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Meredith M Doellman, Gregory J Ragland, Glen R Hood, Peter J Meyers, Scott P Egan, Thomas H Q Powell, Peter Lazorchak, Mary M Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Daniel A Hahn, Stewart H Berlocher, James J Smith, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L Feder
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how variation within populations gets partitioned into differences between reproductively isolated species. Here, we examine the degree to which diapause life history timing, a critical adaptation promoting population divergence, explains geographic and host-related genetic variation in ancestral hawthorn and recently derived apple-infesting races of Rhagoletis pomonella . Our strategy involved combining experiments on two different aspects of diapause (initial diapause intensity and adult eclosion time) with a geographic survey of genomic variation across four sites where apple and hawthorn flies co-occur from north to south in the Midwestern USA...
May 18, 2018: Genes
János Barna, Péter Csermely, Tibor Vellai
Various stress factors leading to protein damage induce the activation of an evolutionarily conserved cell protective mechanism, the heat shock response (HSR), to maintain protein homeostasis in virtually all eukaryotic cells. Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) plays a central role in the HSR. HSF1 was initially known as a transcription factor that upregulates genes encoding heat shock proteins (HSPs), also called molecular chaperones, which assist in refolding or degrading injured intracellular proteins. However, recent accumulating evidence indicates multiple additional functions for HSF1 beyond the activation of HSPs...
May 17, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Tao Wang, Shao-Lei Geng, Yu-Min Guan, Wei-Hua Xu
Diapause in insects is akin to dauer in Caenorhabditis elegans and hibernation in vertebrates. Diapause causes a profound extension of lifespan by low metabolic activity. However, the detailed regulatory mechanisms for low metabolic activity remain unknown. Here, we showed that low pyruvate levels are present in the brains of diapause-destined pupae of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera , and three enzymes pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) are closely correlated with pyruvate homeostasis...
May 16, 2018: Aging
Noureldin Abuelfadl Ghazy, Takeshi Suzuki, Hiroshi Amano
Although laboratory observations provide basic knowledge of the development and reproduction of predacious and phytophagous mites, little is known of their behavior under natural conditions. Using a closed system designed to simulate natural climate patterns, we investigated the development and reproduction of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and the pest mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) at air temperatures typical of June to October at three latitudes (Aomori, Tottori, and Naha) in Japan...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Brad S Coates, Erik B Dopman, Kevin W Wanner, Thomas W Sappington
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a model species for elucidating mechanisms underlying adaptively differentiated subpopulations in the face of reciprocal gene flow, and is a major pest of cultivated maize in North America and Eurasia. Strains are characterized by different pheromone communication systems in combination with voltinism strains that are adapted to distinct local climate and photoperiod through adjustments in diapause traits. However, only partial barriers to inter-strain hybridization exist in areas of sympatry...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Yu Deng, Fei Li, Lynne K Rieske, Li-Li Sun, Shou-Hui Sun
Fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea Drury (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is extremely adaptable and highly invasive in China as a defoliator of ornamental and forest trees. Both voltinism and diapause strategies of fall webworm in China are variable, and this variability contributes to it invasiveness. Little is known about molecular regulation of diapause in fall webworm. To gain insight into possible mechanisms of diapause induction, high-throughput RNA-seq data were generated from non-diapause pupae (NDP) and diapause pupae (DP)...
May 11, 2018: Gene
George D Yocum, Anna K Childers, Joseph P Rinehart, Arun Rajamohan, Theresa L Pitts-Singer, Kendra J Greenlee, Julia H Bowsher
Our understanding of the mechanisms controlling insect diapause has increased dramatically with the introduction of global gene expression techniques, such as RNA-seq. However, little attention has been given to how ecologically relevant field conditions may affect gene expression during diapause development because previous studies have focused on laboratory reared and maintained insects. To determine whether gene expression differs between laboratory and field conditions, prepupae of the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata , entering diapause early or late in the growing season were collected...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Guangping Yang, Jihui Wen, Yongqiang Han, Maolin Hou
The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), overwinters as a diapausing larva. The diapausing larvae were tested for a rapid cold hardening (RCH) response and its role in the insect’s survival of sub-zero temperatures. When laboratory-reared diapausing larvae were transferred directly from the rearing temperature of 25 °C to −14 °C and maintained there for 2 h, 21% survived. Acclimation of diapausing larvae for 4 h at 5 °C before their exposure for 2 h to −14 °C increased survival to approximately 41%, indicating an RCH response...
May 9, 2018: Insects
M Benjamin Barth, Katja Buchwalder, Akito Y Kawahara, Xin Zhou, Shanlin Liu, Nicolas Krezdorn, Björn Rotter, Ralf Horres, Anna K Hundsdoerfer
Background: The European spurge hawkmoth, Hyles euphorbiae (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae), has been intensively studied as a model organism for insect chemical ecology, cold hardiness and evolution of species delineation. To understand species isolation mechanisms at a molecular level, this study aims at determining genetic factors underlying two adaptive ecological trait candidates, phorbol ester (TPA) detoxification and seasonal cold acclimation. Method: A draft transcriptome of H...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Theresa M Cira, Robert L Koch, Eric C Burkness, W D Hutchison, Robert C Venette
Diapause and cold tolerance can profoundly affect the distribution and activity of temperate insects. Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an alien invasive species from Asia, enters a winter dormancy in response to environmental cues. We investigated the nature of this dormancy and its effects on H. halys cold tolerance, as measured by supercooling points, lower lethal temperatures, and overwintering field mortality. Dormancy was induced by rearing individuals in the laboratory or under field conditions...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Jane C Fenelon, Marilyn B Renfree
The first incidence of embryonic diapause in mammals was observed in the roe deer, Capreolus capreolus in 1854 and confirmed in the early 1900s. Since then scientists have been fascinated by this phenomenon which allows a growing embryo to become arrested for up to 11 months and then reactivate and continue development with no ill effects. The study of diapause has required unravelling basic reproductive processes we now take for granted and has spanned some of the major checkpoints of reproductive biology from the identification of the sex hormones to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to microRNA and exosomes...
