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haemonchus contortus

Ewa Jankowska, Lisa M Parsons, Xuezheng Song, Dave F Smith, Richard D Cummings, John F Cipollo
Here we present a Caenorhabditis elegans N-glycan shotgun array. This nematode serves as a model organism for many areas of biology including but not limited to tissue development, host-pathogen interactions, innate immunity, and genetics. C. elegans N-glycans contain structural motifs that are also found in other nematodes as well as trematodes and lepidopteran species. Glycan binding toxins that interact with C. elegans glycoconjugates also do so with some agriculturally relevant species, such as Haemonchus contortus, Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichoplusia ni...
January 9, 2018: Glycobiology
Wanlapa Chaibangyang, Amornrat Geadkaew-Krenc, Suksiri Vichasri-Grams, Smarn Tesana, Rudi Grams
Calreticulin (CALR), a multifunctional protein thoroughly researched in mammals, comprises N-, P-, and C-domain and has roles in calcium homeostasis, chaperoning, clearance of apoptotic cells, cell adhesion, and also angiogenesis. In this study, the spatial and temporal expression patterns of the Opisthorchis viverrini CALR gene were analyzed, and calcium-binding and chaperoning properties of recombinant O. viverrini CALR (OvCALR) investigated. OvCALR mRNA was detected from the newly excysted juvenile to the mature parasite by RT-PCR while specific antibodies showed a wide distribution of the protein...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Andrew C Kotze, Angela Ruffell, Jane Lamb, Tim P Elliott
There is an increasing interest in the use of combination anthelmintic products for the control of intestinal nematode parasites of livestock. These products are seen as attractive options for parasite control in the face of increasing levels of resistance to the different anthelmintic drug classes, as well as a means to slow the rate at which resistance develops to the individual components of the combination. With the recent introduction of an anthelmintic combination product containing abamectin and monepantel (at 1:12...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Melissa M George, Lorraine Lopez-Soberal, Bob E Storey, Sue B Howell, Ray M Kaplan
Motility is a commonly used in vitro phenotype for assessing anthelmintic activity of candidate compounds, and for detecting anthelmintic resistance in nematodes. Third-stage larvae (L3) of parasitic nematodes are commonly used in motility-based assays because L3 are simple to obtain and can remain viable in storage for extended periods. To improve the measurement of motility of microscopic stages of nematodes, our laboratory developed the Worminator, which quantitatively measures motility of parasites. Using the Worminator, we compared the dose-response characteristics of several avermectin/milbemycin (AM) compounds using L3 from both AM-susceptible and AM-resistant Cooperia spp...
December 18, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Sandra Alves Araújo, Alexandra Martins Dos Santos Soares, Carolina Rocha Silva, Eduardo Bezerra Almeida Júnior, Cláudia Quintino Rocha, André Teixeira da Silva Ferreira, Jonas Perales, Livio M Costa-Júnior
Gastrointestinal nematodes are a significant concern for animal health and well-being, and anthelmintic treatment is mainly performed through the use of chemical products. However, bioactive compounds produced by plants have shown promise for development as novel anthelmintics. The aim of this study is to assess the anthelmintic activity of protein fractions from Spigelia anthelmia on the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus. Plant parts were separated into leaves, stems and roots, washed with distilled water, freeze-dried and ground into a fine powder...
2017: PloS One
Ashenafi Assefa, Yisehak Kechero, Taye Tolemariam, Assefa Kebede, Eshetu Shumi
Condensed tannins (CT) extracted from Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica, and Celtis toka browses were used to evaluate their anthelmintic effect on different developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus. To achieve this objective, various serial concentrations of each CT extract of the foliages were used to test adult motility, inhibition of egg hatchability, and larval development. The fodders were selected based on their multipurpose advantage and accessibility to use as fodder for livestock in the low lands of the Gambella region...
December 12, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
C A Sandoval-Castro
We would like to comment on a recent paper by Hernandez-Bolio et al. (2017, Nat. Prod. Res. DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1317774) where an extract free of condensed tannin (CT) was evaluated and concluded that Lysiloma latisiliquum CT does not have a role in its anthelmintic (AH) activity. This letter discusses the AH potential of L. latisiliquum based on previously published evidence of a partial role of CT using different AH assays and Haemonchus contortus isolates. Because the experimental design employed in the above-mentioned paper did not allow a clear-cut conclusion regarding the role of CT, this suggests that a specific experiment must be designed to confirm or reject the involvement of CT fraction(s) on L...
