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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805640/nutritional-endocrine-and-social-influences-on-reproductive-physiology-at-the-origins-of-social-behavior
#1
REVIEW
Karen M Kapheim
Understanding the evolutionary origins of social behavior in insects requires understanding the physiological basis for reproductive plasticity. Solitary bees and wasps or those living in small, flexible societies will be key to understanding how conserved pathways have evolved to give rise to reproductive castes. Nutrient-sensing and endocrine pathways are decoupled from reproduction in some life stages of social insects. Heterochrony, particularly as it is related to diapause physiology, may be an important mechanism by which this decoupling occurs...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791459/three-year-lifecycle-large-body-and-very-high-threshold-temperature-in-the-cricket-gryllus-argenteus-for-special-adaptation-to-desiccation-cycle-in-malawi
#2
Takuya Kosumi, Makio Takeda
In temperate climates, the initiation and termination of diapause synchronize the stress-tolerant stage with the stressful season and reproduction with the non-stressful season in many insects. Synchronization is often regulated by photoperiodism.Voltinism and the ultimate size of adults are also important determinants for their lifecycle, and different diapause stages and voltinism patterns are known in crickets.Here, we investigated the life history of the African cricket Gryllus argenteus from Malawi, which is a typical arid tropical highland...
August 8, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776797/micrornas-are-differentially-abundant-during-aedes-albopictus-diapause-maintenance-but-not-diapause-induction
#3
Z A Batz, A C Goff, P A Armbruster
Diapause is a programmed dormancy that allows organisms to tolerate predictable periods of unfavourable conditions by temporarily halting development and reducing metabolism. Diapause is widespread amongst insects and is crucial for allowing organisms to coordinate their growth and reproduction with favourable environmental conditions. Although the adaptive significance of diapause is well understood, the molecular mechanisms underpinning diapause remain unresolved. We performed high-throughput sequencing to investigate the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the diapause of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus...
August 4, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751650/rhoa-phosphorylation-mediated-by-rho-rhoa-associated-kinase-pathway-improves-the-anti-freezing-potentiality-of-murine-hatched-and-diapaused-blastocysts
#4
Meichao Gu, Hemin Ni, Xihui Sheng, Alfredo Pauciullo, Yunhai Liu, Yong Guo
Embryonic cryopreservation has a relatively low survival rate because of cytoskeletal damage. However, molecular anti-freezing mechanisms have been largely unexplored. This study investigated the significance of RhoA, involved in embryonic development, and the Rho/RhoA-associated kinase (ROCK) signalling pathway in cryopreservation. The anti-freezing mechanism in murine dormant embryos, compared with normal blastocysts, was assessed by combining molecular, physiological and pharmacological approaches. Real-time PCR and western blotting experiments showed high RhoA expression in cryo-dormant and dormant embryos...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750999/pigmentary-analysis-of-eggs-of-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#5
Haiyan Zhang, Ying Lin, Guanwang Shen, Xue Tan, Chao Lei, Wei Long, Hongling Liu, Yandi Zhang, Yinying Xu, Jinxin Wu, Jianjian Gu, Qingyou Xia, Ping Zhao
Ommochromes are major pigments involved in coloration of eggs, eyes, wings, and epidermis of insects. Bombyx mori (silkworm) eggs contain a mixture of ommochrome pigments and their precursors. Here, we analyzed the pigment composition of every egg color strain using egg color mutants (w-2, pe, and re) and wild-type strains (dazao and C108) by using full wavelength scanning and high-performance liquid chromatography. We identified ommochrome pigments and their precursors in pigment extracts from non-diapause eggs and diapause eggs, and found that the quantities of ommochrome precursor 3-hydroxy-kynurenine were much higher in the diapause eggs...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747475/daphniid-zooplankton-assemblage-shifts-in-response-to-eutrophication-and-metal-contamination-during-the-anthropocene
#6
Mary Alta Rogalski, Peter R Leavitt, David K Skelly
Human activities during the Anthropocene result in habitat degradation that has been associated with biodiversity loss and taxonomic homogenization of ecological communities. Here we estimated effects of eutrophication and heavy metal contamination, separately and in combination, in explaining zooplankton species composition during the past 125-145 years using analysis of daphniid diapausing egg banks from four lakes in the northeastern USA. We then examined how these community shifts influenced patterns of diversity and homogenization...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735962/enhancement-of-antiviral-capacity-of-transgenic-silkworms-against-cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis-virus-via-knockdown-of-multiple-viral-genes
#7
Liang Jiang, Zhengwen Peng, Huizhen Guo, Jingchen Sun, Qiang Sun, Fei Xia, Chunlin Huang, Guowen Xu, Qingyou Xia
Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV), a major pathogen of silkworms, causes serious economic losses in sericulture. The BmCPV genome contains 10 discrete dsRNA segments; among these, S1, S2, S3, S4, S6, and S7 encode virus structural proteins, whereas S5, S8, S9, and S10 encode nonstructural proteins. In an attempt to create an anti-BmCPV silkworm strain, we constructed transgenic RNAi vector pb-CNS for knockdown of S5, S8, S9, and S10, and pb-SNS targeting S1, S2, S4, S5, and S8. Transgenic silkworm line CNS and SNS were generated via microinjection of the practical diapause silkworm strain Furong...