May 7, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Joanna Dodzian, Sam Kean, Jens Seidel, Dario Riccardo Valenzano
The development of husbandry practices in non-model laboratory fish used for experimental purposes has greatly benefited from the establishment of reference fish model systems, such as zebrafish and medaka. In recent years, an emerging fish - the turquoise killifish (Nothobranchius furzeri) - has been adopted by a growing number of research groups in the fields of biology of aging and ecology. With a captive life span of 4 - 8 months, this species is the shortest-lived vertebrate raised in captivity and allows the scientific community to test - in a short time - experimental interventions that can lead to alterations of the aging rate and life expectancy...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Xuan Cheng, Ary A Hoffmann, James L Maino, Paul A Umina
BACKGROUND: The polyphagous mite pest, Halotydeus destructor, typically has three generations during the cool moist season in Australia and produces over-summering diapause eggs in spring. Diapause eggs have a distinct thick and dark chorion and can survive heat, desiccation and the applications of pesticides. Farmers suppress the mite generation producing diapause eggs by a carefully-timed spring pesticide application using Timerite® , which predicts the onset of diapause egg production based largely on daylength...
April 27, 2018: Pest Management Science
Priscila Karla F Santos, Natalia de Souza Araujo, Elaine Françoso, Alexandre Rizzo Zuntini, Maria Cristina Arias
BACKGROUND: Diapause is a natural phenomenon characterized by an arrest in development that ensures the survival of organisms under extreme environmental conditions. The process has been well documented in arthropods. However, its molecular basis has been mainly studied in species from temperate zones, leaving a knowledge gap of this phenomenon in tropical species. In the present study, the Neotropical and solitary bee Tetrapedia diversipes was employed as a model for investigating diapause in species from tropical zones...
April 27, 2018: BMC Genomics
Eduardo Marabuto, Maria Teresa Rebelo
The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), is a tropical species originally from south-eastern Asia (Hawley, 1988). It has experienced a rampant human-mediated range expansion since the 1970s to now occupy almost the whole of the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. As an eclectic haematophagous species, it attacks humans and is able to use a number of man-made and natural structures where stagnant water is present (Estrada-Franco Craig, 1995). Eggs are able to survive for extended periods of time in complete dryness and diapause over unsuitable cold season, making it an especially resilient species (Hawley, 1988)...
April 20, 2018: Zootaxa
Celina Galles, Gastón M Prez, Sider Penkov, Sebastian Boland, Exequiel O J Porta, Silvia G Altabe, Guillermo R Labadie, Ulrike Schmidt, Hans-Joachim Knölker, Teymuras V Kurzchalia, Diego de Mendoza
Proper cholesterol transport is crucial for the functionality of cells. In C. elegans, certain cholesterol derivatives called dafachronic acids (DAs) govern the entry into diapause. In their absence, worms form a developmentally arrested dauer larva. Thus, cholesterol transport to appropriate places for DA biosynthesis warrants the reproductive growth. Recently, we discovered a novel class of glycosphingolipids, PEGCs, required for cholesterol mobilization/transport from internal storage pools. Here, we identify other components involved in this process...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
David M Lowenstein, Vaughn M Walton
Globally distributed nonnative insects thrive by having a generalist diet and persisting across large latitudinal gradients. Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a cold-tolerant invasive species that enters reproductive diapause in temperate North American and European climates. While it can survive the acute effects of subzero (°C) temperatures, it is poorly understood how exposure to infrequent cold temperatures affects postdiapause survival and behavior. We studied the impacts of episodic cold shock at temperatures of -6 to -2 (°C) at the onset of H...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
M Mahbubur Rahman, Eunmok Kim, Un Taek Lim
Two unexplained phenomena are found in Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Alydidae): the first is that it tends to enter reproductive diapause much earlier in the season and to occur on host plants until late fall before finding hibernation site. The second is that they emerge in early spring when primary food sources such as leguminous plants are unavailable. To understand these phenological trends, the reproductive seasonality of both field-collected and laboratory-reared R. pedestris were compared under conditions of with/without food or access to mates...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Bree Heestand, Matt Simon, Stephen Frenk, Denis Titov, Shawn Ahmed
Environmental stress can induce adult reproductive diapause, a state of developmental arrest that temporarily suspends reproduction. Deficiency for C. elegans Piwi protein PRG-1 results in strains that reproduce for many generations but then become sterile. We found that sterile-generation prg-1/Piwi mutants typically displayed pronounced germ cell atrophy as L4 larvae matured into 1-day-old adults. Atrophied germlines spontaneously reproliferated across the first days of adulthood, and this was accompanied by fertility for day 2-4 adults...
April 3, 2018: Cell Reports
Damiana Ravasi, Valeria Guidi, Eleonora Flacio, Peter Lüthy, Karl Perron, Samuel Lüdin, Mauro Tonolla
BACKGROUND: In Switzerland, the invasive Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is firmly established in the Canton of Ticino, south of the Alps. According to a large-scale distribution model developed in 2013, suitable climatic conditions for the establishment of Ae. albopictus north of the Alps are found in Basel and Geneva while Zurich appears to be characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival of diapausing eggs. However, the spatial resolution of large-scale distribution models might not be sufficient to detect particular climatic conditions existing in urban settings, such as the presence of microclimatic temperatures, which may positively influence the probability of diapausing eggs to overwinter...
March 27, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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