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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028611/automatic-imitation-of-pro-and-antisocial-gestures-is-implicit-social-behavior-censored
#1
Emiel Cracco, Oliver Genschow, Ina Radkova, Marcel Brass
According to social reward theories, automatic imitation can be understood as a means to obtain positive social consequences. In line with this view, it has been shown that automatic imitation is modulated by contextual variables that constrain the positive outcomes of imitation. However, this work has largely neglected that many gestures have an inherent pro- or antisocial meaning. As a result of their meaning, antisocial gestures are considered taboo and should not be used in public. In three experiments, we show that automatic imitation of symbolic gestures is modulated by the social intent of these gestures...
October 10, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028564/assessing-police-officers-attitudes-and-legal-knowledge-on-behaviors-that-impact-hiv-transmission-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#2
Javier A Cepeda, Steffanie A Strathdee, Jaime Arredondo, Maria L Mittal, Teresita Rocha, Mario Morales, Erika Clairgue, Eliane Bustamante, Daniela Abramovitz, Irina Artamonova, Arnulfo Bañuelos, Thomas Kerr, Carlos L Magis-Rodriguez, Leo Beletsky
BACKGROUND: Policing practices such as syringe confiscation and arrest can act as important social-structural drivers of HIV risk among people who inject drugs (PWID). However, police referral to treatment and other services may improve the health of PWID. Little is known about the role of modifiable attitudinal and knowledge factors in shaping officer behavior. Using baseline findings from a police education program (PEP), we assessed relationships between drug policy knowledge and attitudes towards public health interventions with self-reported syringe confiscation, drug arrest, and service referral among street-level police in Tijuana, Mexico...
October 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028442/the-use-of-mobile-applications-among-adults-with-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-results-from-the-second-miles-australia-miles-2-study
#3
Steven Trawley, Shaira Baptista, Jessica L Browne, Frans Pouwer, Jane Speight
BACKGROUND: While the number of diabetes-specific mobile applications (apps) continues to grow, there is a lack of knowledge about their actual use. METHODS: The second MILES (Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success)-Australia study was a national cross-sectional survey of the psychological, behavioral, and social aspects of diabetes for adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Associations between diabetes-specific app usage and demographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables were examined...
October 13, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028156/genetic-background-effects-in-neuroligin-3-mutant-mice-minimal-behavioral-abnormalities-on-c57-background
#4
Thomas C Jaramillo, Christine Ochoa Escamilla, Shunan Liu, Lauren Peca, Shari G Birnbaum, Craig M Powell
Neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) is a postsynaptic cell adhesion protein that interacts with presynaptic ligands including neurexin-1 (NRXN1) [Ichtchenko et al., Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271, 2676-2682, 1996]. Mice harboring a mutation in the NLGN3 gene (NL3R451C) mimicking a mutation found in two brothers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were previously generated and behaviorally phenotyped for autism-related behaviors. In these NL3R451C mice generated and tested on a hybrid C57BL6J/129S2/SvPasCrl background, we observed enhanced spatial memory and reduced social interaction [Tabuchi et al...
October 13, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027815/l-carnosine-as-an-adjunctive-therapy-to-risperidone-in-children-with-autistic-disorder-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#5
Reihaneh Hajizadeh-Zaker, Alireza Ghajar, Bita Mesgarpour, Mohsen Afarideh, Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi, Shahin Akhondzadeh
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at investigating the efficacy and tolerability of l-carnosine as an add-on to risperidone in the management of children with autism. METHODS: This was a 10-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Seventy drug-free children aged 4-12 years old with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition. (DSM-5) who had an Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) scale irritability subscale score of ≥12, entered the study...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027643/contribution-of-theory-of-mind-executive-functioning-and-pragmatics-to-socialization-behaviors-of-children-with-high-functioning-autism
#6
Carmen Berenguer, Ana Miranda, Carla Colomer, Inmaculada Baixauli, Belén Roselló
Social difficulties are a key aspect of autism, but the intervening factors are still poorly understood. This study had two objectives: to compare the profile of ToM skills, executive functioning (EF), and pragmatic competence (PC) of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and children with typical development (TD), and analyze their mediator role in social functioning. The participants were 52 children with HFA and 37 children with TD matched on age, intelligence quotient, and expressive vocabulary. Significant differences were found on measures of ToM, both explicit and applied, EF, and PC between children with HFA and TD...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027602/combining-risk-communication-strategies-to-simultaneously-convey-the-risks-of-four-diseases-associated-with-physical-inactivity-to-socio-demographically-diverse-populations
#7
Eva Janssen, Robert A C Ruiter, Erika A Waters
