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haemonchus contortus

M R V Amarante, M C Santos, C C Bassetto, A F T Amarante
Haemonchus contortus and Haemonchus placei are among the major parasites of small ruminants and cattle. Although infection with these nematodes is host-specific, with H. placei predominating in cattle and H. contortus in sheep, cross-infections are observed in areas where both parasites are sympatric, and hybrid offspring can occur. Therefore, a fast and precise method is required for differentiating the parasites. Identification based on spicule morphometry is the most common technique for differentiating Haemonchus species...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
Javier J Garza, Scott P Greiner, Scott A Bowdridge
The objectives of this study were to measure Haemonchus contortus larval aggregation by complement/antibody complexes, determine effect of breed resistance and infection status, and determine the effect of larval maturation on larval aggregation in vitro. Larval binding assays were performed on H. contortus L3, exsheathed L3 and L4 incubated with serum from either parasite naïve or H. contortus primed St. Croix (resistant) and Suffolk (susceptible) lambs. No differences in L3 aggregation were observed between serum from either breed or infection status...
January 7, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Waleed M Arafa, Patricia J Holman, Thomas M Craig
Haemonchus contortus isolates were evaluated for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance or susceptibility by allele-specific PCR based on β-tubulin isotype 1 gene polymorphisms at the F167Y, E198A, and F200Y sites. Two isolates, one presumed susceptible from wild pronghorn antelope (PH) and one known to be resistant from goats (VM), were also assayed phenotypically for BZ resistance or susceptibility in the larval development assay (Drenchrite®). The BZ EC50 was 0.198 μM (intermediate between susceptible and weak resistant) for PH with critical well 5 (intermediate between susceptible and weak resistant) and 1...
December 28, 2016: Parasitology Research
Hyolanda M Grosskopf, Rhayana K Grosskopf, Angelisa H Biazus, Marta L R Leal, Nathieli B Bottari, Mariana S Alves, Maria Rosa C Schetinger, Vera M Morsch, Gustavo Machado, Matheus D Baldissera, Aleksandro S Da Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of copper edetate on biochemical parameters, oxidative profile, cholinesterase's activities, as well as its capacity to control gastrointestinal parasites in infected sheep. Thus, Lacaune sheep (n = 18) infected by Haemonchus contortus were used and divided into three groups of six animal each: the group A was composed of untreated animals (the control group), the group B was formed by animals treated with 0.3 mg/kg of copper edetate, and the group C was composed of animals treated with 0...
December 20, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Bo-Bo Wang, Feng-Hui Wang, Qiang Xu, Kang-Ying Wang, Yu-Jia Xue, Rui Ren, Jia-Qing Zeng, Yang Liu, Hai-Yan Zhang, Hai-Yu Wang, Bin Cai, Kui-Zheng Cai, Xin Cao
To screen potential nematophagous fungi candidates for the biological control of parasitic nematodes in livestock, in vitro and in vivo studies of the native isolates of nematophagous fungi against the larvae of trichostrongylides were conducted. The in vitro predatory activity of 16 native nematophagous fungal isolates on the larvae of trichostrongylides in sheep feces was assessed. In the ten isolates of Duddingtonia flagrans, the reduction percentage for the infective larvae (L3) of Trichostrongylus colubriformis ranged from 57...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Melanie Abongwa, Katherine E Baber, Richard J Martin, Alan P Robertson
Nematode parasite infections pose a significant threat in human and veterinary medicine. At least a third of the world's population is at risk from nematode parasite infections. These infections not only cause health problems, but also cause loss of livestock production and hence, economic losses. Anthelmintic drugs are the mainstay by which control of nematode parasite infections is achieved. Many of the currently available anthelmintics act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, the detailed mode of action (MOA) of these anthelmintics is not clearly understood...
December 2016: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Amilcar Arenal, Arnielis Díaz, Lew Kan Sprenger, Andreia Buzatti, Maria Angela Machado Fernandes, Jeannie Nascimento Dos Santos, Marcelo Molento
RNA interference has been widely used in parasites. In Haemonchus contortus, reproducible silencing has been reported; however, in this species an altered phenotype has been observed for only a few genes silenced by RNA interference. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of silencing Dim-1, a member of the disorganized muscle family on third stage larvae (L3) of H. contortus. Effective silencing of Dim-1 in L3 led to reduced L3 migration and slowed larval development from L3 to early L4. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate Dim-1 silencing affecting phenotypic characteristics of this parasite...
