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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109732/the-unified-model-of-vegetarian-identity-a-conceptual-framework-for-understanding-plant-based-food-choices
#1
Daniel L Rosenfeld, Anthony L Burrow
By departing from social norms regarding food behaviors, vegetarians acquire membership in a distinct social group and can develop a salient vegetarian identity. However, vegetarian identities are diverse, multidimensional, and unique to each individual. Much research has identified fundamental psychological aspects of vegetarianism, and an identity framework that unifies these findings into common constructs and conceptually defines variables is needed. Integrating psychological theories of identity with research on food choices and vegetarianism, this paper proposes a conceptual model for studying vegetarianism: The Unified Model of Vegetarian Identity (UMVI)...
January 18, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109659/fighting-for-the-web-competition-between-female-feather-legged-spiders-uloborus-plumipes
#2
Anna-Christin Joel, Anne Habedank, Jonas Hausen, Jörg Mey
Most spider species are solitary, and among the few social interactions among them, resource competition between females has received little attention. We discovered that females of the feather-legged spider Uloborus plumipes invade the orb webs of conspecifics and compete for webs. Following observations in the wild, intruder-defender interactions were studied in a terrarium and in controlled laboratory experiments. We found that contests for orb webs occurred spontaneously between adult females. Competitive interactions in U...
December 14, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109585/influence-of-breed-milk-yield-and-temperature-humidity-index-on-dairy-cow-lying-time-neck-activity-reticulorumen-temperature-and-rumination-behavior
#3
A E Stone, B W Jones, C A Becker, J M Bewley
The objective of this study was to compare weekly mean lying time (LT), neck activity (NA), reticulorumen temperature (RT), and rumination time (RU) among 3 breed groups, milk yield (MY), and temperature-humidity index (THI). Cows (n = 36; 12 Holstein, 12 crossbred, and 12 Jersey) were blocked by parity group (primiparous or multiparous), days in milk, and MY. Lying time, NA, RT, RU, and MY were recorded and averaged by day and then by week for each cow. For study inclusion, each cow was required to have 10 wk of LT, NA, RT, and RU data...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109320/celebrities-impact-on-health-related-knowledge-attitudes-behaviors-and-status-outcomes-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-analysis
#4
Steven J Hoffman, Yasmeen Mansoor, Navneet Natt, Lathika Sritharan, Julia Belluz, Timothy Caulfield, Yoni Freedhoff, John N Lavis, Arya M Sharma
BACKGROUND: Celebrities are highly influential people whose actions and decisions are watched and often emulated by wide audiences. Many celebrities have used their prominent social standing to offer medical advice or endorse health products, a trend that is expected to increase. However, the extent of the impact that celebrities have in shaping the public's health-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and status is unclear. This systematic review seeks to answer the following questions: (1) Which health-related outcomes are influenced by celebrities? (2) How large of an impact do celebrities actually have on these health-related outcomes? (3) Under what circumstances do celebrities produce either beneficial or harmful impacts? METHODS: Ten databases were searched, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, CINAHL, Communication Complete, Sociological Abstracts, Social Sciences Citation Index, Journals @ Scholars Portal, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I...
January 21, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109189/parents-and-peers-normative-influence-on-adolescents-smoking-results-from-a-swiss-italian-sample-of-middle-schools-students
#5
Francesca Scalici, Peter J Schulz
BACKGROUND AND METHOD: Adolescents observe and imitate people to whom they are associated in their social context, and the normative factors sent out by reference groups are crucial determinants of their decision to smoke. The aim of the study is to investigate how adolescents' smoking changes when they are exposed to factors of pro-smoking normative influence by parents and peers, and how age moderate this relation. A cross sectional survey collected data from 5657 students, aged between 11 and 14, from public and private middle schools in the Italian region of Switzerland (Ticino) on their smoking habits, perceived parents' and peers' approval and smoking...
January 21, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108936/a-group-mediated-physical-activity-intervention-in-older-knee-osteoarthritis-patients-effects-on-social-cognitive-outcomes
#6
Brian C Focht, Matthew J Garver, Alexander R Lucas, Steven T Devor, Charles F Emery, Kevin V Hackshaw, Ciaran M Fairman, Jessica Bowman, W Jack Rejeski
The objective of the present study was to compare a group-mediated cognitive behavioral (GMCB) physical activity intervention with traditional exercise therapy (TRAD) upon select social cognitive outcomes in sedentary knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) patients. A total of 80 patients (mean age = 63.5 years; 84% women) were recruited using clinic and community-based strategies to a 12-month, single-blind, two-arm, randomized controlled trial. Mobility-related self-efficacy, self-regulatory self-efficacy (SRSE), and satisfaction with physical function (SPF) were assessed at baseline, 3, and 12 months...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108926/prospective-associations-between-peer-victimization-and-dispositional-mindfulness-in-early-adolescence
#7
Nathaniel R Riggs, Samantha M Brown
Peer victimization is associated with several mental health and behavioral problems during childhood and adolescence. Identifying prospective associations between victimization and factors known to protect against these problems may ultimately contribute to more precise developmental models for victimization's role in behavioral and mental health. This study tested prospective associations between peer victimization and dispositional mindfulness, defined by non-judgmental and accepting awareness of the constant stream of lived experience, during early adolescence...
