. At the same time, there are differences in buprenorphine treatment utilization by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. METHODS: This article draws on qualitative data from interviews with 77 diverse patients receiving buprenorphine in a primary care clinic and two outpatient substance dependence clinics to examine differences in patients' experiences of stigma in relation their need for psychosocial supports and services...
November 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160948/disability-social-functioning-and-school-inclusion-among-older-children-and-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-zimbabwe
#20
Ruramayi Rukuni, Grace McHugh, Edith Majonga, Katharina Kranzer, Hilda Mujuru, Shungu Munyati, Kusum Nathoo, Celia L Gregson, Hannah Kuper, Rashida A Ferrand
OBJECTIVE: Increasing numbers of children with HIV are surviving to adolescence and encountering multiple clinical and social consequences of longstanding HIV infection. We aimed to investigate the association between HIV and disability, social functioning and school inclusion among 6 to 16 year-olds in Zimbabwe. METHODS: HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy from a public sector HIV clinic, and HIV-uninfected children attending primary care clinics in the same catchment area were recruited...
November 21, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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