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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830030/multivariate-trajectories-across-multiple-domains-of-health-related-quality-of-life-in-children-with-new-onset-epilepsy
#1
Tolulope T Sajobi, Meng Wang, Mark A Ferro, Anita Brobbey, Shane Goodwin, Kathy N Speechley, Samuel Wiebe
The diagnosis of epilepsy in children is known to impact the trajectory of their health-related quality of life (HRQOL) over time. However, there is limited knowledge about variations in longitudinal trajectories across multiple domains of HRQOL. This study aims to characterize the heterogeneity in HRQOL trajectories across multiple HRQOL domains and to evaluate predictors of differences among the identified trajectory groups in children with new-onset epilepsy. Data were obtained from the Health Related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study (HERQULES), a prospective multi-center study of 373 children newly diagnosed with new-onset epilepsy who were followed up over 2years...
August 19, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830027/factors-influencing-use-of-family-planning-in-women-living-in-crisis-affected-areas-of-sub-saharan-africa-a-review-of-the-literature
#2
REVIEW
Kelly Ackerson, Ruth Zielinski
BACKGROUND: far too many women continue to die from pregnancy and childbirth related causes. While rates have decreased in the past two decades, some areas of the world such as sub-Saharan Africa continue to have very high maternal mortality rates. One intervention that has been demonstrated to decrease maternal mortality is use of family planning and modern contraception, yet rates of use in sub-Saharan countries with the highest rates of maternal death remain very low. AIM: to review available research and summarize the factors that inhibit or promote family planning and contraceptive use among refugee women and women from surrounding areas living in Sub-Saharan Africa...
August 1, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830005/fostering-prosocial-behavior-and-empathy-in-young-children
#3
REVIEW
Tracy L Spinrad, Diana E Gal
There is increasing interest in understanding ways to foster young children's prosocial behavior (i.e. voluntary acts to benefit another). We begin this review by differentiating between types of prosocial behavior, empathy, and sympathy. We argue that sympathy and some types of prosocial behaviors are most likely intrinsically motivated, whereas other types of prosocial behaviors may be extrinsically motivated. Next, we highlight work focusing on the socialization practices that have been found to predict individual differences in young children's prosocial behavior and concern for others...
August 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830004/how-interpersonal-synchrony-facilitates-early-prosocial-behavior
#4
REVIEW
Laura K Cirelli
When infants and children affiliate with others, certain cues may direct their social efforts to 'better' social partners. Interpersonal synchrony, or when two or more people move together in time, can be one such cue. In adults, experiencing interpersonal synchrony encourages affiliative behaviors. Recent studies have found that these effects also influence early prosociality-for example, 14-month-olds help a synchronous partner more than an asynchronous partner. These effects on helping are specifically directed to the synchronous movement partner and members of that person's social group...
August 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830002/the-prosocial-functions-of-early-social-emotions-the-case-of-guilt
#5
REVIEW
Amrisha Vaish
To safeguard human cooperation, it is vital that when cooperative relationships break down, they are repaired. This requirement is met by the social emotion of guilt, at two levels: the experience of guilt motivates transgressors to repair the damage they have caused, and transgressors' displays of guilt appease victims and bystanders and elicit cooperation toward the transgressor. I review recent evidence that guilt functions in both of these ways from early in development. The experience of guilt motivates reparative behavior in children 2-3 years of age, and transgressors' displays of guilt appease and elicit cooperation in children 4-5 years of age...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829842/voice-in-different-phases-of-menstrual-cycle-among-naturally-cycling-women-and-users-of-hormonal-contraceptives
#6
Irena Pavela Banai
Previous studies have shown changes in women's behavior and physical appearance between the non-fertile and fertile phases of the menstrual cycle. It is assumed that these changes are regulated by fluctuations in sex hormone levels across the cycle. Receptors for sex hormones have been found on the vocal folds, suggesting a link between hormone levels and vocal fold function, which might cause changes in voice production. However, attempts to identify changes in voice production across the menstrual cycle have produced mixed results...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829389/-you-think-you-re-helping-them-but-they-re-helping-you-too-experiences-of-scottish-male-young-offenders-participating-in-a-dog-training-program
#7
Rebecca J Leonardi, Hannah M Buchanan-Smith, Gill McIvor, Sarah-Jane Vick
Interaction with animals can be beneficial to humans and animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) are increasingly popular in a range of contexts. Dog training programs (DTPs) are the most popular form of AAI in custodial contexts; prisoners often have multiple needs and DTPs seem to facilitate a diverse range of positive outcomes, including improvements in well-being, behavior, and offending behavior. However, evidence on the efficacy of prison-based DTPs is still limited and these evaluations often lack detail or methodological rigor...
