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haemonchus contortus

O M Kandil, K A Abdelrahman, H A Fahmy, M S Mahmoud, A H El Namaky, J E Miller
Haemonchus contortus is a major parasite of small ruminants and its blood-feeding behaviour causes effects ranging from mild anaemia to death. Knowledge of the genetic variation within and among H. contortus populations can provide the foundation for understanding transmission patterns and aid in the control of haemonchosis. Adult male H. contortus were collected from three geographical regions in Egypt. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced directly...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
Zongze Zhang, Robin B Gasser, Xin Yang, Fangyuan Yin, Guanghui Zhao, Min Bao, Baoliang Pan, Weiyi Huang, Chunren Wang, Fengcai Zou, Yanqin Zhou, Junlong Zhao, Rui Fang, Min Hu
Haemonchus contortus is one of the most important parasitic nematodes of small ruminants around the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. The control of haemonchosis relies mainly on anthelmintics, but the excessive and prolonged use of anthelmintics is causing serious drug resistance issues in many countries. As benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics have been broadly used in China, we hypothesized that resistance is widespread. Given the link between three known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, designated F167Y, E198A and F200Y) in the isotype-1 β-tubulin gene and BZ resistance, our goal here was to explore the presence of these mutations in H...
October 5, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Javaid Ali Gadahi, Muhammad Ehsan, Shuai Wang, ZhenChao Zhang, Yujian Wang, RuoFeng Yan, XiaoKai Song, LiXin Xu, XiangRui Li
14-3-3 proteins have been found to be an excreted/secreted antigen and assumed to be released into the host-parasite interface and described in several unicellular and multicellular parasites. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory effects of H. controtus 14-3-3 protein on host cell. In present study, 14-3-3 isoform 2 gene, designated as Hcftt-2, was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from the adult H. contortus cDNA and cloned into expression plasmid pET32a (+) and expression of the recombinant protein (rHcftt-2) was induced by IPTG...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Jeannine Hess, Malay Patra, Abdul Jabbar, Vanessa Pierroz, Sandro Konatschnig, Bernhard Spingler, Stefano Ferrari, Robin B Gasser, Gilles Gasser
In this study, we present the design, synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of structurally new ferrocenyl and ruthenocenyl derivatives of the organic anthelmintic monepantel (Zolvix(®)). All seven metallocenyl derivatives prepared (4a/b, 5a/b, 6a/b and 7) were isolated as racemates and characterized by (1)H, (13)C and (19)F NMR spectroscopies, mass spectrometry, IR spectroscopy and elemental microanalysis. The molecular structures of four compounds (4a/b, 6a and 7) were further confirmed by X-ray crystallography...
October 17, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jeannine Hess, Malay Patra, Loganathan Rangasamy, Sandro Konatschnig, Olivier Blacque, Abdul Jabbar, Patrick Mac, Erik M Jorgensen, Robin B Gasser, Gilles Gasser
The discovery of novel drugs against animal parasites is in high demand due to drug-resistance problems encountered around the world. Herein, the synthesis and characterization of 27 organic and organometallic derivatives of the recently launched nematocidal drug monepantel (Zolvix(®) ) are described. The compounds were isolated as racemates and were characterized by (1) H, (13) C, and (19) F NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and IR spectroscopy, and their purity was verified by microanalysis. The molecular structures of nine compounds were confirmed by X-ray crystallography...
October 5, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Flávia Carolina Fávero, Carolina Buzzulini, Breno Cayeiro Cruz, Gustavo Felippelli, Willian Giquelin Maciel, Bruna Salatta, Débora Siniscalchi, Welber Daniel Zanetti Lopes, Weslen Fabricio Pires Teixeira, Vando Edésio Soares, Gilson Pereira de Oliveira, Alvimar José da Costa
The present study had the primary objective of evaluating clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters, as well as observing anatomical and histopathological characteristics of abomasums, from calves prime-infected with Haemonchus contortus or H. placei. Ten male Holstein newborns were subdivided in three groups (GI placebo; GII infected with H. contortus; GIII inoculated with H. placei). Eye mucosa staining was evaluated. Hematological and biochemical tests were performed on animals. The euthanasia of all ten experimental calves was performed on the 42nd day post-inoculation...
