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haemonchus contortus

Safaa T Elmahalawy, Peter Halvarsson, Moa Skarin, Johan Höglund
Resistance to ivermectin (IVM) in the nematode Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants is an increasing problem throughout the world. Access to molecular diagnostics will allow early detection of IVM resistance, which in turn can limit the spread of resistant isolates. One candidate gene which has recently been suggested as a marker for IVM resistance is that for dye-filling protein (dyf-7). In this study, we critically investigated the suitability of A141G and G153T single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of dyf-7 as a marker in larval cultures collected from sheep farms in Sweden, involving several isolates for which resistance status had been characterised by the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT)...
April 26, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Rosalia Rodríguez-Martínez, Pedro Mendoza-de-Gives, Liliana Aguilar-Marcelino, María Eugenia López-Arellano, Marcela Gamboa-Angulo, Greta Hanako Rosas-Saito, Manuela Reyes-Estébanez, Virginia Guadalupe García-Rubio
This study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro lethal activity of the nematophagous fungi Clonostachys rosea against 5 nematodes species belonging to different taxa. Two groups of 35 Petri dishes (PD) each were divided into 5 series of 7 (PD). Group 1 (series 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) contained only water agar; meanwhile group 2 plates (series 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10) contained C. rosea cultures growth on water agar. Every plate from the two groups was added with 500 nematodes corresponding to the following genera/specie: Haemonchus contortus , Caenorhabditis elegans, Rhabditis sp...
2018: BioMed Research International
A Zamilpa, C García-Alanís, M E López-Arellano, V M Hernández-Velázquez, M G Valladares-Cisneros, D O Salinas-Sánchez, P Mendoza-de Gives
The in vitro nematicidal effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Castela tortuosa n-hexane extracts (E-Cham and E-Cato, respectively) on Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3) and the anthelmintic effect of these extracts against the pre-adult stage of the parasite in gerbils were evaluated using both individual and combined extracts. The in vitro confrontation between larvae and extracts was performed in 24-well micro-titration plates. The results were considered 24 and 72 h post confrontation. The in vivo nematicidal effect was examined using gerbils as a study model...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Nelson Siukei Lam, Xinxin Long, Xin-Zhuan Su, Fangli Lu
The World Health Organization estimated that more than 1.5 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths globally, and foodborne trematodiases in humans cause ∼2 million life-years lost to disability and death worldwide every year. Investment in prevention, treatment, and awareness of helminth infections and discovery of new, safe, effective, and affordable anti-helminth drugs are urgently needed. Artemisinin (ART) and its derivatives have been widely used to treat malaria and other protozoan infections; they also possess activities against helminths...
May 1, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Z M Estrada-Reyes, Y Tsukahara, A L Goetsch, T A Gipson, T Sahlu, R Puchala, Z Wang, S P Hart, R G Mateescu
The effect of Ovar-DRA and Ovar-DRB1 genotypes on fecal egg count (FEC) was determined in sheep and goats infected with Haemonchus contortus. One hundred and forty three sheep from 3 different breeds (St. Croix, Katahdin and Dorper) and 150 goats from three different breeds (Spanish, Boer and Kiko) were used. Parasitological (FEC), hematological (packed cell volume) and immunological (IgA, IgG and IgM) parameters were measured. Sheep populations showed a higher FEC and humoral response than goat breeds. Genotypes were determined by High Resolution Melting Assays and by conventional PCR...
May 2, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Alexandra Blanchard, Fabrice Guégnard, Claude L Charvet, Anna Crisford, Elise Courtot, Christine Sauvé, Abdallah Harmache, Thomas Duguet, Vincent O'Connor, Philippe Castagnone-Sereno, Barbara Reaves, Adrian J Wolstenholme, Robin N Beech, Lindy Holden-Dye, Cedric Neveu
Cholinergic agonists such as levamisole and pyrantel are widely used as anthelmintics to treat parasitic nematode infestations. These drugs elicit spastic paralysis by activating acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) expressed in nematode body wall muscles. In the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, genetic screens led to the identification of five genes encoding levamisole-sensitive-AChR (L-AChR) subunits: unc-38, unc-63, unc-29, lev-1 and lev-8. These subunits form a functional L-AChR when heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Calvin Bogning Zangueu, Abiodoun Pascal Olounlade, Marlyse Ossokomack, Yolande Noelle Nangue Djouatsa, Goue Géorcelin Alowanou, Anatole Guy Blaise Azebaze, Eulogio José Llorent-Martínez, Maria Luisa Fernández de Córdova, Alain Bertrand Dongmo, Mawulé Sylvie Hounzangbe-Adote
BACKGROUND: Maytenus senegalensis is a common shrub which is scattered in tropical Africa. Different parts of this plant have been reported to be useful in traditional medicine against gastrointestinal disorders and intestinal worms. This study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous stem bark extract of M. senegalensis using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA) and adult worms' motility inhibition assay (AMIA). RESULTS: On EHA, the extract concentrations tested resulted in a significant (p < 0...
