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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239486/using-brothel-leadership-to-promote-condom-use-among-brothel-based-female-sex-workers-in-abuja-nigeria-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-pilot-trial
#1
Uchenna Okafor, Rik Crutzen, Ifeanyi Okekearu, Sylvia Adebajo, Adaora Uzoh, Egbe Aneotah Awo, Chukwuemeka Chima, Ogechukwu Agwagwa, Bart van den Borne
BACKGROUND: The HIV prevalence among female populations involved in sex work in Nigeria has heightened interest in HIV prevention programming for this sub-population with brothel-based female sex workers (BB FSWs) having a prevalence of 27.4%, six times higher than the prevalence in the general population. METHODS/DESIGN: The clusters in the randomized pilot trial will be brothels and female sex workers (FSWs) residing in the brothels will be the participants of the study...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239401/group-or-ungroup-moose-behavioural-response-to-recolonization-of-wolves
#2
Johan Månsson, Marie-Caroline Prima, Kerry L Nicholson, Camilla Wikenros, Håkan Sand
BACKGROUND: Predation risk is a primary motivator for prey to congregate in larger groups. A large group can be beneficial to detect predators, share predation risk among individuals and cause confusion for an attacking predator. However, forming large groups also has disadvantages like higher detection and attack rates of predators or interspecific competition. With the current recolonization of wolves (Canis lupus) in Scandinavia, we studied whether moose (Alces alces) respond by changing grouping behaviour as an anti-predatory strategy and that this change should be related to the duration of wolf presence within the local moose population...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239234/harnessing-demographic-differences-in-organizations-what-moderates-the-effects-of-workplace-diversity
#3
Yves R F Guillaume, Jeremy F Dawson, Lilian Otaye-Ebede, Stephen A Woods, Michael A West
To account for the double-edged nature of demographic workplace diversity (i.e,. relational demography, work group diversity, and organizational diversity) effects on social integration, performance, and well-being-related variables, research has moved away from simple main effect approaches and started examining variables that moderate these effects. While there is no shortage of primary studies of the conditions under which diversity leads to positive or negative outcomes, it remains unclear which contingency factors make it work...
February 2017: Journal of Organizational Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239228/doing-gender-online-new-mothers-psychological-characteristics-facebook-use-and-depressive-symptoms
#4
Sarah J Schoppe-Sullivan, Jill E Yavorsky, Mitchell K Bartholomew, Jason M Sullivan, Meghan A Lee, Claire M Kamp Dush, Michael Glassman
Online social networking sites, such as Facebook, have provided a new platform for individuals to produce and reproduce gender through social interactions. New mothers, in particular, may use Facebook to practice behaviors that align with their mothering identity and meet broader societal expectations, or in other words, to "do motherhood." Given that Facebook use may undermine well-being, it is important to understand the individual differences underlying new mothers' experiences with Facebook during the stressful first months of parenthood...
March 2017: Sex Roles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239215/the-techniques-for-overcoming-depression-questionnaire-mokken-scale-analysis-reliability-and-concurrent-validity-in-depressed-cardiac-patients
#5
Kenneth E Freedland, Mariantonia Lemos, Frank Doyle, Brian C Steinmeyer, Iris Csik, Robert M Carney
OBJECTIVES: The Techniques for Overcoming Depression (TOD) questionnaire assesses the frequency with which patients being treated for depression use cognitive-behavioral techniques in daily life. This study examined its latent structure, reliability and concurrent validity in depressed cardiac patients. METHOD: The TOD was administered at the initial and final treatment sessions in three trials of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) (n = 260) for depression in cardiac patients...
February 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238894/a-narrative-review-of-social-media-and-game-based-nutrition-interventions-targeted-at-young-adults
#6
Monica Nour, Sin Hang Yeung, Stephanie Partridge, Margaret Allman-Farinelli
The increased popularity of social media and mobile gaming among young adults provides an opportunity for innovative nutrition programs. This review evaluated the efficacy of these strategies in interventions targeted at 18- to 35-year-olds. The protocol was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Ten scientific databases, information technology conference proceedings, and gray literature were searched. Two reviewers conducted screening, data extraction, and quality assessments...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238826/environmental-factors-and-teenagers-personalities-the-role-of-personal-and-familial-socio-cultural-level
#7
Elisa Menardo, Giulia Balboni, Roberto Cubelli
: Environmental (e.g., socio-cultural context), individual (e.g., genetic makeup), and interpersonal (e.g., caregiver-children relationships) factors can play a crucial role in shaping the development of the teenagers' personality. In this study, we focused on the Socio-Cultural Level that designates the set of preferences, knowledge and behaviors that characterize an individual's way of life and depend on his or her cultural, social and economic resources. We studied the relationship between Socio-Cultural Level (personal, maternal and paternal) and Big Five personality traits of 191 teenagers living in the same geographical area...
