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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158334/global-transcriptome-sequencing-reveals-molecular-profiles-of-summer-diapause-induction-stage-of-onion-maggot-delia-antiqua-diptera-anthomyiidae
#1
Shuang Ren, You-Jin Hao, Bin Chen, You-Ping Yin
The onion maggot, Delia antiqua, is a worldwide subterranean pest and can enter diapause during summer and winter seasons. The molecular regulation of the ontogenesis transition remains largely unknown. Here we used high-throughput RNA-Seq to identify candidate genes and processes linked to summer diapause induction by comparing the transcriptome differences between the most sensitive larval developmental stage of summer-diapause (SD) and non-diapause (ND). Nine pair-wise comparisons were performed and significantly differentially regulated transcripts were identified...
November 20, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155485/advantages-of-diapause-in-trichogramma-dendrolimi-mass-production-via-eggs-of-the-chinese-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#2
Jun-Jie Zhang, Xue Zhang, Lian-Sheng Zang, Wen-Mei Du, Yang-Yang Hou, Chang-Chun Ruan, Nicolas Desneux
BACKGROUND: Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura is widely used as biological control agent for lepidopteran agricultural pests control in China and can be successfully reared using the large eggs of the Chinese silkworm, Antheraea pernyi. In this study, biological parameters of diapaused, non-diapaused, and cold-stored T. dendrolimi were investigated for two generations on host eggs of A. pernyi under the laboratory conditions. RESULTS: The cold-stored T. dendrolimi performed poorer than diapaused and non-diapaused T...
November 20, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133227/chilling-effect-on-termination-of-reproductive-diapause-in-listronotus-maculicollis-coleoptera-curculionidae
#3
Shaohui Wu, Olga S Kostromytska, Fangsen Xue, Albrecht M Koppenhöfer
Diapausing adults of the annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis, were collected from their hibernating sites at different times in autumn and winter, and subjected to different conditions to observe diapause termination by dissecting and measuring the reproductive organs. When diapausing weevils were maintained under laboratory cold conditions (10 h light at 6°C:14 h dark at 4°C) from early December to late March, the sizes of reproductive organs of both sexes increased or fluctuated slightly, and very few females had developing oocytes, suggesting that most adults did not resume development during the chilling period...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131311/hemiparasites-can-transmit-indirect-effects-from-their-host-plants-to-herbivores
#4
Nathan L Haan, Jonathan D Bakker, M Deane Bowers
Parasitic plants can serve as critical intermediaries between their hosts and other organisms; however these relationships are not well understood. To investigate the relative importance of plant traits in such interactions, we studied the role of the root hemiparasite, Castilleja levisecta (Orobanchaceae), as a mediator of interactions between the host plants it parasitizes and the lepidopteran herbivore Euphydryas editha (Nymphalidae), whose caterpillars feed on Castilleja and sequester iridoid glycosides from it...
November 13, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126214/diapause-induced-by-temperature-and-photoperiod-affects-fatty-acid-compositions-and-cold-tolerance-of-phthorimaea-operculella-lepidoptera-gelechiidae
#5
Chamran Hemmati, Saeid Moharramipour, Ali Asghar Talebi
To find out the potential condition for diapause induction in the potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), combination of constant temperatures (15, 20, and 30°C) and photoperiods (8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, and 16 h) were employed from egg to adult emergence. In addition, changes in the total phospholipid fatty acid content and cold tolerance of non-diapausing and diapausing pupae were examined. The critical daylength for diapause induction were 12.43 h at 20°C and lower temperatures that can induce in 50% of population...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102645/caste-differences-in-the-association-between-dopamine-and-reproduction-in-the-bumble-bee-bombus-ignitus
#6
Ken Sasaki, Hinako Matsuyama, Naruaki Morita, Masato Ono
A society of bumble bees is primitively eusocial, with an annual life cycle, and can be used as a physiological model of social bees for comparative studies with highly eusocial hymenopterans. We investigated the dynamics of biogenic amine levels in the brain, meso-metathoracic ganglia, terminal abdominal ganglion, and hemolymph in queens 1 day after mating (1DAM), during diapause (Dp), and during colony founding (CF) in the bumble bee, Bombus ignitus. Dopamine levels in the brain of CF queens were significantly lower than in 1DAM and Dp queens, and the levels in the thoracic ganglia and hemolymph in CF queens were lower than in 1DAM queens, but did not differ from other groups in the abdominal ganglion...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101222/structural-basis-for-the-interaction-of-diapause-hormone-with-its-receptor-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#7
Zhangfei Shen, Xue Jiang, Lili Yan, Yu Chen, Weiwei Wang, Ying Shi, Liangen Shi, Dongxiang Liu, Naiming Zhou
Diapause hormone (DH) is a 24-aa amidated neuropeptide that elicits the embryonic diapause of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Bommo), via sensitive and selective interaction with its receptor, Bommo DH receptor (Bommo-DHR). Previous studies of the structure-activity relationship of Bommo-DH were all based on an in vivo diapause-induction bioassay, which has provided little information on the structure of Bommo-DHR or its iteration with DH. Here, to unveil the interaction of Bommo-DH with its receptor, N-terminally truncated analogs and alanine-scanning mutants of Bommo-DH were chemically synthesized and functionally evaluated by using a Cy5...
