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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434164/microglia-loss-contributes-to-the-development-of-major-depression-induced-by-different-types-of-chronic-stresses
#1
Lijuan Tong, Yu Gong, Peng Wang, Wenfeng Hu, Jili Wang, Zhuo Chen, Wei Zhang, Chao Huang
Recently, the loss and dystrophy of hippocampal microglia induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) has been reported to mediate the development of major depression in mice whose microglial cells were labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein-conjuncted-CX3C receptor type 1. However, whether this happens in endogenous microglia with no genetic intervention remains unclear. Here, we addressed this issue in mice treated with different types of chronic stresses, including the CUS, chronic restraint stress (CRS) and chronic social defeat stress (CSDS)...
April 22, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433895/evaluating-network-level-predictors-of-behavior-change-among-injection-networks-enrolled-in-the-hptn-037-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Laramie R Smith, Steffanie A Strathdee, David Metzger, Carl Latkin
BACKGROUND: Little is known about ways network-level factors that may influence the adoption of combination prevention behaviors among injection networks, or how network-oriented interventions might moderate this behavior change process. METHODS: A total of 232 unique injection risk networks in Philadelphia, PA, were randomized to a peer educator network-oriented intervention or standard of care control arm. Network-level aggregates reflecting the injection networks' baseline substance use dynamics, social interactions, and the networks exposure to gender- and structural-related vulnerabilities were calculated and used to predict changes in the proportion of network members adopting safer injection practices at 6-month follow-up...
April 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433774/the-role-of-compensatory-health-beliefs-in-eating-behavior-change-a-mixed-method-study
#3
Melanie A Amrein, Pamela Rackow, Jennifer Inauen, Theda Radtke, Urte Scholz
Compensatory Health Beliefs (CHBs), defined as beliefs that an unhealthy behavior can be compensated for by engaging in another healthy behavior, are assumed to hinder health behavior change. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CHBs for two distinct eating behaviors (increased fruit and vegetable consumption and eating fewer unhealthy snacks) with a mixed method approach. Participants (N = 232, mean age = 27.3 years, 76.3% women) were randomly assigned to a fruit and vegetable or an unhealthy snack condition...
April 19, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433467/modeling-hypohedonia-following-repeated-social-defeat-individual-vulnerability-and-dopaminergic-involvement
#4
Samantha R Spierling, Maegan Mattock, Eric P Zorrilla
Social defeat in rodents putatively can model hypohedonia. The present studies examined models for assessing hypohedonia-like behavior and tested the hypotheses that 1) individual differences in baseline reward sensitivity predict vulnerability, and 2) defeat elicits changes in pharmacological measures of striatal dopaminergic function. Male Wistar rats (n=142) received repeated defeat (3 "triad" blocks of 3 defeats) or control handling. To determine whether defeat influenced consumption of SuperSac (glucose-saccharin) over an isocaloric, less preferred, glucose solution, a 2-choice paradigm was used...
April 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433088/parental-age-and-offspring-psychopathology-in-the-philadelphia-neurodevelopmental-cohort
#5
Alison K Merikangas, Monica E Calkins, Warren B Bilker, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence implicates advanced paternal age at offspring birth in neuropsychiatric disorders. Advanced maternal age has also been associated with schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders, whereas younger maternal age has been linked with behavioral disorders. Few studies have considered the specificity of the associations with respect to comorbidity. In addition, most prior studies have been conducted in clinical samples or registries that may reflect more severe forms of psychopathology...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433087/paternal-age-alters-social-development-in-offspring
#6
Magdalena Janecka, Claire M A Haworth, Angelica Ronald, Eva Krapohl, Francesca Happé, Jonathan Mill, Leonard C Schalkwyk, Cathy Fernandes, Abraham Reichenberg, Frühling Rijsdijk
OBJECTIVE: Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been linked with autism and schizophrenia in offspring, neurodevelopmental disorders that affect social functioning. The current study explored the effects of paternal age on social development in the general population. METHOD: We used multilevel growth modeling to investigate APA effects on socioemotional development from early childhood until adolescence, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) sample...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432889/reducing-domestic-heating-demand-managing-the-impact-of-behavior-changing-feedback-devices-via-marketing
#7
Thorben Jensen, Émile J L Chappin
Feedback devices can be used to inform households about their energy-consumption behavior. This may persuade them to practice energy conservation. The use of feedback devices can also-via word of mouth-spread among households and thereby support the spread of the incentivized behavior, e.g. energy-efficient heating behavior. This study investigates how to manage the impact of these environmental innovations via marketing. Marketing activities can support the diffusion of devices. This study aims to identify the most effective strategies of marketing feedback devices...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432735/perinatal-outcomes-among-young-indigenous-australian-mothers-a-cross-sectional-study-and-comparison-with-adult-indigenous-mothers
#8
Malinda Steenkamp, Jacqueline Boyle, Sue Kildea, Vivienne Moore, Michael Davies, Alice Rumbold
BACKGROUND: The teenage pregnancy rate is high among Indigenous Australian women, yet little is known about their pregnancy outcomes. Moreover, against a background of extreme social disadvantage, the relative importance of age as a risk factor for adverse outcomes among Indigenous pregnancies is unclear. We compared perinatal outcomes for Indigenous teenagers (<20 years) with adult Indigenous women (20-34 years), and described outcomes in subgroups of teenagers. METHODS: Data were analyzed for 2421 singleton births to Indigenous women aged <35 years in Australia's Northern Territory from 2003 to 2005...