February 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238208/ask-me-self-reported-features-of-adolescents-experiencing-neglect-or-emotional-maltreatment-a-rapid-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
A M Naughton, L E Cowley, V Tempest, S A Maguire, M K Mann, A M Kemp
BACKGROUND: Neglect is often overlooked in adolescence, due in part to assumptions about autonomy and misinterpretation of behaviors being part of normal adolescent development. Emotional maltreatment (abuse or neglect) has a damaging effect throughout the lifespan, but is rarely recognized amongst adolescents. Our review aims to identify features that adolescents experiencing neglect and/ or emotional maltreatment report. METHOD: A rapid review methodology searched 8 databases (1990-2014), supplemented by hand searching journals, and references, identifying 2,568 abstracts...
February 26, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238116/the-immune-system-cytokines-and-biomarkers-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Anne Masi, Nicholas Glozier, Russell Dale, Adam J Guastella
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental condition characterized by variable impairments in communication and social interaction as well as restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Heterogeneity of presentation is a hallmark. Investigations of immune system problems in ASD, including aberrations in cytokine profiles and signaling, have been increasing in recent times and are the subject of ongoing interest. With the aim of establishing whether cytokines have utility as potential biomarkers that may define a subgroup of ASD, or function as an objective measure of response to treatment, this review summarizes the role of the immune system, discusses the relationship between the immune system, the brain, and behavior, and presents previously-identified immune system abnormalities in ASD, specifically addressing the role of cytokines in these aberrations...
February 25, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237910/immune-markers-of-social-cognitive-bias-in-schizophrenia
#10
Patrick W Dunne, David L Roberts, Marlon P Quinones, Dawn I Velligan, Madelaine Paredes, Consuelo Walss-Bass
Social cognition is impaired in schizophrenia, is relatively independent of purely neurocognitive domains such as attention and executive functioning, and may be the strongest predictor of functional outcome in this disease. Within a motivated reasoning framework, we tested the hypothesis that the anti-inflammatory Th2-associated cytokines, IL-10 and MDC, would be correlated with behavioral measures of social cognitive threat-detection bias (self-referential gaze detection bias and theory of mind (ToM) bias) in delusional versus non-delusional patients...
February 16, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237863/structural-violence-and-chronic-kidney-disease-of-unknown-etiology-in-sri-lanka
#11
M W Amarasiri de Silva, Steven M Albert, J M K B Jayasekara
Research published on Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka has been undertaken largely from biomedical and epidemiological perspectives. The main objective of these studies has been to identify the etiology of the disease, which affects as much as 15-21% of the population in some regions and is associated with kidney failure. Few studies have sought to address how CKDu is socially and behaviorally situated in the affected districts. The present study, informed by structural violence theory, utilized a mixed-method approach that analyzed primary and secondary data for Medawachchiya District Secretariat Division in Anuradhapura District for 2010 and 2015, and examined CKDu as a manifestation of social inequality and exclusion and the creation of a marginalized group of agricultural laborers...
February 20, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237833/stable-psychological-functioning-after-surgery-for-epilepsy-an-informant-based-perspective
#12
Marcie L King, Daniel Tranel
OBJECTIVE: Psychological adjustment following surgery for epilepsy has been assessed primarily with self-report measures. In the current work, we investigated pre- to postoperative changes in various dimensions of personality and behavior from the perspective of a well-known family member or friend for 27 patients operated on for medically intractable epilepsy. METHODS: For each patient, a close family member or friend ("informant") provided pre- and postoperative ratings on five dimensions of personality and behavior...
February 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237761/disordered-lives-life-circumstances-and-clinical-characteristics-of-very-frequent-users-of-emergency-departments-for-primary-mental-health-complaints
#13
Xiangfei Meng, Tracy Muggli, Marilyn Baetz, Carl D'Arcy
This study explored the life circumstances and clinical characteristics of very frequent users of emergency departments (EDs) presenting with a primary mental health complaint. Patients with 10 or more EDs visits in 2012 with a primary psychiatric diagnosis in a Canadian regional health authority were identified from electronic administrative files. The hospital charts for these patients were thoroughly reviewed for a three-year period, from 2011 to 2013. A retrospective thematic analysis was undertaken. Very frequent users of EDs were generally young to early middle aged, unemployed, living in transient accommodations, having substance abuse diagnoses, and self-referred to EDs for a variety of psychiatric and health symptoms and/or unmet needs...