January 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Cassandra Dawn Pauling, Anna R Oller, Victoria Jackson
The scimitar-horned oryx, Oryx dammah, an endangered species extinct in the wild, is managed in various captive management programs and is the focus of reintroduction efforts. Management variability can contribute to substantial parasite load differences, which can affect deworming programs and potentially transfer parasites to different regions with translocations. Parasite studies in O. dammah are lacking. In this study, we determined fecal egg/oocyst counts of O. dammah in two captive herds, Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (FRWC) and Kansas City Zoo (KCZ)...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
S Umair, C L G Bouchet, J S Knight, A Pernthaner, H V Simpson
A 1299 bp full length cDNA encoding Teladorsagia circumcincta enolase (TeciENO) was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified and its kinetic properties determined. Helminth enolase sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. The predicted protein consisted of 433 amino acids and was present as a single band of about 50 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Multiple alignments of the protein sequence of TeciENO with homologues from other helminths showed 98% similarity with Haemonchus contortus enolase, 78-95% similarity to other nematode sequences and 72-75% similarity to cestode and trematode enolases...
December 7, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Yousmel Alemán Gaínza, Rafaela Regina Fantatto, Francisco Celio Maia Chaves, Humberto Ribeiro Bizzo, Sérgio Novita Esteves, Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas
The anthelminthic activity of the essential oil (EO) of Piper aduncum L. was tested in vitro on eggs and larvae of resistant (Embrapa2010) and susceptible (McMaster) isolates of Haemonchus contortus. The EO was obtained by steam distillation and its components identified by chromatography. EO concentrations of 12.5 to 0.02 mg/mL were used in the egg hatch test (EHT) and concentrations of 3.12 to 0.01 mg/mL in the larval development test (LDT). Inhibition concentrations (IC) were determined by the SAS Probit procedure, and significant differences assessed by ANOVA followed by Tukey's test...
October 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
I Zouyed, J Cabaret, B Bentounsi
It is a common view that assemblages of parasitic nematodes are influenced by climatic conditions; however, there are only a few articles available regarding those that infect farm animals. We investigated the relationship between climate variables and infection with abomasal trichostrongyles in 335 1-year-old rams grazed on steppe pastures in Eastern Algeria. Abomasa were collected from 12 local slaughterhouses located in four climatic areas (from humid to arid) and the worms extracted, identified and counted...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
Javaid Ali Gadahi, Baojie Li, Muhammad Ehsan, Shuai Wang, Zhenchao Zhang, Yujian Wang, Muhammad Waqqas Hasan, Ruofeng Yan, Xiaokai Song, Lixin Xu, Xiangrui Li
A 24 kDa protein is one of the important components in Haemonchus contortus (barber pole worm) excretory/secretory products (HcESPs), which was shown to have important antigenic function. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory effects of this proteinon host cell. In the present study gene encoding 24kDa excretory/secretory protein (HcES-24) was cloned. The recombinant protein of HcES-24 (rHcES-24) was expressed in a histidine-tagged fusion protein soluble form in Escherichia coli. Binding activity of rHcES-24 to goat PBMCs was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and its immunomudulatory effect on cytokine secretion, cell proliferation, cell migration and nitric oxide production were observed by co-incubation of rHcES-24...
November 21, 2016: Oncotarget
A Latchumikanthan, A Prasad, Nidhi Yadav, M Sankar, Pesingi Pavan Kumar, M V Jithin, M Aravind
Haemonchus contortus is a haematophagous nematode in small ruminants population and causes anaemia, weakness and mortality especially in young animals. In the present study, hmcp3 partial gene of 836 bp and hmcp6 full length gene of 1041 bp were amplified from the cDNA of Bareilly isolate of adult male H. contortus by polymerase chain reaction. Further gene characterization and expression studies are warranted to know the immunoprophylactic potential of hmcp3 and hmcp6 proteins of H. contortus.