September 28, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Luis E Ferreira, Bruno I Benincasa, Ana L Fachin, Suzelei C França, Silvia S H T Contini, Ana C S Chagas, Rene O Beleboni
Haemonchus contortus is an important gastrointestinal parasite on sheep farms in tropical regions. The resistance of the parasite against most anthelmintic drugs represents a great economic problem to sheep farming and is a major challenge that needs to be overcome. The searches for new anthelmintic agents that act on different stages of the parasite's life cycle are necessary for the development of new therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against H...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Dhouha Alimi, Soumaya Hajaji, Mourad Rekik, Amel Abidi, Mohamed Gharbi, Hafidh Akkari
Antipathogenic properties of camel milk have been investigated to substitute for drugs hence overcome drug resistance. The main objective of this present study was to investigate the anthelmintic activity of camel milk in relationship to its chemical composition. In vitro anthelmintic effects of camel milk against Haemonchus contortus from sheep were ascertained by egg hatching and worm motility inhibitions in comparison to milks from cow, ewe and goat as well as a reference drug albendazole. Chemical composition revealed that camel milk has higher contents of protective protein (lactoferrin) and vitamin C than other species' milk...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Ali Raza, Neil H Bagnall, Abdul Jabbar, Steven R Kopp, Andrew C Kotze
BACKGROUND: There is some evidence that ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters play a role in resistance to anthelmintics, particularly against macrocyclic lactones. Some anthelmintics, including ivermectin (IVM), have been shown to induce transcription of multiple ABC transporters in nematodes; however, the effects of monepantel (MPL) on transcription of these transporter genes has not been studied. METHODS: Larvae of two MPL-susceptible isolates of Haemonchus contortus were exposed to MPL at two concentrations (2...
September 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Thirssa H Grando, Matheus D Baldissera, Lucas T Gressler, Mariângela Facco de Sá, Bruna N Bortoluzzi, Andressa S Schafer, Rafael C Ebling, Renata P Raffin, Roberto C V Santos, Lenita M Stefani, Rodrigo Vaucher, Marta L R Leal, Silvia G Monteiro
Gastrointestinal parasites are one of the biggest health problems faced in sheep, mainly due to their pathogenicity and resistance to drugs used to control these parasites. Thus, the following study aimed to assess the anthelmintic efficacy of Melaleuca alternifolia against Haemonchus contortus in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) experimentally infected. Three treatments were tested: M. alternifolia essential oil, popularly known as tea tree oil (TTO), a solid lipid nanocarrier made with essential oil of Melaleuca (nanoTTO), and terpinen-4-ol (terp-4-ol)...
September 16, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Rasika Kumarasingha, Avinash V Karpe, Sarah Preston, Tiong-Chia Yeo, Diana S L Lim, Chu-Lee Tu, Jennii Luu, Kaylene J Simpson, Jillian M Shaw, Robin B Gasser, David J Beale, Paul D Morrison, Enzo A Palombo, Peter R Boag
Anthelmintic resistance is widespread in gastrointestinal nematode populations, such that there is a consistent need to search for new anthelmintics. However, the cost of screening for new compounds is high and has a very low success rate. Using the knowledge of traditional healers from Borneo Rainforests (Sarawak, Malaysia), we have previously shown that some traditional medicinal plants are a rich source of potential new anthelmintic drug candidates. In this study, Picria fel-terrae Lour. plant extract, which has previously shown promising anthelmintic activities, was fractionated via the use of a solid phase extraction cartridge and each isolated fraction was then tested on free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus...
August 26, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
David L Emery, Peter W Hunt, Leo F LeJambre
Haemonchus contortus (Barber's pole worm or "BPW") is the nematode "nemesis" of small ruminant production systems in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Its reputation derives from a combination of high fecundity and a short generational interval that provides an enviable developmental plasticity for adaptation or resistance to control measures. This review critically examines the historical and current literature on the host-parasite-environment (HPE) interaction for H. contortus, particularly in sheep, to highlight changes in parasite distribution and ecology on pasture, changes to the seasonal inhibition of fourth stage larvae and the most appropriate models to identify protective responses and assess vaccines...
September 9, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Jerzy Kowal, Anna Wyrobisz, Paweł Nosal, Mirosław Kucharski, Urszula Kaczor, Marta Skalska, Piotr Sendor
UNLABELLED: Anthelmintic resistance within nematodes has become a very common issue, however, the data about its occurrence in the gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in Poland are very limited. This study was carried out in order to evaluate the presence of benzimidazole resistance in highly pathogenic Haemonchus contortus by means of parasitological and molecular techniques. The research represents the first Polish attempt to confirm the presence of a mutation at codon 200 of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene in H...