April 22, 2017: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432104/dancing-attraction-followers-of-honey-bee-tremble-and-waggle-dances-exhibit-similar-behaviors
#9
Calvin Lam, Yanlei Li, Tim Landgraf, James Nieh
The function of the honey bee tremble dance and how it attracts signal receivers is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that tremble followers and waggle followers exhibit the same dance following behavior. If correct, this would unify our understanding of dance following, provide insight into dance information transfer, and offer a way to identify the signal receivers of tremble dance information. Followers showed similar initial attraction to and tracking of dancers. However, waggle dancers were faster than tremble dancers, and follower forward, sideways, and angular velocities were generally similar to the velocities of their respective dancers...
April 21, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431195/feeding-behavior-and-activity-budget-of-the-southern-yellow-cheeked-crested-gibbons-nomascus-gabriellae-in-a-lowland-tropical-forest
#10
Thanh H Bach, Jin Chen, Minh D Hoang, Kingsly C Beng, Van T Nguyen
The southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae), an endangered species native to Vietnam and Cambodia, lives exclusively in undisturbed tropical forests and depends primarily on ripe fruit for food. Although this species is highly threatened, its ecology and conservation status remain relatively unknown. In order to understand how this heavily frugivorous primate adapts to the seasonal fluctuation of fruit resources in the forest, we collected feeding behavior and ranging activity data on one group of southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbons in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, over 1-year period...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431190/higher-levels-of-submissive-behaviors-at-the-onset-of-the-pairing-process-of-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-are-associated-with-lower-risk-of-wounding-following-introduction
#11
Ori Pomerantz, Kate C Baker
Social housing of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) is considered to be the cornerstone of behavioral management programs in biomedical facilities. However, it also involves the risk of socially inflicted trauma. The ability to avoid such trauma would contribute to the animals' well-being and alleviate staff's concerns, thus paving the path for more introductions. Here, we sought to address the conflict between the need to socially house rhesus macaques and the need to bring social wounding to a minimum by identifying behaviors expressed early in social introductions, that may serve as predictors of later wounding events...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430787/feedback-and-efficient-behavior
#12
Sandro Casal, Nives DellaValle, Luigi Mittone, Ivan Soraperra
Feedback is an effective tool for promoting efficient behavior: it enhances individuals' awareness of choice consequences in complex settings. Our study aims to isolate the mechanisms underlying the effects of feedback on achieving efficient behavior in a controlled environment. We design a laboratory experiment in which individuals are not aware of the consequences of different alternatives and, thus, cannot easily identify the efficient ones. We introduce feedback as a mechanism to enhance the awareness of consequences and to stimulate exploration and search for efficient alternatives...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430042/control-without-controllers-toward-a-distributed-neuroscience-of-executive-control
#13
Benjamin R Eisenreich, Rei Akaishi, Benjamin Y Hayden
Executive control refers to the regulation of cognition and behavior by mental processes and is a hallmark of higher cognition. Most approaches to understanding its mechanisms begin with the assumption that our brains have anatomically segregated and functionally specialized control modules. The modular approach is intuitive: Control is conceptually distinct from basic mental processing, so an organization that reifies that distinction makes sense. An alternative approach sees executive control as self-organizing principles of a distributed organization...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429791/social-and-anthropometric-factors-explaining-racial-ethnical-differences-in-birth-weight-in-the-united-states
#14
Naho Morisaki, Ichiro Kawachi, Emily Oken, Takeo Fujiwara
Though disparities in birth weight by race/ethnicity have been extensively reported in the United States, few studies have systematically investigated factors attributing to its variability. For 10,638,415 singleton infants born during 2009-2012 in the United States, we examined birth weight differences among 14 races and ethnicities (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic Black, American Indian, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Hawaiian, Guamanian, Mexican, Puerto Rican and Cuban), after sequentially adjusting for maternal, socio-economic and behavioral factors...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429618/the-clinician-perspective-on-sex-differences-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Rene Jamison, Somer L Bishop, Marisela Huerta, Alycia K Halladay
Research studies using existing samples of individuals with autism spectrum disorders have identified differences in symptoms between males and females. Differences are typically reported in school age and adolescence, with similarities in symptom presentation at earlier ages. However, existing studies on sex differences are significantly limited, making it challenging to discern if, how, and at what point in development females with autism spectrum disorder actually exhibit a different behavioral presentation than males...