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
L Aguilar-Marcelino, P Mendoza-de-Gives, G Torres-Hernández, M E López-Arellano, C M Becerril-Pérez, A Orihuela-Trujillo, J F J Torres-Acosta, A Olmedo-Juárez
Two groups of six Haemonchus contortus infected Saint Croix lambs each received different diets for 11 weeks: control group, commercial food, molasses and lucerne hay; and treated group, nutritional pellets (NPs) containing Duddingtonia flagrans at 2 × 106 chlamydospores/kg body weight (BW), sorghum and lucerne hay. Mean BW gain (BWG), body condition score (BCS) and packed cell volume (PCV) and also eggs/g of faeces (EPG) and recovered L3 were compared using a repeated measures across time model. Groups had similar BWG (control 139...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
Fangyuan Yin, Robin B Gasser, Facai Li, Min Bao, Weiyi Huang, Fengcai Zou, Guanghui Zhao, Chunren Wang, Xin Yang, Yanqin Zhou, Junlong Zhao, Rui Fang, Min Hu
BACKGROUND: Studying genetic variation within and among Haemonchus contortus populations can inform some aspects of this parasite's population genetics and epidemiology. However, almost nothing is known about such variation in China. METHODS: Adult males of H. contortus (n = 184) representing seven distinct populations in China were collected, and genetic variation within and among these populations was explored using eight distinct microsatellite markers. RESULTS: Genetic parameters, such as heterozygosity and inbreeding coefficient (F IS ) indicated that all eight microsatellites were highly polymorphic...
November 15, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Nlingisisi D Babayani, Jan A van Wyk, Eric R Morgan
Infection with the abomasal nematode Haemonchus contortus is responsible for considerable production loss in small ruminants globally, and especially in warm, summer-rainfall regions. Previous attempts to predict infection levels have followed the traditional framework for macroparasite models, i.e. tracking parasite population sizes as a function of host and climatic factors. Targeted treatment strategies, in which patho-physiological indices are used to identify the individuals most affected by parasites, could provide a foundation for alternative, incidence-based epidemiological models...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Véronique Lehrter, Damien Jouet, Emmanuel Liénard, Anouk Decors, Cécile Patrelle
Among gastro-intestinal nematodes, the blood-sucking worms belonging to the subfamily of Haemonchinae are considered to be of pathogenic and economic great importance, particularly in small ruminants. Haemonchus contortus, primary found in domestic ruminants and wild bovines (Mouflon, Chamois), is probably the most studied, but occurrence of Ashworthius sidemi has gradually increased over recent years, especially in Cervids and free roaming wild bovid as the European bison in eastern Europe, and some cases of co-infestation were recently observed on five Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and one Red deer (Cervus elaphus) in France...
December 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Nikki M Schweizer, Derek M Foster, William B Knox, Hannah J Sylvester, Kevin L Anderson
Haemonchus contortus parasitism is a major disease of sheep, with these parasites frequently demonstrating multi-drug class anthelmintic resistance. Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) have shown potential as adjuncts or alternatives to anthelmintics in resistant flocks. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of two different COWP treatment regimens or placebo in the control of H. contortus in weaned lambs within a flock historically shown to have multi-drug resistant H. contortus using the DrenchRite(®) assay...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
H W Ploeger, A F G Antonis, J C Verkaik, P Vellema, M H Bokma-Bakker
Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections are considered among one of the toughest challenges sheep farmers face worldwide. Control still is largely based on the use of anthelmintics, but anthelmintic resistance is becoming rampant. To facilitate implementation of alternative nematode control strategies and to reduce anthelmintic usage, the purpose of this study was twofold: (i) to gain insight in common practices, knowledge gaps and perceptions of farmers regarding nematode control, and (ii) to provide foci of attention for improving parasite control practices and transfer of knowledge within the sheep husbandry...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Lorena Meier, Paul R Torgerson, Hubertus Hertzberg
Forty goats, aged from 2 to 5 months were subjected to two different immunization protocols with a vaccine containing Haemonchus contortus gut membrane proteins H11/H-gal-GP to evaluate protection against H. contortus on pre-contaminated pastures. Goats were allocated to four groups of ten, three of them received their first vaccination before turnout. One group (V4) was then vaccinated at 4-week-intervals whereas another two groups (V6 and V6SEP) were vaccinated at 6-week-intervals. A control group (CTRL) remained unvaccinated...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
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