December 11, 2017: Natural Product Research
Frederick A Partridge, Anwen E Brown, Steven D Buckingham, Nicky J Willis, Graham M Wynne, Ruth Forman, Kathryn J Else, Alison A Morrison, Jacqueline B Matthews, Angela J Russell, David A Lomas, David B Sattelle
Parasitic nematodes infect hundreds of millions of people and farmed livestock. Further, plant parasitic nematodes result in major crop damage. The pipeline of therapeutic compounds is limited and parasite resistance to the existing anthelmintic compounds is a global threat. We have developed an INVertebrate Automated Phenotyping Platform (INVAPP) for high-throughput, plate-based chemical screening, and an algorithm (Paragon) which allows screening for compounds that have an effect on motility and development of parasitic worms...
December 2, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Victoria Gillan, Kirsty Maitland, Roz Laing, Henry Gu, Neil D Marks, Alan D Winter, David Bartley, Alison Morrison, Philip J Skuce, Andrew M Rezansoff, John S Gilleard, Axel Martinelli, Collette Britton, Eileen Devaney
Resistance to anthelmintic drugs is a major problem in the global fight against parasitic nematodes infecting humans and animals. While previous studies have identified mutations in drug target genes in resistant parasites, changes in the expression levels of both targets and transporters have also been reported. The mechanisms underlying these changes in gene expression are unresolved. Here, we take a novel approach to this problem by investigating the role of small regulatory RNAs in drug resistant strains of the important parasite Haemonchus contortus...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Felicitas Ruiz, Michelle L Castelletto, Spencer S Gang, Elissa A Hallem
Parasitic nematodes of humans and livestock cause extensive disease and economic loss worldwide. Many parasitic nematodes infect hosts as third-stage larvae, called iL3s. iL3s vary in their infection route: some infect by skin penetration, others by passive ingestion. Skin-penetrating iL3s actively search for hosts using host-emitted olfactory cues, but the extent to which passively ingested iL3s respond to olfactory cues was largely unknown. Here, we examined the olfactory behaviors of the passively ingested murine gastrointestinal parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Sarah A Abdelmassih, Everett Cochrane, Sean G Forrester
Xenopus laevis oocytes have been extensively used as a heterologous expression system for the study of ion channels. While used successfully worldwide as tool for expressing and characterizing ion channels from a wide range of species, the limited longevity of oocytes once removed from the animal can pose significant challenges. In this study, we evaluate a simple and useful method that extends the longevity of Xenopus oocytes after removal from the animal and quantitatively assessed the reliability of the electrophysiological date obtained...
November 28, 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Flávio Augusto Sanches Politi, Amauri Alves Souza, Rafaela Regina Fantatto, Rosemeire Cristina Linhari Rodrigues Pietro, Waldomiro Barioni, Márcio Dias Rabelo, Humberto Ribeiro Bizzo, Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas, Maysa Furlan
Sheep breeding has suffered economic losses due to parasitism by gastrointestinal nematodes, particularly Haemonchus contortus. The use of natural products, specifically Tagetes patula, has been suggested as an alternative method of combatting this issue. Chemical analyses of the extracts of this species described in the literature report the presence of important classes of secondary metabolites such as thiophenes, flavonoids, alkaloids and benzofurans, some of which were identified and isolated in this study...
November 27, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
A Haile, H Hassen, H Gatew, T Getachew, R N B Lobo, B Rischkowsky
We generated epidemiological information on the prevalence of nematode parasites and possible resistance/resilience of goats in three areas, Bati, Shinille, and Borana, of Ethiopia. A total of 350 breeding does were randomly selected and monitored for one year. Fecal egg counts (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), body weight (BW), body condition score (BC), and fecal larvae identification were done. In Borana, the long rainy season had higher FEC, lower PCV, lower BC, and smaller BW compared to dry and short rainy seasons (p < 0...
November 25, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Jessica Maria Leite Dos Santos, Janaelia Ferreira Vasconcelos, Gracielle Araújo Frota, Wesley Lyeverton Correia Ribeiro, Weibson Paz Pinheiro André, Luiz da Silva Vieira, Marcel Teixeira, Claudia Maria Leal Bevilaqua, Jomar Patrício Monteiro
Parasitism by Haemonchus contortus is one of the main limiting factors in small ruminant production in tropical areas. Benzimidazoles (BZ) and macrocyclic lactones (ML) are the most used anthelmintic classes in gastrointestinal nematodes control. There is considerable scientific evidence of a possible relation between the anthelmintic resistance to BZ and ML. This study aimed to characterize the dynamics of anthelmintic resistance in an H. contortus susceptible isolate under selection pressure for BZ and ML alone or in combination and the role of isotype 1 β-tubulin gene SNPs in these situations...
