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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306198/a-glyphosate-based-herbicide-reduces-fertility-embryonic-upper-thermal-tolerance-and-alters-embryonic-diapause-of-the-threatened-annual-fish-austrolebias-nigrofasciatus
#1
Yuri Dornelles Zebral, Luize Real Lansini, Patrícia Gomes Costa, Mauricio Roza, Adalto Bianchini, Ricardo Berteaux Robaldo
Roundup is the most popular glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) worldwide. These formulations kill a wide range of plants. Despite that, non-target species can be jeopardized by GBH, such as the annual fish Austrolebias nigrofasciatus. This species occurs in wetlands that dries annually. Key-adaptations permit them to live in such harsh habitats, e. i. Elevated fertility, drought-tolerant diapausing embryos and elevated thermal tolerance. We aimed to evaluate acute (96 h) effects of Roundup exposure (0.36 or 3...
January 2, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304310/effects-of-parental-aging-during-embryo-development-and-adult-life-the-case-of-nothobranchius-furzeri
#2
Martina Api, Piera Biondi, Ike Olivotto, Eva Terzibasi, Alessandro Cellerino, Oliana Carnevali
Studies on parental aging are a very attractive field, although it is poorly understood how parental age affects embryonic development and adult traits of the offspring. In this study, we used the turquoise killifish Nothobranchius furzeri, as is the vertebrate with shortest captive lifespan and an interesting model. The embryos of N. furzeri can follow two distinct developmental pathways either entering diapause or proceeding through direct development. Thus, this embryonic plasticity allows this model to be used to study different factors that could affect their embryonic development, including parental age...
January 5, 2018: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303423/comparison-of-physiological-functions-of-antagonistic-insulin-like-peptides-ins-23-and-ins-18-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#3
Yohei Matsunaga, Toshiya Matsukawa, Takashi Iwasaki, Koji Nagata, Tsuyoshi Kawano
In Caenorhabditis elgans, insulin-like peptides have significant roles in modulating larval diapause and adult lifespan via the insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway. Although 40 insulin-like peptides (ILPs) have been identified, it remains unknown how ILPs act as either agonists or antagonists for their sole receptor, DAF-2. Here we found 1) INS-23 functions as an antagonistic ILP to promote larval diapause through the IIS pathway like a DAF-2 antagonist, INS-18, 2) INS-23 and INS-18 have similar biochemical functions...
January 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301330/the-potential-roles-of-the-apoptosis-related-protein-pdrg1-in-diapause-embryo-restarting-of-artemia-sinica
#4
Wan Zhang, Feng Yao, Hong Zhang, Na Li, Xiangyang Zou, Linlin Sui, Lin Hou
High salinity and low temperatures can induce Artemia sinica to enter the diapause stage during embryonic development. Diapause embryos stop at the gastrula stage, allowing them to resist apoptosis and regulate cell cycle activity to guarantee normal development after diapause termination. P53 and DNA damage-regulated gene 1 (pdrg1) is involved in cellular physiological activities, such as apoptosis, DNA damage repair, cell cycle regulation, and promotion of programmed cell death. However, the role of pdrg1 in diapause and diapause termination in A...
January 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299241/r-k-like-trade-off-and-voltinism-discreteness-the-implication-to-allochronic-speciation-in-the-fall-webworm-hyphantria-cunea-complex-arctiidae
#5
Fan Yang, Eriko Kawabata, Muhammad Tufail, John J Brown, Makio Takeda
North America has distinct types of Hyphantria moths (Arctiidae) characterized by red (RD)- and black (BL)-headed larvae, of which the taxonomic status is unresolved. Genetic divergence of 26 populations, based on 710 bp of the mtCOI sequence, showed two phylogenetic lineages, which could not be connected in the haplotype network with 95% confidence. The two lineages are separated by 3.1% sequence divergence and should be considered for full species status. The estimated split occurred 1.2-1.6 million years ago...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282150/photoperiodic-responses-of-sahelian-malaria-mosquitoes-anopheles-coluzzii-and-an-arabiensis
#6
Diana L Huestis, Monica L Artis, Peter A Armbruster, Tovi Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Throughout large parts of sub-Saharan Africa, seasonal malaria transmission follows mosquito density, approaching zero during the dry season and peaking during the wet season. The mechanisms by which malaria mosquitoes survive the long dry season, when no larval sites are available remain largely unknown, despite being long recognized as a critical target for vector control. Previous work in the West African Sahel has led to the hypothesis that Anopheles coluzzii (formerly M-form Anopheles gambiae) undergoes aestivation (dry-season diapause), while Anopheles gambiae (s...
December 27, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281089/seasonal-reproductive-biology-of-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae-in-temperate-climates
#7
Alberto Grassi, Angela Gottardello, Daniel T Dalton, Gabriella Tait, Dalila Rendon, Claudio Ioriatti, David Gibeaut, M Valerio Rossi Stacconi, Vaughn M Walton
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura; Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a key pest of sweet cherry and small fruits worldwide. The present studies were designed to describe the reproductive physiology in both sexes, through dissections of their reproductive organs. We extensively dissected female D. suzukii throughout the season from 2013 to 2016 and classified the reproductive status flies based on five recognizable ovarian maturation stages: 1) no ovaries; 2) unripe ovaries 3) ripening eggs in ovarioles; 4) mature eggs in ovarioles; and 5) mature eggs in the abdomen...