May 2, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Luis Eduardo Ferreira, Bruno Iglesias Benincasa, Ana Lúcia Fachin, Silvia Helena Taleb Contini, Suzelei Castro França, Ana Carolina Souza Chagas, Rene Oliveira Beleboni
BACKGROUND: Infections of sheep with gastrointestinal parasites, especially Haemonchus contortus, have caused serious losses in livestock production, particularly after the emergence of resistance to conventional anthelmintics. The search for new anthelmintic agents, especially those of botanical origin, has grown substantially due to the perspective of less contamination of meat and milk, as well as other advantages related to their cost and accessibility in less developed countries...
April 25, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
L T Gressler, T H Grando, G Machado do Carmo, R A Vaucher, L M Stefani, S G Monteiro
Many important studies on resistance reversion, anthelmintic efficacy and, especially, new molecules with antiparasitic effects are performed in laboratories using gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) as the experimental model. This study aimed to evaluate the use of corticosteroids (dexamethasone and methylprednisolone acetate) in gerbils experimentally infected with different doses of infective larvae (sheathed or exsheathed) of Haemonchus contortus. In the first experiment, 28 gerbils were divided into seven groups infected by 2-6 × 103 larvae, with or without immunosuppression using corticosteroids...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
D Alimi, M Rekik, H Akkari
One of the great challenges of veterinary parasitology is the search for alternative methods for controlling gastrointestinal parasites in small ruminants. Milk kefir is a traditional source of probiotic, with great therapeutic potential. The objective of this study was to investigate the anthelmintic effects of kefir on the abomasal nematode Haemonchus contortus from sheep. The study used camel, goat, ewe and cow milk as a starting material, to produce camel, goat, cow and ewe milk kefir. All kefirs showed a significant concentration-dependent effect on H...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Naylene C S Silva, Aldilene S Lima, Carolina R Silva, Danilo R B Brito, José A A Cutrim-Junior, Marlise N Milhomem, Livio M Costa-Junior
Haemonchus contortus is the most prevalent nematode in tropical and subtropical regions and is responsible for significant losses in small ruminant production systems. Control of this parasite is based on the use of synthetic anthelmintics; although effective, prolonged and indiscriminate use can select for populations of resistant nematodes. Hydrolyzed yeast can help prevent populations of nematodes and is low in cost. The present study aimed to evaluate the preventive effect of hydrolyzed yeast on H. contortus through in vitro and in vivo assays...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Sebastián Manuel Muchiut, Alicia Silvina Fernández, Pedro Eduardo Steffan, Eliana Riva, César Alberto Fiel
Sheep production in tropical and temperate regions is hampered by the presence of Haemonchus contortus, the blood-sucking nematode that is the major cause of economic losses in small ruminant enterprises. The most limiting factor in the control of this parasitic disease is the steady progress of anthelmintic resistance worldwide. The search for control strategies that minimise the use of anthelmintics is therefore central to various efforts worldwide. One strategy is the introduction of susceptible parasites in refugia when these refugia are at low levels...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Saeed El-Ashram, Cuiping Li, Fathi Abouhajer, Rashid Mehmood, Ibrahim Al Nasr, Yinghui Zhang, Tang Lu, Ding Yili, Xun Suo, Zhang Haoji, Zhili Li, Shujian Huang
We have set up an ex vivo ovine abomasal model, which can mimic the multicellular process to explore the early steps in haemonchine nematode infection using RNA-seq technology. Ovine abomasal explants were collected for histological and transcriptional analysis and supernatants collected to quantitate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes. Atotal of 233 were substantially induced genes between L4 -inoculated and uninoculated-control tissues, respectively. However, a total of 14 were considerably down-regulated genes between the 51 aforementioned tissues...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Carly D Barone, Anne M Zajac, Laura A Manzi-Smith, Amy B Howell, Jess D Reed, Christian G Krueger, Katherine H Petersson
The discovery that plant secondary compounds, including proanthocyanidins (PAC), suppress gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection has provided promise for alternative methods of GIN control in small ruminants. This investigation is the first to examine the anthelmintic potential of cranberry vine (CV) against the GIN Haemonchus contortus. The purpose of this study was to explore the anti-parasitic activity of CV in the form of a specific organic proanthocyanidin extract (CV-PAC) and an aqueous extract (CV-AqE) containing PAC and other compounds...