A single risk factor can increase the risk of developing multiple diseases, but most risk communication research has been conducted in the context of a single disease. We explored which combination of three recommended risk communication strategies is most effective in simultaneously conveying risk estimates of four diseases associated with physical inactivity: colon cancer, stroke, diabetes, and heart disease. Participants (N = 1161, 50% no college experience, 50% racial/ethnic minority) were shown hypothetical risk estimates for each of the four diseases...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026880/adaptive-social-strategies-in-a-solitary-carnivore
#8
L Mark Elbroch, Michael Levy, Mark Lubell, Howard Quigley, Anthony Caragiulo
Cost-benefit trade-offs for individuals participating in social behaviors are the basis for current theories on the evolution of social behaviors and societies. However, research on social strategies has largely ignored solitary animals, in which we assume that rare interactions are explained by courtship or territoriality or, in special circumstances, resource distributions or kinship. We used directed network analysis of conspecific tolerance at food sources to provide evidence that a solitary carnivore, the puma (Puma concolor), exhibited adaptive social strategies similar to more social animals...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026742/contraceptive-behavior-of-couples-undergoing-sterilization-in-an-eastern-state-of-india
#9
Venkatarao Epari, Lipilekha Patnaik, Deepa Prasad, Trilochan Sahu, Arunkiran Soodireddy, Arabinda Acharya
BACKGROUND: As a part of a larger study for evaluating the effectiveness of a community-based family welfare program, this study assessed the contraceptive behavior of couples preceding sterilization and termination of pregnancies, if any during the interim period. METHODS: During May-June 2013, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in three districts of Odisha, an eastern state of India with poor maternal health indicators. Using a 15 × 14 cluster design with probability proportionate to size sampling 15 village clusters from each district were selected...
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026727/adverse-effects-of-prolonged-sitting-behavior-on-the-general-health-of-office-workers
#10
Hadi Daneshmandi, Alireza Choobineh, Haleh Ghaem, Mehran Karimi
BACKGROUND: Excessive sitting behavior is a risk factor for many adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to survey the prevalence of sitting behavior and its adverse effects among Iranian office workers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 447 Iranian office workers. A two-part questionnaire was used as the data collection tool. The first part surveyed the demographic characteristics and general health of the respondents, while the second part contained the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) to assess symptoms...
July 2017: Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026510/a-novel-system-for-tracking-social-preference-dynamics-in-mice-reveals-sex-and-strain-specific-characteristics
#11
Shai Netser, Shani Haskal, Hen Magalnik, Shlomo Wagner
BACKGROUND: Deciphering the biological mechanisms underlying social behavior in animal models requires standard behavioral paradigms that can be unbiasedly employed in an observer- and laboratory-independent manner. During the past decade, the three-chamber test has become such a standard paradigm used to evaluate social preference (sociability) and social novelty preference in mice. This test suffers from several caveats, including its reliance on spatial navigation skills and negligence of behavioral dynamics...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026488/a-longitudinal-study-on-the-effects-of-negative-rearing-experiences-on-adolescents-social-withdrawal-and-aggression
#12
Kyung-Suk Lee, Ok-Joo Choi, Joon-Ho Kim
BACKGROUND: Children who have experienced negative rearing behaviors show a lack of self-confidence due to emotional instability and are reserved in interpersonal relationships. This can lead to failure in social adaptation and a high risk of depression, suicide, criminal acts, and anti-social behaviors. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effects of experiencing negative parental rearing behaviors, such as neglect and abuse, on adolescents' social withdrawal and aggression, by utilizing multivariate latent growth models...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026375/sexual-risk-behavior-among-hiv-positive-persons-in-jamaica
#13
Butho Ncube, Jessica Ansong, Kewanna Daniels, Dianne Campbell-Stennett, Pauline E Jolly
BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS remains a global public health challenge, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. Sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive persons place their partners at risk for HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections. Stopping transmission acts among HIV-positive people is crucial in reversing HIV incidence. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive individuals in clinical care in Northwestern Jamaica...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026264/more-to-lose-noise-risk-perceptions-of-young-adults-with-hearing-impairment
#14
REVIEW
Lyndal Carter, Deborah Black
This study investigated the attitudes and behaviors of young adults with hearing impairment (HI), in relation to leisure noise. It was hypothesized that young people with HI would have more negative perceptions of noise exposure than their peers with nonimpaired (normal) hearing (NH) and would engage more frequently in self-protective behaviors. Questionnaires were administered as part of a larger study of young Australians with: (1) preadult onset HI and (2) NH. Data from adults (age range 18 to 24 years; n  = 79 with HI, n  = 131 with NH) were selected for the current analysis...