February 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237631/advanced-theory-of-mind-in-adolescence-do-age-gender-and-friendship-style-play-a-role
#14
Marta Białecka-Pikul, Anna Kołodziejczyk, Sandra Bosacki
The ability to recursively infer the mental states of others to explain their complex behavior in ambiguous social situation may be called Advanced Theory of Mind (aToM). The relations between two components of aToM, cognitive and affective, measured on a behavioral level in 151 Polish 13-year-olds and 174 16-year-olds was examined. The role of age, gender and friendship style and its relations to the cognitive and affective aToM was explored. Cognitive aToM was only weakly to moderately related to affective aToM...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237585/invited-review-determinants-of-farmers-adoption-of-management-based-strategies-for-infectious-disease-prevention-and-control
#15
Caroline Ritter, Jolanda Jansen, Steven Roche, David F Kelton, Cindy L Adams, Karin Orsel, Ron J Erskine, Geart Benedictus, Theo J G M Lam, Herman W Barkema
The prevention and control of endemic pathogens within and between farms often depends on the adoption of best management practices. However, farmers regularly do not adopt recommended measures or do not enroll in voluntary disease control programs. This indicates that a more comprehensive understanding of the influences and extension tools that affect farmers' management decisions is necessary. Based on a review of relevant published literature, we developed recommendations to support policy-makers, industry representatives, researchers, veterinarians, and other stakeholders when motivating farmers to adopt best management practices, and to facilitate the development and implementation of voluntary prevention and control programs for livestock diseases...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237550/of-fish-and-mirrors-fluoxetine-disrupts-aggression-and-learning-for-social-rewards
#16
Benjamin R Eisenreich, Susan Greene, Allen Szalda-Petree
Aggressive signaling is a key social behavior of male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Successfully establishing a territory and defending it from intruders has direct fitness effects, making Betta splendens a prime model for studies examining the biological underpinnings of aggressive behavior. Current research has outlined serotonin transporter pathways as one key component for the engagement and coordination of aggressive behavior in Betta splendens. Using the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, we examined the impact of 10μmol exposures on associative learning and aggression between mirror and conspecific social reinforcers...
February 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237367/dollar-for-dollar-racial-and-ethnic-inequalities-in-health-and-health-related-outcomes-among-persons-with-very-high-income
#17
Kanetha B Wilson, Roland J Thorpe, Thomas A LaVeist
Racial and ethnic disparities in health have been well-documented, and low SES is widely considered to be a driver of this relationship. However, the race-social class-health interrelationship is complex, as several studies have found race disparities between racial/ethnic minorities and whites at middle- income levels. Research on higher income persons is complicated by the lack of data for persons with incomes about $75,000. Most national datasets collect income data in categories with the highest income category being $75,000 and above...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236357/psychometric-properties-of-the-alabama-parenting-questionnaire-adapted-to-families-of-chilean-preschoolers
#18
Félix Cova, Claudio Bustos, Paulina Rincón, David L Streiner, Pamela Grandón, Sandra Saldivia, Carolina Inostroza, Gisela Contreras
The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) is a well-known tool to assess empirically identified aspects of positive and negative parenting practices. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of an adapted version of the APQ for its use with parents of children between 2 and 6 years of age in Chile. The participants were 557 parents of children aged 2 to 6 years. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the best fit was obtained by a four-factor model (positive reinforcement, parental involvement, inconsistency of disciplinary practices, and punitive practices)...
February 25, 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236100/brief-report-what-drives-parental-concerns-about-their-18-month-olds-at-familial-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Elizabeth A Karp, Lisa V Ibañez, Zachary Warren, Wendy L Stone
Parent-reported developmental concerns can be a first step toward further screening and intervention for children at risk for ASD. However, little is known about the extent to which parental well-being and child behavior contribute to parental concerns, especially in families who already have one child with ASD. This study included 54 parents and their 18-month-old high-risk toddlers to examine the extent to which parents' well-being (i.e., parenting stress and self-efficacy), and children's behavior (i.e., expressive language and social communication) contribute to parents' concerns regarding their toddler's development...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235795/a-support-program-for-somali-born-parents-on-children-s-behavioral-problems
#20
Fatumo Osman, Renée Flacking, Ulla-Karin Schön, Marie Klingberg-Allvin
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate a culturally tailored parenting support program (Ladnaan) for Somali-born parents and to determine its effectiveness on children's emotional and behavioral problems. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial included 120 Somali-born parents with children aged 11 to 16 years. The parents reported self-perceived stress in relation to parenting practices. The intervention consisted of culturally tailored societal information combined with the parenting program Connect...
February 24, 2017: Pediatrics
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