December 21, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245382/resurgence-of-a-forgotten-southern-brazil-endemic-species-taxonomic-position-redescription-and-spatio-temporal-distribution-of-i-porosagrotis-carolia-i-schaus-1929-lepidoptera-noctuidae-noctuinae
#8
Fernando M S Dias, Alexandre Specht, German San Blas, Mirna M Casagrande, Olaf H H Mielke
The taxonomy of the hitherto unplaced taxon Porosagrotis carolia Schaus, 1929 is evaluated and the name is taken out of taxonomic limbo and combined with Feltia Walker, 1856. Feltia carolia comb. nov., described from a single female specimen, is redescribed, including the first description of the male. Head, thorax and its appendages, and male and female genitalia are illustrated through photographs and line drawings; photographs of the holotype and a distribution map for the species is provided. Additionally, the spatio-temporal occurrence of the species in Rio Grande do Sul was assessed by monthly standardized samplings with light traps from January of 1998 to December of 1999 in ten different physiographical zones of the state...
December 12, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242287/the-local-co-existence-pattern-of-selfing-genotypes-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-natural-metapopulations
#9
Aurélien Richaud, Gaotian Zhang, Daehan Lee, Junho Lee, Marie-Anne Félix
To study the interplay of rare outcrossing and metapopulation structure, we focus on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Its remarkably low outcrossing rate is at the extreme end of the spectrum for facultative selfing organisms. At the demographic level, C. elegans natural populations undergo boom and bust dynamics on ephemeral resources, the dauer diapause larva acting as the dispersal form. Here we investigate the small-scale genetic structure of C. elegans populations in two localities over several years, using 2b-RAD (Restriction-Associated DNA) sequencing of nearly a thousand individuals...
December 13, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212717/adaptation-in-response-to-environmental-unpredictability
#10
Lluis Franch-Gras, Eduardo M García-Roger, Manuel Serra, María José Carmona
Understanding how organisms adaptively respond to environmental fluctuations is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. The Mediterranean region typically exhibits levels of environmental unpredictability that vary greatly in habitats over small geographical scales. In cyclically parthenogenetic rotifers, clonal proliferation occurs along with occasional bouts of sex. These bouts contribute to the production of diapausing eggs, which allows survival between growing seasons. Here, we studied two diapause-related traits in rotifers using clones from nine Brachionus plicatilis natural populations that vary in the degree of environmental unpredictability...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203177/characterisation-analysis-of-expression-and-localisation-of-the-opsin-gene-repertoire-from-the-perspective-of-photoperiodism-in-the-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#11
Jorge Mariano Collantes-Alegre, Florian Mattenberger, Miquel Barberà, David Martínez-Torres
Organisms exhibit a wide range of seasonal responses as adaptions to predictable annual changes in their environment. These changes are originally caused by the effect of the Earth's cycles around the sun and its axial tilt. Examples of seasonal responses include floration, migration, reproduction and diapause. In temperate climate zones, the most robust variable to predict seasons is the length of the day (i.e. the photoperiod). The first step to trigger photoperiodic driven responses involves measuring the duration of the light-dark phases, but the molecular clockwork performing this task is poorly characterized...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188381/the-effect-of-wolbachia-on-diapause-fecundity-and-clock-gene-expression-in-trichogramma-brassicae-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae
#12
Somayeh Rahimi-Kaldeh, Ahmad Ashouri, Alireza Bandani, Kenji Tomioka
The short day lengths of late summer in moderate regions are used to induce diapause in various insects. Many studies have shown the maternal effect of photoperiod on diapause induction of Trichogramma wasps, but there is no study to show the relationship between photoperiodic regimes and clock genes in these useful biological control agents. Here, we investigated the role of photoperiods on diapause, fecundity, and clock gene expression (clk, cyc, cry2, per, and timeout) in asexual and sexual Trichogramma brassicae as a model insect to find any differences between two strains...
November 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185081/effect-of-temperature-on-diapause-termination-and-post-diapause-development-in-eotetranychus-smithi-acari-tetranychidae
#13
Y Takano, M S Ullah, T Gotoh
Previous studies on the spider mite Eotetranychus smithi Pritchard & Baker have shown that diapause in eggs is induced by low temperature alone and that females developed at ≤ 17.5 °C laid diapause eggs, regardless of the photoperiod. In this study, diapause eggs were kept at 5 °C and a photoperiod of 16L:8D for 0-120 days and then maintained at 25 °C to know the effect of chilling on diapause termination. Diapause eggs mostly hatched when they were maintained at 25 °C after chilling for 30-90 days at 5 °C, which suggests that diapause termination is favored by low temperatures...
