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Xiaofeng Zheng, Pengyi Yang, Brad Lackford, Brian D Bennett, Li Wang, Hui Li, Yu Wang, Yiliang Miao, Julie F Foley, David C Fargo, Ying Jin, Carmen J Williams, Raja Jothi, Guang Hu
Poly(A) tail length and mRNA deadenylation play important roles in gene regulation. However, how they regulate embryonic development and pluripotent cell fate is not fully understood. Here we present evidence that CNOT3-dependent mRNA deadenylation governs the pluripotent state. We show that CNOT3, a component of the Ccr4-Not deadenylase complex, is required for mouse epiblast maintenance. It is highly expressed in blastocysts and its deletion leads to peri-implantation lethality. The epiblast cells in Cnot3 deletion embryos are quickly lost during diapause and fail to outgrow in culture...
October 8, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Vittoria Roncalli, Jefferson T Turner, David Kulis, Donald M Anderson, Petra H Lenz
Inshore and offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine (USA) have spring/summer harmful algal blooms (HABs) of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, which is responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans. The calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus co-occurs with A. fundyense during the seasonal blooms. At that time, C. finmarchicus population abundances are high, dominated by immature copepods preparing for diapause, and by actively-reproducing adults. High survival has been reported for copepods exposed to toxic A...
January 2016: Harmful Algae
Li Dai, Xue-Chen Liu, Sen Ye, Hua-Wei Li, Dian-Fu Chen, Xiao-Jian Yu, Xue-Ting Huang, Li Zhang, Fan Yang, Jin-Shu Yang, Wei-Jun Yang
The most widespread type of RNA editing, conversion of adenosine to inosine (A→I), is catalyzed by two members of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) family, ADAR1 and ADAR2. These enzymes edit transcripts for neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels during adaption to changes in the physical environment. In the primitive crustacean Artemia, when maternal adults are exposed to unfavorable conditions, they release diapause embryos to withstand harsh environments. The aim of the current study was therefore to elucidate the role of ADAR of Artemia diapause embryos in resistance to stress...
October 4, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Aaron S Weed, Joseph S Elkinton, Nina K Lany
Insect populations are affected by density-dependent and density-independent factors, and knowing how these factors affect long-term population growth is critical to pest management. In this study, we experimentally manipulated densities of the hemlock woolly adelgid on eastern and western hemlock trees in the western USA to evaluate the effects of density and host species on hemlock woolly adelgid crawler colonization. We then followed development of hemlock woolly adelgid on each hemlock species. Settlement of crawlers was strongly density-dependent and consistent between host species...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Luca Schiesari, Gabriele Andreatta, Charalambos P Kyriacou, Michael B O'Connor, Rodolfo Costa
Diapause is an actively induced dormancy that has evolved in Metazoa to resist environmental stresses. In temperate regions, many diapausing insects overwinter at low temperatures by blocking embryonic, larval or adult development. Despite its Afro-tropical origin, Drosophila melanogaster migrated to temperate regions of Asia and Europe where females overwinter as adults by arresting gonadal development (reproductive diapause) at temperatures <13°C. Recent work in D. melanogaster has implicated the developmental hormones dILPs-2 and/or dILP3, and dILP5, homologues of vertebrate insulin/insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), in reproductive arrest...
2016: PloS One
Shoko Kawaguchi, Yuki Manabe, Tatsuya Sugawara, Masahiro Osakabe
Adult females of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) enter diapause under conditions of short-day length and low temperature. A conspicuous body color change, from greenish yellow to bright orange, accompanies diapause induction. This pigmentation is attributed to accumulation of keto-carotenoids produced internally from β-carotene, which is a precursor of vitamin A essential for inducing diapause. The quantity of β-carotene transferred from females to eggs has been considered sufficient to induce diapause...