November 2017: Seminars in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025698/college-freshmen-students-perspectives-on-weight-gain-prevention-in-the-digital-age-web-based-survey
#15
Courtney M Monroe, Gabrielle Turner-McGrievy, Chelsea A Larsen, Karen Magradey, Heather M Brandt, Sara Wilcox, Beth Sundstrom, Delia Smith West
BACKGROUND: College freshmen are highly vulnerable to experiencing weight gain, and this phenomenon is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality in older adulthood. Technology offers an attractive and scalable way to deliver behavioral weight gain prevention interventions for this population. Weight gain prevention programs that harness the appeal and widespread reach of Web-based technologies (electronic health or eHealth) are increasingly being evaluated in college students...
October 12, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025500/the-influence-of-self-efficacy-in-medical-drama-television-programming-on-behaviors-and-emotions-that-promote-cervical-cancer-prevention
#16
Sungsu Kim, Jay D Hmielowski
OBJECTIVES: We explored the influences of medical drama viewing on health behaviors and emotions, and examined the role of self-efficacy in medical drama programming. METHODS: A single-factor, 2-condition experimental design that manipulated self-efficacy levels was adopted. A total of 131 female undergraduate students who were likely involved with the issues of HPV vaccination and cervical cancer participated in this experiment. RESULTS: In line with social cognitive theory, the results indicated that participants in the high self-efficacy condition showed greater behavioral intention to receive a Pap smear (F (1, 126) = 4...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025495/effectiveness-of-social-media-based-interventions-on-weight-related-behaviors-and-body-weight-status-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Ruopeng An, Mengmeng Ji, Sheng Zhang
OBJECTIVES: We reviewed scientific literature regarding the effectiveness of social media-based interventions about weight-related behaviors and body weight status. METHODS: A keyword search were performed in May 2017 in the Clinical-Trials.gov, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled effect size of social media-based interventions on weight-related outcome measures. RESULTS: We identified 22 interventions from the keyword and reference search, including 12 randomized controlled trials, 6 pre-post studies and 3 cohort studies conducted in 9 countries during 2010-2016...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025355/a-content-analysis-of-testosterone-websites-sex-muscle-and-male-age-related-thematic-differences
#18
Nicholas Ivanov, Jimmy Vuong, Peter B Gray
Male testosterone supplementation is a large and growing industry. How is testosterone marketed to male consumers online? The present exploratory study entailed a content coding analysis of the home pages of 49 websites focused on testosterone supplementation for men in the United States. Four hypotheses concerning anticipated age-related differences in content coding were also tested: more frequent longevity content toward older men, and more frequent social dominance/physical formidability, muscle, and sex content toward younger men...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025051/integrating-behavioral-health-risk-assessment-into-centralized-intake-for-maternal-and-child-health-services
#19
Sarah Kye Price, D Crystal Coles, Tracey Wingold
Effectively promoting women's health during and around the time of pregnancy requires early, nonstigmatizing identification and assessment of behavioral health risks (such as depression, substance use, smoking, and interpersonal violence) combined with timely linkage to community support and specialized interventions. This article describes an integrated approach to behavioral health risk screening woven into a point of first contact with the health care delivery system: centralized intake for maternal and child health home visiting programs...
September 4, 2017: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024727/interspecific-comparison-of-mushroom-body-synaptic-complexes-of-dimorphic-workers-in-the-ant-genus-pheidole
#20
Darcy G Gordon, Alejandra Zelaya, Katherine Ronk, James F A Traniello
Social insects may have morphologically and behaviorally specialized workers that vary in requirements for sensory information processing, making them excellent systems to examine the relationship between brain structure and behavior. The density and size of synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG) in the mushroom bodies (MB) have served as proxies for processing ability and synaptic plasticity have been shown to vary among insect species that differ in behavioral complexity. To understand the relationship between behavioral specialization and synaptic structure, we examined age-related changes in MG density and size between minor worker and soldier subcastes in two species of Pheidole ants, P...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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