November 28, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180603/metabolome-dynamics-of-diapause-in-the-butterfly-pieris-napi-distinguishing-maintenance-termination-and-post-diapause-phases
#14
Philipp Lehmann, Peter Pruisscher, Vladimír Koštál, Martin Moos, Petr Šimek, Sören Nylin, Rasmus Agren, Leif Väremo, Christer Wiklund, Christopher W Wheat, Karl Gotthard
Diapause is a deep resting stage facilitating temporal avoidance of unfavourable environmental conditions that is used by many insects to adapt their life cycle to seasonal variation. Although considerable work has been invested in trying to understand each of the major diapause stages (induction, maintenance and termination), we know very little about the transitions between stages, especially diapause termination. Understanding diapause termination is critical for modelling and predicting spring emergence and winter physiology of insects, including many pest insects...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178292/incubation-media-affect-the-survival-pathway-and-time-of-embryo-development-in-neotropical-annual-fish-austrolebias-nigrofasciatus-rivulidae
#15
A P da Fonseca, M V Volcan, R B Robaldo
To analyse the survival, pathway and time of embryo development in the annual fish Austrolebias nigrofasciatus eggs were monitored in four liquid media and two damp media under experimental conditions for 130 days until their development was complete. Eggs kept in the same breeding water from oviposition remained in diapause I (DI) during all experiments. In constrast, up to the stage prior to entering diapause II (DII), the other media had no influence on development. Embryos at this stage (DII), however, show longer development time when treated in medium with water and powdered coconut shell so that about 80% of embryos remained in DII at 100 days...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167662/site-directed-mutagenesis-study-revealed-three-important-residues-in-hc-daf-22-a-key-enzyme-regulating-diapause-of-haemonchus-contortus
#16
Yan Huang, Xiuping Zheng, Hongli Zhang, Haojie Ding, Xiaolu Guo, Yi Yang, Xueqiu Chen, Qianjin Zhou, Aifang Du
Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) is one of the most important parasites of small ruminants, especially goats and sheep. The complex life cycle of this nematode is a main obstacle for the control and prevention of haemonchosis. So far, a special form of arrested development called diapause different from the dauer stage in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) has been found in many parasitic nematodes. In our previous study, we have characterized a novel gene Hc-daf-22 from H. contortus sharing high homology with Ce-daf-22 and functional analysis showed this gene has similar biological function with Ce-daf-22...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158334/global-transcriptome-sequencing-reveals-molecular-profiles-of-summer-diapause-induction-stage-of-onion-maggot-delia-antiqua-diptera-anthomyiidae
#17
Shuang Ren, You-Jin Hao, Bin Chen, You-Ping Yin
The onion maggot, Delia antiqua, is a worldwide subterranean pest and can enter diapause during summer and winter seasons. The molecular regulation of the ontogenesis transition remains largely unknown. Here we used high-throughput RNA-Seq to identify candidate genes and processes linked to summer diapause induction by comparing the transcriptome differences between the most sensitive larval developmental stage of summer-diapause (SD) and non-diapause (ND). Nine pair-wise comparisons were performed and significantly differentially regulated transcripts were identified...
November 20, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155485/advantages-of-diapause-in-trichogramma-dendrolimi-mass-production-via-eggs-of-the-chinese-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#18
Jun-Jie Zhang, Xue Zhang, Lian-Sheng Zang, Wen-Mei Du, Yang-Yang Hou, Chang-Chun Ruan, Nicolas Desneux
BACKGROUND: Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura is widely used as biological control agent for lepidopteran agricultural pests control in China and can be successfully reared using the large eggs of the Chinese silkworm, Antheraea pernyi. In this study, biological parameters of diapaused, non-diapaused, and cold-stored T. dendrolimi were investigated for two generations on host eggs of A. pernyi under the laboratory conditions. RESULTS: The cold-stored T. dendrolimi performed poorer than diapaused and non-diapaused T...
November 20, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133227/chilling-effect-on-termination-of-reproductive-diapause-in-listronotus-maculicollis-coleoptera-curculionidae
#19
Shaohui Wu, Olga S Kostromytska, Fangsen Xue, Albrecht M Koppenhöfer
Diapausing adults of the annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis, were collected from their hibernating sites at different times in autumn and winter, and subjected to different conditions to observe diapause termination by dissecting and measuring the reproductive organs. When diapausing weevils were maintained under laboratory cold conditions (10 h light at 6°C:14 h dark at 4°C) from early December to late March, the sizes of reproductive organs of both sexes increased or fluctuated slightly, and very few females had developing oocytes, suggesting that most adults did not resume development during the chilling period...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131311/hemiparasites-can-transmit-indirect-effects-from-their-host-plants-to-herbivores
#20
Nathan L Haan, Jonathan D Bakker, M Deane Bowers
Parasitic plants can serve as critical intermediaries between their hosts and other organisms; however these relationships are not well understood. To investigate the relative importance of plant traits in such interactions, we studied the role of the root hemiparasite, Castilleja levisecta (Orobanchaceae), as a mediator of interactions between the host plants it parasitizes and the lepidopteran herbivore Euphydryas editha (Nymphalidae), whose caterpillars feed on Castilleja and sequester iridoid glycosides from it...
November 13, 2017: Ecology
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