November 3, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097765/a-damping-circadian-clock-drives-weak-oscillations-in-metabolism-and-locomotor-activity-of-aphids-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#8
Katharina Beer, Jens Joschinski, Alazne Arrazola Sastre, Jochen Krauss, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Timing seasonal events, like reproduction or diapause, is crucial for the survival of many species. Global change causes phenologies worldwide to shift, which requires a mechanistic explanation of seasonal time measurement. Day length (photoperiod) is a reliable indicator of winter arrival, but it remains unclear how exactly species measure day length. A reference for time of day could be provided by a circadian clock, by an hourglass clock, or, as some newer models suggest, by a damped circadian clock. However, damping of clock outputs has so far been rarely observed...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079324/increased-efficiency-in-the-second-hand-tire-trade-provides-opportunity-for-dengue-control
#9
Emilene Pliego Pliego, Jorge Velázquez-Castro, Markus P Eichhorn, Andrés Fraguela Collar
Dengue fever is increasing in geographical range, spread by invasion of its vector mosquitoes. The trade in second-hand tires has been implicated as a factor in this process because they act as mobile reservoirs of mosquito eggs and larvae. Regional transportation of tires can create linkages between rural areas with dengue and disease-free urban areas, potentially giving rise to outbreaks even in areas with strong local control measures. In this work we sought to model the dynamics of mosquito transportation via the tire trade, in particular to predict its role in causing unexpected dengue outbreaks through vertical transmission of the virus across generations of mosquitoes...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075473/climate-variation-alters-the-synchrony-of-host-parasitoid-interactions
#10
Miles T Wetherington, David E Jennings, Paula M Shrewsbury, Jian J Duan
Observed changes in mean temperature and increased frequency of extreme climate events have already impacted the distributions and phenologies of various organisms, including insects. Although some research has examined how parasitoids will respond to colder temperatures or experimental warming, we know relatively little about how increased variation in temperature and humidity could affect interactions between parasitoids and their hosts. Using a study system consisting of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, and its egg parasitoid Oobius agrili, we conducted environmentally controlled laboratory experiments to investigate how increased seasonal climate variation affected the synchrony of host-parasitoid interactions...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053871/cellular-and-morphological-characterization-of-blastoderms-from-freshly-laid-broiler-eggs
#11
N Pokhrel, E Ben-Tal Cohen, O Genin, D Sela-Donenfeld, Y Cinnamon
The pioneering study of Eyal-Giladi and Kochav (EG&K; Eyal-Giladi and Kochav, 1976) on the early developmental stages-from fertilization, through oviposition, to the gastrulation process-set the standard for characterizing chicken embryos, and has been used in numerous studies over the years. During uterine development, the chicken embryo undergoes dramatic changes, extremely rapid cell cycles, massive cell death, and axial determination processes. However, once the egg is laid, the temperature drops and the embryo enters into a diapause-like state...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051074/pairing-ultrasonography-with-endocrinology-to-elucidate-underlying-mechanisms-of-successful-pregnancy-in-the-northern-fur-seal-callorhinus-ursinus
#12
Michelle R Shero, Don R Bergfelt, J Ward Testa, Gregg P Adams
Reproductive success is one of the central tenets of conservation management programs, yet the inability to study underlying physiological processes in a minimally-invasive manner and the unpredictable nature of wild animal populations leaves large gaps in our knowledge of factors critical to successful reproduction in wild species. This study integrated ultrasonography of the reproductive tract and analysis of reproductive hormones in 172 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) to identify intrinsic factors associated with reinitiating embryonic growth at the end of diapause...
January 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045732/life-history-adaptations-to-seasonality
#13
Øystein Varpe
Seasonality creates a template for many natural processes and evolutionary adaptations. Organisms are often faced with an annual cycle consisting of a productive (favorable) and unproductive period. This yearly cycle along with other seasonal variations in abiotic factors and associated biotic interactions form strong selection pressures shaping the scheduling of annual activities and the developmental stages and modes of life through the year. Annual decisions impact trade-offs that involve both current and future reproductive value (RV), and life history theory provides the foundation to understand these linkages between phenology and an organism's full life...