2016: Annals of Parasitology
Mariem Rouatbi, Mohamed Gharbi, Mohamed R Rjeibi, Imen Ben Salem, Hafidh Akkari, Narjess Lassoued, Mourad Rekik
This study aimed to investigate the effect of Haemonchus contortus infection on rams' haematological, biochemical and clinical parameters and reproductive performances. A total number of 12 Barbarine rams (control and infected) were included in the experiment. The infected group received 30 000 H. contortus third-stage larvae orally. Each ram's ejaculate was immediately evaluated for volume, sperm cell concentration and mortality rate. At the end of the experiment (day 82 post-infection), which lasted 89 days, serial blood samples were collected in order to assess plasma testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH) concentrations...
2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
Amit Kumar Jaiswal, Vikrant Sudan, Vijay Pandey, Amit Singh, Ruchi Singh Gaur, Dharmendra Kanojiya, Rajesh Nigam, Daya Shanker
The aim of the study was to highlight the sex dependent differences in the electrophoretic protein patterns of male and female Haemonchus contortus worms SDS based polyacrylamide gels of both male and female worms were run side by side for comparison. A total of 33 and 35 polypeptides were detected in polyacrylamide gels stained with coomassie brilliant blue R-250, respectively. Besides many of the fundamental homologies in protein profile, some of the polypeptides specific to either sex were also observed...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Bashir A Lone, M Z Chishti, Fayaz Ahmad, Hidayatullah Tak, Suhaib A Bandh, Abida Khan
One year crossectional survey was carried out to determine and describe the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasite infections in hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in Dachigam National Park of Kashmir through faecal examinations. Out of 153 faecal samples examined, 82 (53.59 %) were found infected with GIT helminthes. In present study seven helminth species were found, including five nematode [Haemonchus contortus (55.39 %), Trichuris ovis (39.75 %), Dictyocaulus viviparus (28.4.00 %), Oesophogostomum circumcincta (13...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Ana Paula DE Souza Stori DE Lara, Lucas Bigolin Lorenzon, Ana Muñoz Vianna, Francisco Denis Souza Santos, Luciano Silva Pinto, Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne, Fábio Pereira Leivas Leite
Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var...
October 2016: Parasitology
Gerda Fouche, Bellonah M Sakong, Olubukola T Adenubi, Elizabeth Pauw, Tlabo Leboho, Kevin W Wellington, Jacobus N Eloff
The nematode, Haemonchus contortus, is responsible for major economic losses in the livestock industry. The management of parasites such as H. contortus has been through the use of synthetic parasiticides. This has resulted in the presence of residues in meat and milk, which affects food safety. The development of resistance to available anthelmintics coupled with their high cost has further complicated matters. This has led to the investigation of alternative methods to manage nematodes, including the use of plants and plant extracts as a potential source of novel anthelmintics...
2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
Sarah Preston, Yaqing Jiao, Abdul Jabbar, Sean L McGee, Benoît Laleu, Paul Willis, Timothy N C Wells, Robin B Gasser
There is a substantial need to develop new medicines against parasitic diseases via public-private partnerships. Based on high throughput phenotypic screens of largely protozoal pathogens and bacteria, the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) has recently assembled an open-access 'Pathogen Box' containing 400 well-curated chemical compounds. In the present study, we tested these compounds for activity against parasitic stages of the nematode Haemonchus contortus (barber's pole worm). In an optimised, whole-organism screening assay, using exsheathed third-stage (xL3) and fourth-stage (L4) larvae, we measured the inhibition of larval motility, growth and development of H...
July 28, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Elodie Gaudin, Margaux Simon, Jessica Quijada, François Schelcher, Jean-François Sutra, Anne Lespine, Hervé Hoste
The worldwide spread of resistance to anthelmintic (AH) drugs in gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) imposes to explore alternative solutions. Amongst those, the possible use of tannin-containing nutraceuticals appears as a relevant option to replace (or decrease the frequency of) chemical-based treatments. Our objectives were to test the AH efficacy of sainfoin pellets against a multiresistant strain of Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected lambs and to examine possible interaction between ivermectin (IVM) and condensed tannins (CT)-rich ressource...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
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