April 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Dhanasekaran Sakthivel, Jaclyn Swan, Sarah Preston, M D Shakif-Azam, Pierre Faou, Yaqing Jiao, Rachael Downs, Harinda Rajapaksha, Robin Gasser, David Piedrafita, Travis Beddoe
Haemonchus contortus is the most pathogenic nematode of small ruminants. Infection in sheep and goats results in anaemia that decreases animal productivity and can ultimately cause death. The involvement of ruminant-specific galectin-11 (LGALS-11) and galectin-14 (LGALS-14) has been postulated to play important roles in protective immune responses against parasitic infection; however, their ligands are unknown. In the current study, LGALS-11 and LGALS-14 ligands in H. contortus were identified from larval (L4) and adult parasitic stages extracts using immobilised LGALS-11 and LGALS-14 affinity column chromatography and mass spectrometry...
2018: PeerJ
Marion David, Chantal Lebrun, Thomas Duguet, Franck Talmont, Robin Beech, Stéphane Orlowski, François André, Roger K Prichard, Anne Lespine
Haemonchus contortus, one of the most economically important parasites of small ruminants, has become resistant to the anthelmintic ivermectin. Deciphering the role of P-glycoproteins in ivermectin resistance is desirable for understanding and overcoming this resistance. In the model nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, P-glycoprotein-13 is expressed in the amphids, important neuronal structures for ivermectin activity. We have focused on its ortholog in the parasite, Hco-Pgp-13. A 3D model of Hco-Pgp-13, presenting an open inward-facing conformation, has been constructed by homology with the Cel-Pgp-1 crystal structure...
February 15, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
D R B Brito, L M Costa-Júnior, J L Garcia, J F J Torres-Acosta, H Louvandini, J A A Cutrim-Júnior, J F M Araújo, E D S Soares
Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) cause considerable economic losses in grazing goat herds. At present, GIN control cannot rely on conventional anthelmintic (AH) drugs because parasites have developed resistance against such drugs. Thus, alternative control methods are being sought to reduce the dependence on AH. Many tannin-rich plants exhibit AH activity and may be used as alternatives for GIN control. Mimosa caesalpiniifolia is a tannin-rich shrub consumed by small ruminants in Brazil. This study evaluated the in vivo AH effect of M...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Grace VanHoy, Michelle Carman, Greg Habing, Jeffrey Lakritz, C Austin Hinds, Andrew Niehaus, Ray M Kaplan, Antoinette E Marsh
Haemonchosis in camelids remains a challenging disease to treat, and prevention has become increasingly problematic due to widespread anthelmintic resistance. Barbervax® is an adjuvanted vaccine containing natural H-11, H-gal-GP antigens obtained from Haemonchus contortus adults via a proprietary process and solubilized in Quil A. This vaccine is approved for use in Australia, after demonstrating its safety and efficacy in sheep and goats. There are no published studies evaluating Barbervax in other ruminants/pseudoruminants such as camelids which can be parasitized with H...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Zhang Zongze, Yang Xin, Ali Ahmad Awais, Lei Weiqiang, Wang Chunqun, Wenda Di, Zhou Yanqin, Zhao Junlong, Fang Rui, Hu Min
The tetra-primer ARMS-PCR is a rapid, simple and low cost method for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping and has been used to detect SNPs associated with diseases and drug resistance. E198A in the isotype-1 β-tubulin gene is one of the three SNPs associated with benzimidazole resistance in parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. However, up to now, only PCR-RFLP method was used to test E198A in H. contortus. In the present study, we developed a tetra-primer ARMS-PCR to detect E198A in H. contortus and the accuracy of the results was compared with that of PCR-coupled sequencing...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Joanne Lello, Susan J McClure, Kerri Tyrrell, Mark E Viney
It is normal for hosts to be co-infected by parasites. Interactions among co-infecting species can have profound consequences, including changing parasite transmission dynamics, altering disease severity and confounding attempts at parasite control. Despite the importance of co-infection, there is currently no way to predict how different parasite species may interact with one another, nor the consequences of those interactions. Here, we demonstrate a method that enables such prediction by identifying two nematode parasite groups based on taxonomy and characteristics of the parasitological niche...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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