January 20, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108879/patterns-of-social-affiliations-and-healthcare-engagement-among-young-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#8
Rachel L Behler, Benjamin T Cornwell, John A Schneider
Little work has examined how individuals' social affiliations-the venues in which they meet friends and engage in informal social interaction-influence their engagement with public health services. We investigate how links to these local places shape access to information and exposure to health-seeking behavior. Using longitudinal data from a respondent-driven sample of 618 young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) in Chicago, we identify different sets of social venues that connect YBMSM. We then examine how YBMSM's connections within this network influence their receipt of HIV prevention and treatment services and knowledge of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)...
January 21, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108647/effects-of-early-life-exposure-to-thip-on-brainstem-neuronal-excitability-in-the-mecp2-null-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome-before-and-after-drug-withdrawal
#9
Weiwei Zhong, Christopher M Johnson, Ningren Cui, Max F Oginsky, Yang Wu, Chun Jiang
Rett syndrome (RTT) is mostly caused by mutations of the X-linked MECP2 gene. Although the causal neuronal mechanisms are still unclear, accumulating experimental evidence obtained from Mecp2(-/Y) mice suggests that imbalanced excitation/inhibition in central neurons plays a major role. Several approaches may help to rebalance the excitation/inhibition, including agonists of GABAA receptors (GABAAR). Indeed, our previous studies have shown that early-life exposure of Mecp2-null mice to the extrasynaptic GABAAR agonist THIP alleviates several RTT-like symptoms including breathing disorders, motor dysfunction, social behaviors, and lifespan...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108059/self-views-in-social-anxiety-disorder-the-impact-of-cbt-versus-mbsr
#10
Matthew D Thurston, Philippe Goldin, Richard Heimberg, James J Gross
This study examines the impact of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) versus Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) versus Waitlist (WL) on self-views in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). One hundred eight unmedicated patients with SAD were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of CBGT, MBSR, or WL, and completed a self-referential encoding task (SRET) that assessed self-endorsement of positive and negative self-views pre- and post-treatment. At baseline, 40 healthy controls (HCs) also completed the SRET...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108010/from-avoidance-to-approach-the-influence-of-threat-of-shock-on-reward-based-decision-making
#11
Florian Bublatzky, Georg W Alpers, Andre Pittig
Potential threat can prime defensive responding and avoidance behavior, which may result in the loss of rewards. When aversive consequences do not occur, avoidance should, thus, be quickly overcome in healthy individuals. This study examined the impact of threat anticipation on reward-based decisions. Sixty-five participants completed a decision-making task in which they had to choose between high- and low-reward options. To model an approach-avoidance conflict, the high-reward option was contingent with a threat-of-shock cue; the low-reward option was contingent with a safety cue...
January 10, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107796/social-and-structural-factors-related-to-hiv-risk-among-truck-drivers-passing-through-the-iringa-region-of-tanzania
#12
Anjalee Kohli, Deanna Kerrigan, Heena Brahmbhatt, Samuel Likindikoki, Justin Beckham, Ard Mwampashi, Jessie Mbwambo, Caitlin E Kennedy
Truck drivers and their assistants have been identified as groups at higher risk for HIV infection. We sought to identify and describe the social and structural factors that may contribute to HIV risk among truck drivers who visit rest stops in Iringa, Tanzania, a region characterized by high levels of migration and mobility. This analysis was part of a comprehensive strategic assessment to examine HIV risk factors in Iringa. This analysis focuses on 11 in-depth interviews with truck drivers and a transport owner...