November 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045676/reproductive-plasticity-of-an-invasive-insect-pest-rice-water-weevil-coleoptera-curculionidae
#14
Yunshang Huang, Yan Ao, Mingxing Jiang
Reproductive plasticity is a key determinant of species invasiveness. However, there are a limited number of studies addressing this issue in exotic insects. The rice water weevil Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), which is native to North America, is one of the most invasive insect pests in east Asia. In this study, we investigated the reproductive status of first-generation females (progeny of overwintered weevils) from five geographic regions in southern and northern China in the field, and reproductive status and ovipositional features of females provided with suitable host plants in the laboratory after collection...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042683/hormone-signaling-regulates-nymphal-diapause-in-laodelphax-striatellus-hemiptera-delphacidae
#15
Yifan Zhai, Zhiming Zhang, Huanhuan Gao, Hao Chen, Meng Sun, Wenqing Zhang, Yi Yu, Li Zheng
Diapause is a physiological adaptation that allows an organism to survive adverse environmental conditions. Diapause occurs at a specific developmental stage in each species. There are few reports regarding the molecular regulatory mechanism of nymphal diapause in Laodelphax striatellus, which is an important graminaceous crop pest. Our previous studies identified the conditions for nymphal diapause in this species. Here, we combined RNA sequencing transcriptomics and quantitative proteomic analyses to identify nymphal diapause-related genes and proteins...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040576/to-everything-there-is-a-season-summer-to-winter-food-webs-and-the-functional-traits-of-keystone-species
#16
Murray M Humphries, Emily K Studd, Allyson K Menzies, Stan Boutin
From a trophic perspective, a seasonal increase in air temperature and photoperiod propagates as bottom-up pulse of primary production by plants, secondary production by herbivores, and tertiary production by carnivores. However, food web seasonality reflects not only abiotic variation in temperature and photoperiod, but also the composition of the biotic community and their functional responses to this variation. Some plants and animals-here referred to as seasonal specialists-decouple from food webs in winter through migration or various forms of metabolic arrest (e...
November 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037385/temperature-dependent-development-of-diapausing-larvae-of-chilo-partellus-swinhoe-lepidoptera-crambidae
#17
Mukesh K Dhillon, Fazil Hasan
Temperature-dependent development rate, percent diapause induction (hibernation at low temperature and aestivation at high temperature), and survival of diapausing larvae of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe, 1885) were examined on 13 constant temperatures ranging from 8 to 40°C. Development of hibernating and aestivating larvae occurred from 10 to 25°C and 27-38°C, respectively. However, no development occurred at 8°C and 40°C. To determine actual thermal conditions that affect development and trigger both kind of diapause (hibernation and aestivation), various thermal parameters were estimated by fitting the development rate data to two linear (Ordinary equation and Ikemoto & Takai) models and thirteen non-linear models...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037264/cold-acclimation-increases-cold-tolerance-independently-of-diapause-programing-in-the-bean-bug-riptortus-pedestris
#18
J Rozsypal, M Moos, S G Goto
The bean bug (Riptortus pedestris) is a pest of soybeans and other legumes in Japan and other Asian countries. It enters a facultative adult diapause on exposure to short days. While photoperiodism and diapause are well understood in R. pedestris, knowledge of cold tolerance is very limited, as is information on the effect of diapause on cold tolerance. We examined the effect of photoperiod, cold acclimation, and feeding status on cold tolerance in R. pedestris. We found that cold acclimation significantly increased survival at -10°C in both long- and short-day adult R...
October 17, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018118/transgenerational-diapause-as-an-avoidance-strategy-against-bacterial-pathogens-in-caenorhabditis%C3%A2-elegans
#19
M Fernanda Palominos, Lidia Verdugo, Carolaing Gabaldon, Bernardo Pollak, Javiera Ortíz-Severín, Macarena A Varas, Francisco P Chávez, Andrea Calixto
The dynamic response of organisms exposed to environmental pathogens determines their survival or demise, and the outcome of this interaction depends on the host's susceptibility and pathogen-dependent virulence factors. The transmission of acquired information about the nature of a pathogen to progeny may ensure effective defensive strategies for the progeny's survival in adverse environments. Environmental RNA interference (RNAi) is a systemic and heritable mechanism and has recently been linked to antibacterial and antifungal defenses in both plants and animals...
October 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993500/keeping-time-without-a-spine-what-can-the-insect-clock-teach-us-about-seasonal-adaptation
#20
REVIEW
David L Denlinger, Daniel A Hahn, Christine Merlin, Christina M Holzapfel, William E Bradshaw
Seasonal change in daylength (photoperiod) is widely used by insects to regulate temporal patterns of development and behaviour, including the timing of diapause (dormancy) and migration. Flexibility of the photoperiodic response is critical for rapid shifts to new hosts, survival in the face of global climate change and to reproductive isolation. At the same time, the daily circadian clock is also essential for development, diapause and multiple behaviours, including correct flight orientation during long-distance migration...
November 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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