July 20, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726267/day-length-constrains-the-time-budget-of-aphid-predators
#8
Jens Joschinski, Tim Kiess, Jochen Krauss
Phenology shifts and range expansions cause organisms to experience novel day length - temperature correlations. Depending on the temporal niche, organisms may benefit or suffer from changes in day length, thus potentially affecting phenological adaptation. We assessed the impact of day length changes on larvae of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) and Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer), both of which prey on aphids. Larvae of E. balteatus are night-active, whereas those of C. carnea appear to be crepuscular. We subjected both species in climate chambers to day lengths of 16 : 8 LD and, to circumvent diapause responses, 20 : 4 LD...
July 20, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724647/physiological-responses-to-fluctuating-temperatures-are-characterized-by-distinct-transcriptional-profiles-in-a-solitary-bee
#9
Alex S Torson, George D Yocum, Joseph P Rinehart, Sean A Nash, Kally M Kvidera, Julia H Bowsher
Exposure to stressful low temperatures during development can result in the accumulation of deleterious physiological effects called chill injury. Metabolic imbalances, disruptions in ion homeostasis, and oxidative stress contribute to the increased mortality of chill-injured insects. Interestingly, survival can be significantly increased when chill susceptible insects are exposed to a daily warm-temperature pulse during chilling. We hypothesize that warm pulses allow for the repair of damage associated with chill-injury...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720705/conceptual-framework-of-the-eco-physiological-phases-of-insect-diapause-development-justified-by-transcriptomic-profiling
#10
Vladimír Koštál, Tomáš Štětina, Rodolphe Poupardin, Jaroslava Korbelová, Alexander William Bruce
Insects often overcome unfavorable seasons in a hormonally regulated state of diapause during which their activity ceases, development is arrested, metabolic rate is suppressed, and tolerance of environmental stress is bolstered. Diapausing insects pass through a stereotypic succession of eco-physiological phases termed "diapause development." The phasing is varied in the literature, and the whole concept is sometimes criticized as being too artificial. Here we present the results of transcriptional profiling using custom microarrays representing 1,042 genes in the drosophilid fly, Chymomyza costata Fully grown, third-instar larvae programmed for diapause by a photoperiodic (short-day) signal were assayed as they traversed the diapause developmental program...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720534/tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-regulates-p-akt-levels-via-pp2a-during-diapause-entry-in-the-cotton-bollworm-helicoverpa-armigera
#11
Hai-Yin Li, Tao Wang, Yong-Pan Yang, Shao-Lei Geng, Wei-Hua Xu
Akt, which is a key kinase in the insulin signaling pathway, plays important roles in glucose metabolism, cell proliferation, transcription and cell migration. Our previous studies indicated that low insulin levels and high p-Akt levels are present in diapause-destined individuals. Here, we show that PI3K, which is upstream of Akt, is low in diapause-destined pupal brains but high in p-Akt levels, implying that p-Akt is modified by factors other than the insulin signaling pathway. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which is a key regulator in the TGF-β signaling pathway, can directly bind to and dephosphorylate Akt...
August 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710039/cloning-expression-pattern-and-potential-role-of-apoptosis-inhibitor-5-in-the-termination-of-embryonic-diapause-and-early-embryo-development-of-artemia-sinica
#12
Shuang Zhang, Feng Yao, Ting Jing, Mengchen Zhang, Wei Zhao, Xiangyang Zou, Linlin Sui, Lin Hou
During the embryonic development of Artemia sinica, the diapause phenomenon can be induced by high salinity or low temperature conditions. The diapause embryo at the gastrula stage is maintained under the threat of apoptosis to guarantee the embryo's normal development. In this process, apoptosis inhibitor proteins play vital roles in protecting embryos against apoptosis. Apoptosis inhibitor5 (API5) plays a pivotal role in regulating the cell cycle and preventing programmed cell death after growth factor starvation...