December 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
R A Gutiérrez-Amézquita, J Morales-Montor, M A Muñoz-Guzmán, K E Nava-Castro, H Ramírez-Álvarez, C Cuenca-Verde, N A Moreno-Mendoza, J A Cuéllar-Ordaz, F Alba-Hurtado
We evaluated the direct effects of progesterone on the morphology, maturation and behavior of Haemonchus contortus larvae in vitro. The presence and location of possible progesterone receptors in these larvae were also determined. The addition of 8ng/mL of progesterone to larval cultures over 10days reduced larval enlargement, while the addition of 160ng/mL of the hormone increased the enlargement. Up to 62% and 65% of the H. contortus larvae molted from third-stage larvae (L3) to fourth-stage larvae (L4) when cultured in RPMI-1640 media without hormone for 5 and 10days, respectively...
December 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Geneviève Zabré, Adama Kaboré, Balé Bayala, Luciana M Katiki, Lívio Martins Costa-Júnior, Hamidou H Tamboura, Adrien M G Belem, Adibe L Abdalla, Vincent Niderkorn, Hervé Hoste, Helder Louvandini
Gastrointestinal nematodes are a major threat to small ruminant rearing in the Sahel area, where farmers traditionally use bioactive plants to control these worms, including Acacia nilotica and Acacia raddiana. The main aim of this study was to screen the potential anthelmintic properties of aqueous and acetone extracts of leaves of these two plants based on three in vitro assays: (1) the egg hatch inhibition assay (EHA); (2) the larvae exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) using Haemonchus contortus as a model; and (3) an adult mortality test (AMT) applied on Caenorhabditis elegans...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Yan Huang, Xiuping Zheng, Hongli Zhang, Haojie Ding, Xiaolu Guo, Yi Yang, Xueqiu Chen, Qianjin Zhou, Aifang Du
Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) is one of the most important parasites of small ruminants, especially goats and sheep. The complex life cycle of this nematode is a main obstacle for the control and prevention of haemonchosis. So far, a special form of arrested development called diapause different from the dauer stage in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) has been found in many parasitic nematodes. In our previous study, we have characterized a novel gene Hc-daf-22 from H. contortus sharing high homology with Ce-daf-22 and functional analysis showed this gene has similar biological function with Ce-daf-22...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Henry Y Gu, Neil D Marks, Alan D Winter, William Weir, Thomas Tzelos, Tom N McNeilly, Collette Britton, Eileen Devaney
microRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that are important regulators of gene expression in a range of animals, including nematodes. We have analysed a cluster of four miRNAs from the pathogenic nematode species Haemonchus contortus that are closely linked in the genome. We find that the cluster is conserved only in clade V parasitic nematodes and in some ascarids, but not in other clade III species nor in clade V free-living nematodes. Members of the cluster are present in parasite excretory-secretory products and can be detected in the abomasum and draining lymph nodes of infected sheep, indicating their release in vitro and in vivo...
November 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jean-Paul Déto Ursul N'Guessan, Pierre-Olivier Delaye, Mélanie Pénichon, Claude L Charvet, Cédric Neveu, Mahama Ouattara, Cécile Enguehard-Gueiffier, Alain Gueiffier, Hassan Allouchi
We report the synthesis of a series of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-based molecules as anthelmintic against the livestock parasite Haemonchus contortus. The molecules were tested by using Larval Paralysis Test (LPT), in order to target ionic channels, as most of the prominent marketed anthelminthics present such mechanism of action. The most active compound (5e) displayed paralysis on H. contortus stage 3 larvae until 31.25 µM. Effect of 5e on H. contortus cholinergic receptors (L-AChR1 and 2) was characterized via electrophysiological measurement and a rare antagonist mode of action was unveiled...
November 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
S Cériac, C Jayles, R Arquet, D Feuillet, Y Félicité, H Archimède, J-C Bambou
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) remains the most important pathogenic constraint of small ruminant production worldwide. The improvement of the host immune response against GIN though breeding for improved animal resistance, vaccination and nutritional supplementation appear as very promising methods. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of four nutritional status differing in protein and energy levels (Hay: 5.1 MJ/Kg of dry matter (DM) and 7.6% of crude protein (CP), Ban: 8...
November 9, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
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