August 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829293/perception-of-virtual-audiences
#8
Mathieu Chollet, Stefan Scherer
A growing body of evidence shows that virtual audiences are a valuable tool in the treatment of social anxiety, and recent works show that it also a useful in public-speaking training programs. However, little research has focused on how such audiences are perceived and on how the behavior of virtual audiences can be manipulated to create various types of stimuli. The authors used a crowdsourcing methodology to create a virtual audience nonverbal behavior model and, with it, created a dataset of videos with virtual audiences containing varying behaviors...
2017: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829283/fragile-x-mental-retardation-1-knockout-zebrafish-shows-precocious-development-in-social-behavior
#9
Yao-Ju Wu, Mao-Ting Hsu, Ming-Chong Ng, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Maria A Tikhonova, Yi-Ling Yang, Kwok-Tung Lu
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a generally hereditary form of human mental retardation that is caused by triplet repeat expansion (CGG) mutation in fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene promoter and that results in the absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression. The common symptoms of FXS patients include learning disabilities, anxiety, autistic behaviors, as well as other behavioral abnormalities. Our previous results demonstrated the behavioral abnormalities in fmr1 knockout (KO) zebrafish such as fear memory impairment and autism-like behavior...
August 22, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829238/guideposts-and-roadblocks-to-the-career-long-scholarly-engagement-of-physical-education-teacher-education-faculty
#10
Catherine P Berei, Erica Pratt, Melissa Parker, Kevin Shephard, Tanjian Liang, Udon Nampai, Guntima Neamphoka
PURPOSE: Scholarship is essential for the growth and development of the physical education field. Over time, scholarship expectations have changed, forcing faculty members to alter time spent for research, teaching, and service. Social-cognitive career theory (SCCT) presents a model for understanding performance and persistence in an occupational environment. The interconnected aspects of SCCT have different emphasis related to self-efficacy, outcome expectations, or personal goals pursuit...
August 22, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829005/does-working-with-the-veder-contact-method-influence-the-job-satisfaction-of-caregivers-a-non-randomized-controlled-trial-in-nursing-homes-for-people-with-dementia
#11
P Boersma, R M Dröes, B I Lissenberg-Witte, B van Meijel, J C M van Weert
BACKGROUND: Person-centered care interventions can improve the quality of life and decrease behavioral problems of people with dementia. Although not convincingly proven, person-centered care interventions may benefit the caregivers as well. This study aims to gain insight into how working with the Veder Contact Method (VCM) - a new person-centered care method - influences the job satisfaction of caregivers. METHODS: Within a quasi-experimental study, the job satisfaction of caregivers of six experimental wards (n = 75) was compared with caregivers of six control wards (n = 36) that applied Care-As-Usual...
August 22, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828505/role-of-early-environmental-enrichment-on-the-social-dominance-tube-test-at-adulthood-in-the-rat
#12
Wen-Yu Cao, Zhao-Lan Hu, Yang Xu, Wen-Juan Zhang, Fu-Lian Huang, Xiao-Qing Qiao, Yan-Hui Cui, Wei Wan, Xue-Qin Wang, Dan Liu, Ru-Ping Dai, Fang Li, Chang-Qi Li
RATIONALE: Environmental enrichment (EE) could influence brain plasticity and behavior in rodents. Whether the early EE may predispose individuals to a particular social hierarchy in the social dominance tube test (SDTT) at adulthood is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: The present study directly investigated the influence of EE on competitive success in the SDTT among adult rats. METHODS: Male rats were maintained in EE from postnatal days 21 to 35...