July 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704500/transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-profiles-of-chinese-citrus-fly-bactrocera-minax-diptera-tephritidae-along-with-pupal-development-provide-insight-into-diapause-program
#13
Jia Wang, Huan Fan, Ke-Cai Xiong, Ying-Hong Liu
The Chinese citrus fly, Bactrocera minax (Enderlein), is a devastating citrus pest in Asia. This univoltine insect enters obligatory pupal diapause in each generation, while little is known about the course and the molecular mechanisms of diapause. In this study, the course of diapause was determined by measuring the respiratory rate throughout the pupal stage. In addition, the variation of transcriptomic and metabolomic profiles of pupae at five developmental stages (pre-, early-, middle-, late-, and post-diapause) were evaluated by next-generation sequencing technology and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700597/differentially-expressed-micrornas-in-diapausing-versus-hcl-treated-bombyx-embryos
#14
Wentao Fan, Yangsheng Zhong, Mingyue Qin, Bimin Lin, Fangyan Chen, Huichao Yan, Wenchu Li, Jianrong Lin
Differentially expressed microRNAs were detected to explore the molecular mechanisms of diapause termination. The total small RNA of diapause-destined silkworm eggs and HCl-treated eggs was extracted and then sequenced using HiSeq high-throughput method. 44 novel miRNAs were discovered. Compared to those in the diapause-destined eggs, 61 miRNAs showed significant changes in the acid-treated eggs, with 23 being up-regulated and 38 being down-regulated. The potential target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted by miRanda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690814/barcoding-rotifer-biodiversity-in-mediterranean-ponds-using-diapausing-egg-banks
#15
Emilio Moreno, José M Conde-Porcuna, Africa Gómez
The biodiversity of Mediterranean freshwater bodies is among the most threatened worldwide; therefore, its accurate estimation is an urgent issue. However, traditional methods are likely to underestimate freshwater zooplankton biodiversity due to its high species seasonality and cryptic diversity. We test the value of applying DNA barcoding to diapausing egg banks, in combination with the creation of a reference collection of DNA barcodes using adult individual samples, to characterize rotifer communities. We use monogonont rotifers from two lakes in Doñana National Park and one from Ruidera Natural Park in Spain as models to create a reference collection of DNA barcodes for taxonomically diagnosed adult individuals sampled from the water column, to compare with the sequences obtained from individual eggs from the diapausing egg banks...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679728/idiosyncratic-development-of-sensory-structures-in-brains-of-diapausing-butterfly-pupae-implications-for-information-processing
#16
Philipp Lehmann, Sören Nylin, Karl Gotthard, Mikael A Carlsson
Diapause is an important escape mechanism from seasonal stress in many insects. A certain minimum amount of time in diapause is generally needed in order for it to terminate. The mechanisms of time-keeping in diapause are poorly understood, but it can be hypothesized that a well-developed neural system is required. However, because neural tissue is metabolically costly to maintain, there might exist conflicting selective pressures on overall brain development during diapause, on the one hand to save energy and on the other hand to provide reliable information processing during diapause...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679117/juvenile-hormone-regulates-the-differential-expression-of-putative-juvenile-hormone-esterases-via-methoprene-tolerant-in-non-diapause-destined-and-diapause-destined-adult-female-beetle
#17
Li Zhu, Tian-Yan Yin, Dan Sun, Wen Liu, Fen Zhu, Chao-Liang Lei, Xiao-Ping Wang
Juvenile hormone (JH) plays an essential role in regulating molting, metamorphosis, reproduction, and diapause (dormancy), in many insects and crustaceans. JH esterases (JHEs) can control JH titer by regulating JH degradation. Although the biochemistry and structure of JHEs have been well studied, regulation of their expression remains unclear. We identified three putative JHEs (JHE1, JHE2, JHE3) in the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi, and investigated the regulation of their expression by JH signaling in non-diapause-destined (NDD, reproductive) and diapause-destined (DD) female adults...
July 2, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678414/freshwater-toxicity-testing-using-rehydrated-philodina-sp-rotifera-as-test-animals
#18
Terry W Snell, Rachel K Johnston, Amelia B Matthews
Rotifers have become widely used in aquatic toxicology as a rapid screening test for toxicity. The commercial availability of diapausing embryos (cysts) have facilitated their popularity because test animals can be obtained without having to master the details of culturing. Other rotifer species have life stages capable of surviving desiccation and also could be used in non-culture systems for toxicity assessment. In this article, we describe a system for toxicity testing in freshwater based on rehydrating desiccated bdelloid rotifers in the genus Philodina...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677913/identification-of-the-prothoracicotropic-hormone-ptth-coding-gene-and-localization-of-its-site-of-expression-in-the-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#19
M Barberà, D Martínez-Torres
Insect hormones control essential aspects of physiology, behaviour and development in insects. The majority of insect hormones are peptide hormones that perform a highly diverse catalogue of functions. Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) is a brain neuropeptide hormone whose main function is to stimulate the secretion of ecdysone (the moulting hormone) by the prothoracic glands in insect larvae thus playing a key role in the control of moulting and metamorphosis. Moreover, both PTTH release or blockade have been reported to act as a switch to terminate or initiate larval and pupal diapauses...
July 5, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674017/disruption-of-a-horizontally-transferred-phytoene-desaturase-abolishes-carotenoid-accumulation-and-diapause-in-tetranychus-urticae
#20
Astrid Bryon, Andre H Kurlovs, Wannes Dermauw, Robert Greenhalgh, Maria Riga, Miodrag Grbić, Luc Tirry, Masahiro Osakabe, John Vontas, Richard M Clark, Thomas Van Leeuwen
Carotenoids underlie many of the vibrant yellow, orange, and red colors in animals, and are involved in processes ranging from vision to protection from stresses. Most animals acquire carotenoids from their diets because de novo synthesis of carotenoids is primarily limited to plants and some bacteria and fungi. Recently, sequencing projects in aphids and adelgids, spider mites, and gall midges identified genes with homology to fungal sequences encoding de novo carotenoid biosynthetic proteins like phytoene desaturase...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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