September 25, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Anne C Roulin, Yann Bourgeois, Urs Stiefel, Jean-Claude Walser, Dieter Ebert
Diapause is an adaptation that allows organisms to survive harsh environmental conditions. In species occurring over broad habitat ranges, both the timing and the intensity of diapause induction can vary across populations, revealing patterns of local adaptation. Understanding the genetic architecture of this fitness-related trait would help clarify how populations adapt to their local environments. In the cyclical parthenogenetic crustacean Daphnia magna, diapause induction is a phenotypic plastic life history trait linked to sexual reproduction, as asexual females have the ability to switch to sexual reproduction and produce resting stages, their sole strategy for surviving habitat deterioration...
September 22, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
J Rull, E Tadeo, R Lasa, M Aluja
Dormancy has been thoroughly studied for several species of economic importance in the genus Rhagoletis in temperate areas of North America and Europe. Much less is known on life history regulation for species inhabiting high-elevation areas in the subtropics at the southern extreme of their geographical range. Host plant phenology has been found to play a key role in generating allochronic isolation among sibling species and host races of Rhagoletis in the course of sympatric speciation, and has important implications for pest management...
September 21, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Zhou Zhou, Yongli Li, Chunyan Yuan, Daniel Doucet, Yongan Zhang, Liangjian Qu
BACKGROUND: The diapause hormone (DH) has been shown to either induce or terminate diapause depending on the insect species. In a previous study we demonstrated that the DH from Clostera anastomosis (caDH) has biological activity in Helicoverpa armigera, which prompted us to examine the potential growth-inhibiting or antiherbivory effects of the TAT-caDH fusion protein when expressed in transgenic plants. RESULTS: In this study, we produced transgenic tobacco plants expressing either the TAT-caDH protein, or a TAT-caDH-eGFP fusion version that allows tracking of the fluorescent protein in plant tissues...
September 19, 2016: Pest Management Science
Weining Cheng, Dan Li, Yue Wang, Yang Liu, Keyan Zhu-Salzman
Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin, one of the most important pests of wheat, undergoes obligatory diapause as a larva to survive unfavorable temperature extremes during hot summers and cold winters. To explore the potential roles of heat shock proteins (hsp) in this process, we cloned full-length cDNAs of hsp70, hsc70 and hsp90 from S. mosellana larvae, and examined their expression in response to diapause and short-term temperature stresses. Three hsps included all signature sequences of corresponding protein family and EEVD motifs...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
S M Taylor, A V Harry, M B Bennett
Differences in the reproductive biology of both the Australian weasel shark Hemigaleus australiensis and the Australian sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon taylori were apparent between individuals from the southern-most extent of their range in eastern Australia (Moreton Bay) and those from northern Australia. For H. australiensis from Moreton Bay the total length (LT ) at which 50% of individuals were mature (LT50 ) was 759 mm for females and 756 mm for males, values that were respectively 17-26% larger than reported for the species in northern Australia...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Pierre J Lyons, Louise Govaere, Nicolas Crapoulet, Kenneth B Storey, Pier Jr Morin
Significant physiological and biochemical changes are observed in freeze-tolerant insects when confronted with cold temperatures. These insects have adapted to winter by retreating into a hypometabolic state of diapause and implementing cryoprotective mechanisms that allow them to survive whole body freezing. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a family of short ribonucleic acids, are emerging as likely molecular players underlying the process of cold adaptation. Unfortunately, the data is sparse concerning the signature of miRNAs that are modulated following cold exposure in the freeze-tolerant goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis...
September 4, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Claus-Peter Stelzer, Jussi Lehtonen
Facultative sex combines sexual and asexual reproduction in the same individual (or clone) and allows for a large diversity of life-history patterns regarding the timing, frequency and intensity of sexual episodes. In addition, other life-history traits such as a diapause stage may become linked to sex. Here, we develop a matrix modelling framework for addressing the cost of sex in facultative sexuals, in constant, periodic and stochastically fluctuating environments. The model is parametrized using life-history data from Brachionus calyciflorus, a facultative sexual rotifer in which sex and diapause are linked...