April 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429567/the-tsimane-health-and-life-history-project-integrating-anthropology-and-biomedicine
#16
Michael Gurven, Jonathan Stieglitz, Benjamin Trumble, Aaron D Blackwell, Bret Beheim, Helen Davis, Paul Hooper, Hillard Kaplan
The Tsimane Health and Life History Project, an integrated bio-behavioral study of the human life course, is designed to test competing hypotheses of human life-history evolution. One aim is to understand the bidirectional connections between life history and social behavior in a high-fertility, kin-based context lacking amenities of modern urban life (e.g. sanitation, banks, electricity). Another aim is to understand how a high pathogen burden influences health and well-being during development and adulthood...
April 2017: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429385/risk-factors-proximate-to-suicide-and-suicide-risk-assessment-in-the-context-of-denied-suicide-ideation
#17
Alan L Berman
Health care providers have significant opportunities to identify individuals at near-term risk for suicide, but lack empirical data on near-term risk factors. This study aimed to identify dynamic, state-related risk factors observed by clinical practitioners within the last 30 days of life of 157 patients who died by suicide and to compare these near-term risk factors among patients who denied versus responded positively to having suicide ideation (SI) when last asked by a clinical practitioner prior to their death...
April 21, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429157/scenes-as-micro-cultures-examining-heterogeneity-of-hiv-risk-behavior-among-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-toronto-canada
#18
Syed W Noor, Barry D Adam, David J Brennan, David A Moskowitz, Sandra Gardner, Trevor A Hart
Using latent class analysis (LCA), we examined patterns of participation in multiple scenes, how sexual risk practices vary by scene, and psychosocial factors associated with these patterns among 470 gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM) recruited from Toronto. We calculated posterior probability of being in a class from participation in nine separate scenes. We used Entropy, the Bayesian information criterion and the Lo-Mendel-Rubin likelihood ratio test to identify the best fit model. Fit indices suggested a four-class solution...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428813/perinatal-depression-in-nigeria-perspectives-of-women-family-caregivers-and-health-care-providers
#19
Ademola Adeponle, Danielle Groleau, Lola Kola, Laurence J Kirmayer, Oye Gureje
BACKGROUND: Perinatal maternal depression is common and undertreated in many sub-Saharan African countries, including Nigeria. While culture shapes the social determinants and expression of depressive symptoms, there is a dearth of research investigating these processes in African contexts. METHODS: To address this gap, we conducted in-depth interviews with 14 women with perinatal depression, 14 of their family caregivers and 11 health providers, using the McGill Illness Narrative Interview as part of a larger trial of a stepped-care intervention...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428767/social-cognitive-training-improves-emotional-processing-and-reduces-aggressive-attitudes-in-ex-combatants
#20
Sandra Trujillo, Natalia Trujillo, Jose D Lopez, Diana Gomez, Stella Valencia, Jorge Rendon, David A Pineda, Mario A Parra
Emotional processing (EP) is a complex cognitive function necessary to successfully adjust to social environments where we need to interpret and respond to cues that convey threat or reward signals. Ex-combatants have consistently shown atypical EP as well as poor social interactions. Available reintegration programs aim to facilitate the re-adaptation of ex-combatants to their communities. However, they do not incorporate actions to improve EP and to enhance cognitive-emotional regulation. The present study was aimed at evaluating the usefulness of an intervention focused on Social Cognitive Training (SCT), which was designed to equip ex-combatants enrolled in the Social Reintegration Route with EP and social cognition skills...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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