August 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828224/social-and-environmental-enrichment-has-different-effects-on-ethanol-and-sucrose-consumption-in-mice
#13
Joan Y Holgate, Hilary Garcia, Susmita Chatterjee, Selena E Bartlett
BACKGROUND: Factors leading to the harmful consumption of substances, like alcohol and sucrose, involve a complex interaction of genes and the environment. While we cannot control the genes we inherit, we can modify our environment. Understanding the role that social and environmental experiences play in alcohol and sucrose consumption is critical for developing preventative interventions and treatments for alcohol use disorders and obesity. METHODS: We used the drinking in the dark two-bottle choice (2BC) model of ethanol and sucrose consumption to compare male C57BL/6 mice housed in the IntelliCage (an automated device capable of simultaneously measuring behaviors of up to 16 mice living in an enriched social environment) with mice housed in standard isolated and social environments...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827895/the-drosophila-foraging-gene-human-orthologue-prkg1-predicts-individual-differences-in-the-effects-of-early-adversity-on-maternal-sensitivity
#14
H Moriah Sokolowski, Oscar E Vasquez, Eva Unternaehrer, Dustin J Sokolowski, Stephanie D Biergans, Leslie Atkinson, Andrea Gonzalez, Patricia P Silveira, Robert Levitan, Kieran J O'Donnell, Meir Steiner, James Kennedy, Michael J Meaney, Alison S Fleming, Marla B Sokolowski
There is variation in the extent to which childhood adverse experience affects adult individual differences in maternal behavior. Genetic variation in the animal foraging gene, which encodes a cGMP-dependent protein kinase, contributes to variation in the responses of adult fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, to early life adversity and is also known to play a role in maternal behavior in social insects. Here we investigate genetic variation in the human foraging gene (PRKG1) as a predictor of individual differences in the effects of early adversity on maternal behavior in two cohorts...
April 2017: Cognitive Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827849/oral-health-status-related-to-social-behaviors-among-6-11-year-old-schoolchildren-in-kosovo
#15
Lulëjeta Ferizi, Fatmir Dragidella, Gloria Staka, Venera Bimbashi, Shefqet Mrasori
AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the current oral health status among schoolchildren in Kosovo aged 6-11 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A study included 5679 schoolchildren aged 6 -11 years, from different towns of Kosovo. Dental health status was evaluated using the World Health Organization (WHO) caries diagnostic criteria for decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT index), for deciduous and permanent dentition. The observed children have answered a number of questions about their oral hygiene, eating habits, and dental visits...
June 2017: Acta Stomatologica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827221/leveraging-behavioral-economics-to-improve-heart-failure-care-and-outcomes
#16
REVIEW
Leslie L Chang, Adam D DeVore, Bradi B Granger, Zubin J Eapen, Dan Ariely, Adrian F Hernandez
Behavioral challenges are often present in human illness, so behavioral economics is increasingly being applied in healthcare settings to better understand why patients choose healthy or unhealthy behaviors. The application of behavioral economics to healthcare settings parallels recent shifts in policy and reimbursement structures that hold providers accountable for outcomes that are dependent on patient behaviors. Numerous studies have examined the application of behavioral economics principles to policy making and health behaviors, but there are limited data on applying these concepts to the management of chronic conditions, such as heart failure (HF)...
August 22, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826950/social-stress-and-substance-use-disparities-by-sexual-orientation-among-high-school-students
#17
Richard Lowry, Michelle M Johns, Leah E Robin, Laura K Kann
INTRODUCTION: Sexual minority youth often experience increased social stress due to prejudice, discrimination, harassment, and victimization. Increased stress may help explain the disproportionate use of substances like tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use by sexual minority youth. This study examined the effect of social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation among U.S. high school students. METHODS: In 2016, data from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, conducted among a nationally representative sample of 15,624 U...
August 18, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826738/managers-empire-preservation-behavior-and-corporate-investment-comment-on-modeling-human-behavior-in-economics-and-social-science-by-marina-dolfin-leone-leonida-and-nisrina-outada
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826502/sexual-dimorphism-in-striatal-dopaminergic-responses-promotes-monogamy-in-social-songbirds
#19
Kirill Tokarev, Julia Hyland Bruno, Iva Ljubičić, Paresh J Kothari, Santosh A Helekar, Ofer Tchernichovski, Henning U Voss
In many songbird species, males sing to attract females and repel rivals. How can gregarious, non-territorial songbirds such as zebra finches, where females have access to numerous males, sustain monogamy? We found that the dopaminergic reward circuitry of zebra finches can simultaneously promote social cohesion and breeding boundaries. Surprisingly, in unmated males but not in females, striatal dopamine neurotransmission was elevated after hearing songs. Behaviorally too, unmated males but not females persistently exchanged mild punishments in return for songs...
August 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826336/empathizers-and-systemizers-process-social-information-differently
#20
Tapani Riekki, Annika Svedholm-Häkkinen, Marjaana Lindeman
Using the empathizing-systemizing theory as our framework, we investigated how people with high self-reported empathizing (having good social skills and being interested in people) and systemizing (being interested in physical things and processes) differ in the social information processing of emotionally negative photographs of people during "spontaneous watching" and emotional and cognitive empathy tasks. Empathizers evaluated the pictures as more emotionally touching and the reactions in the photographs more understandable than the systemizers...
August 22, 2017: Social Neuroscience
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