October 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Aare Kuusik, Katrin Jõgar, Luule Metspalu, Angela Ploomi, Enno Merivee, Anne Must, Ingrid H Williams, Külli Hiiesaar, Ivar Sibul, Marika Mänd
The opening-closing rhythms of the subelytral cavity and associated gas exchange patterns were monitored in diapausing Leptinotarsa decemlineata beetles. Measurements were made by means of a flow-through CO2 analyser and a coulometric respirometer. Under the elytra of these beetles there is a more or less tightly enclosed space, the subelytral cavity (SEC). When the cavity was tightly closed, air pressure inside was sub-atmospheric, due to oxygen uptake into the tracheae by the beetle. In about half of the beetles regular opening-closing rhythms of the SEC were observed visually and also recorded; these beetles displayed a discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) pattern...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Wei Zhao, Feng Yao, Mengchen Zhang, Ting Jing, Shuang Zhang, Lin Hou, Xiangyang Zou
Late embryogenesis abundant proteins (LEA) are stress resistance-related proteins that play crucial roles in protecting against desiccation, cold and high salinity in a variety of animals and plants. However, the expression pattern, distribution and functions of LEA proteins in the post-diapause period of Artemia sinica, and under high salinity and low temperature stresses, remain unknown. In this study, the complete cDNA sequences of the group 1 LEA (As-g1lea) and group 3 LEA (As-g3lea) genes from A. sinica were cloned...
2016: PloS One
Yinli Jin, Peiyu Chen, Yanfang Zhang, Guo Tian, Hongqiang Feng, Youming Hou
The green mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is a regional pest of multiple crops in northern China, and the survival and development of diapausing eggs during winter plays an important role in the population dynamics of this species. The effect of water on the survival and development of A. lucorum eggs was investigated using laboratory-induced diapause. Diapausing eggs were exposed to various humidity regimes under three conditions: (1) termination of diapause with exposure to warm long-day (WLD) conditions (i.e...
2016: PloS One
Valeria Zonato, Giorgio Fedele, Charalambos P Kyriacou
couch potato (cpo) encodes an RNA binding protein that has been reported to be expressed in the peripheral and central nervous system of embryos, larvae and adults, including the major endocrine organ, the ring gland. A polymorphism in the D. melanogaster cpo gene coding region displays a latitudinal cline in frequency in North American populations, but as cpo lies within the inversion In(3R)Payne, which is at high frequencies and itself shows a strong cline on this continent, interpretation of the cpo cline is not straightforward...
2016: PloS One
Guojian Jiang, Nathan M Rowarth, Sheethal Panchakshari, Thomas H MacRae
Upon diapause termination and exposure to favorable environmental conditions, cysts of the crustacean Artemia franciscana reinitiate development, a process dependent on the resumption of metabolic activity and the maintenance of protein homeostasis. The objective of the work described herein was to characterize molecular chaperones during post-diapause growth of A. franciscana. An Hsp40 complementary DNA (cDNA) termed ArHsp40 was cloned and shown to encode a protein with an amino-terminal J-domain containing a conserved histidine, proline, and aspartic acid (HPD) motif...
August 31, 2016: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Maaria Kankare, Darren J Parker, Mikko Merisalo, Tiina S Salminen, Anneli Hoikkala
BACKGROUND: A wide range of insects living at higher latitudes enter diapause at the end of the warm season, which increases their chances of survival through harsh winter conditions. In this study we used RNA sequencing to identify genes involved in adult reproductive diapause in a northern fly species, Drosophila montana. Both diapausing and non-diapausing flies were reared under a critical day length and temperature, where about half of the emerging females enter diapause enabling us to eliminate the effects of varying environmental conditions on gene expression patterns of the two types of female flies...
2016: PloS One
Marketa Hejnikova, Michal Paroulek, Magdalena Hodkova
Juvenile hormone (JH) produced by the corpus allatum (CA) stimulates vitellogenesis and reduces the synthesis of hexamerin proteins in adult females of Pyrrhocoris apterus. At present it is unknown whether the signaling pathway involving the JH receptor gene Methoprene tolerant (Met) and its binding partner Taiman (Tai), regulates the synthesis of accessory gland proteins (ACPs) and hexamerin proteins or effects male survival. Knockdown of genes by injecting Met dsRNA or Tai dsRNA, reduced the amount of ACPs whilst enhancing the amount of hexamerin mRNA in the fat body and the release of hexamerin proteins into haemolymph, as occurs after the ablation of CA...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
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