January 20, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107374/combining-social-norms-and-social-marketing-to-address-underage-drinking-development-and-process-evaluation-of-a-whole-of-community-intervention
#13
Sandra C Jones, Kelly Andrews, Kate Francis
Youth alcohol consumption has been steadily declining in Australia, as in other countries; fewer young people are drinking and the age of initiation is increasing. However, young people, their parents and others in their communities continue to believe that adolescent (excessive) drinking is the norm. This perception, and the concurrent misperception that the majority of parents are happy to provide their underage children with alcohol, creates a perceived culture of acceptance of youth alcohol consumption...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107108/testing-a-model-of-sodium-reduction-in-hypertensive-older-thai-adults
#14
Pratsani Srikan, Bonnie Callen, Kenneth Phillips, Abbas Tavakoli, Ralph Brockett, Somchit Hanucharurnkul, Lora Beebe
Hypertensive older adults will benefit if there is a clear understanding of the factors related to sodium reduction. That would raise awareness of the causes, consequently reducing many health risks, lowering health care costs, and diminishing economic and social burden from high blood pressure. This study explored predictors of urinary sodium excretion. A cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted in 312 hypertensive older Thai adults. Questionnaires related to knowledge, self-care agency, self-care behavior of sodium reduction, and 24-hour urinary sodium analyses were used, followed by the application of structural equation modeling and the Analysis of Moment Structures program...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107045/examining-bidirectional-pathways-between-exposure-to-political-violence-and-adolescent-adjustment-in-northern-ireland
#15
E Mark Cummings, Laura K Taylor, Han Du, Christine E Merrilees, Marcie Goeke-Morey, Peter Shirlow
Research on social ecologies of political violence has been largely confined to cross-sectional tests of the impact of political violence on child adjustment, limiting perspectives on more nuanced causal pathways, including tests of reciprocal relations between exposure to political violence and child adjustment. Based on a four-wave longitudinal study, this research breaks new ground in assessing bidirectional relations between exposure to political violence in the form of experience with sectarian antisocial behavior and adolescents' adjustment problems...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106617/determinants-of-health-knowledge-and-health-perceptions-from-the-perspective-of-health-related-education-of-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#16
Piotr Tederko, Tomasz Krasuski, Marek Krasuski, Alicja Długołęcka, Beata Tarnacka
Appropriate health knowledge (HK) and health perceptions (HP) of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) are linked to health-related behaviors, compliance, the involvement of caregivers and efficacy of prophylaxis, and management of secondary conditions. The significance of factors determining the efficacy of educational interventions in patients with SCI is underestimated. This systematic literature review aims at identification of determinants of HK and HP among patients with SCI. We identified 16 papers with quantitative HK and HP measurements conclusive in the identification of HK and HP determinants in individuals with SCI...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105722/charting-the-neglected-west-the-social-system-of-guinea-baboons
#17
Julia Fischer, Gisela H Kopp, Federica Dal Pesco, Adeelia Goffe, Kurt Hammerschmidt, Urs Kalbitzer, Matthias Klapproth, Peter Maciej, Ibrahima Ndao, Annika Patzelt, Dietmar Zinner
OBJECTIVES: Primate social systems are remarkably diverse, and thus play a central role in understanding social evolution, including the biological origin of human societies. Although baboons have been prominently featured in this context, historically little was known about the westernmost member of the genus, the Guinea baboon (Papio papio). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Here, we summarize the findings from the first years of observations at the field site CRP Simenti in the Niokolo Koba National Park in Senegal...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105716/what-does-variation-in-primate-behavior-mean
#18
Karen B Strier
Interest in intraspecific behavioral variation has grown with concerns about the ability of primates to adapt to the rapidly changing ecological and demographic conditions that threaten their survival. Now, in addition to identifying the causes and phylogenetic distribution of normative, species-specific behavior patterns for interspecific comparisons, there is widespread recognition of the need to incorporate intraspecific variation. This variation is evident across groups and populations of the same species as well over the long histories of single groups of long-lived, socially complex animals with overlapping generations...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105585/how-feasible-is-multiple-time-point-web-based-data-collection-with-individuals-experiencing-street-homelessness
#19
Karin M Eyrich-Garg, Shadiya L Moss
Three barriers investigators often encounter when conducting longitudinal work with homeless or other marginalized populations are difficulty tracking participants, high rates of no-shows for follow-up interviews, and high rates of loss to follow-up. Recent research has shown that homeless populations have substantial access to information technologies, including mobile devices and computers. These technologies have the potential both to make longitudinal data collection with homeless populations easier and to minimize some of these methodological challenges...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105532/machiavellian-emotion-regulation-in-a-cognitive-reappraisal-task-an-fmri-study
#20
Anita Deak, Barbara Bodrogi, Brigitte Biro, Gabor Perlaki, Gergely Orsi, Tamas Bereczkei
Affective coldness is one of the main features of Machiavellianism. Recent studies have revealed that Machiavellians are emotionally detached and that this "affective blunting" is associated with intense feelings, emotional instability, negative emotions, and difficulty in enduring distress. We used brain-imaging techniques to investigate emotion regulation in Machiavellianism at a neuropsychological level. We used situations in which participants were required to demonstrate emotional flexibility to explore the controversy surrounding the fact that Machiavellianism is associated with both cold-mindedness and emotional instability...
January 19, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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