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haemonchus contortus

I Zouyed, J Cabaret, B Bentounsi
It is a common view that assemblages of parasitic nematodes are influenced by climatic conditions; however, there are only a few articles available regarding those that infect farm animals. We investigated the relationship between climate variables and infection with abomasal trichostrongyles in 335 1-year-old rams grazed on steppe pastures in Eastern Algeria. Abomasa were collected from 12 local slaughterhouses located in four climatic areas (from humid to arid) and the worms extracted, identified and counted...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
Javaid Ali Gadahi, Baojie Li, Muhammad Ehsan, Shuai Wang, Zhenchao Zhang, Yujian Wang, Muhammad Waqqas Hasan, Ruofeng Yan, Xiaokai Song, Lixin Xu, Xiangrui Li
A 24 kDa protein is one of the important components in Haemonchus contortus (barber pole worm) excretory/secretory products (HcESPs), which was shown to have important antigenic function. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory effects of this proteinon host cell. In the present study gene encoding 24kDa excretory/secretory protein (HcES-24) was cloned. The recombinant protein of HcES-24 (rHcES-24) was expressed in a histidine-tagged fusion protein soluble form in Escherichia coli. Binding activity of rHcES-24 to goat PBMCs was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and its immunomudulatory effect on cytokine secretion, cell proliferation, cell migration and nitric oxide production were observed by co-incubation of rHcES-24...
November 21, 2016: Oncotarget
A Latchumikanthan, A Prasad, Nidhi Yadav, M Sankar, Pesingi Pavan Kumar, M V Jithin, M Aravind
Haemonchus contortus is a haematophagous nematode in small ruminants population and causes anaemia, weakness and mortality especially in young animals. In the present study, hmcp3 partial gene of 836 bp and hmcp6 full length gene of 1041 bp were amplified from the cDNA of Bareilly isolate of adult male H. contortus by polymerase chain reaction. Further gene characterization and expression studies are warranted to know the immunoprophylactic potential of hmcp3 and hmcp6 proteins of H. contortus.
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
L Aguilar-Marcelino, P Mendoza-de-Gives, G Torres-Hernández, M E López-Arellano, C M Becerril-Pérez, A Orihuela-Trujillo, J F J Torres-Acosta, A Olmedo-Juárez
Two groups of six Haemonchus contortus infected Saint Croix lambs each received different diets for 11 weeks: control group, commercial food, molasses and lucerne hay; and treated group, nutritional pellets (NPs) containing Duddingtonia flagrans at 2 × 106 chlamydospores/kg body weight (BW), sorghum and lucerne hay. Mean BW gain (BWG), body condition score (BCS) and packed cell volume (PCV) and also eggs/g of faeces (EPG) and recovered L3 were compared using a repeated measures across time model. Groups had similar BWG (control 139...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
Fangyuan Yin, Robin B Gasser, Facai Li, Min Bao, Weiyi Huang, Fengcai Zou, Guanghui Zhao, Chunren Wang, Xin Yang, Yanqin Zhou, Junlong Zhao, Rui Fang, Min Hu
BACKGROUND: Studying genetic variation within and among Haemonchus contortus populations can inform some aspects of this parasite's population genetics and epidemiology. However, almost nothing is known about such variation in China. METHODS: Adult males of H. contortus (n = 184) representing seven distinct populations in China were collected, and genetic variation within and among these populations was explored using eight distinct microsatellite markers. RESULTS: Genetic parameters, such as heterozygosity and inbreeding coefficient (F IS ) indicated that all eight microsatellites were highly polymorphic...
November 15, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Nlingisisi D Babayani, Jan A van Wyk, Eric R Morgan
Infection with the abomasal nematode Haemonchus contortus is responsible for considerable production loss in small ruminants globally, and especially in warm, summer-rainfall regions. Previous attempts to predict infection levels have followed the traditional framework for macroparasite models, i.e. tracking parasite population sizes as a function of host and climatic factors. Targeted treatment strategies, in which patho-physiological indices are used to identify the individuals most affected by parasites, could provide a foundation for alternative, incidence-based epidemiological models...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Véronique Lehrter, Damien Jouet, Emmanuel Liénard, Anouk Decors, Cécile Patrelle
Among gastro-intestinal nematodes, the blood-sucking worms belonging to the subfamily of Haemonchinae are considered to be of pathogenic and economic great importance, particularly in small ruminants. Haemonchus contortus, primary found in domestic ruminants and wild bovines (Mouflon, Chamois), is probably the most studied, but occurrence of Ashworthius sidemi has gradually increased over recent years, especially in Cervids and free roaming wild bovid as the European bison in eastern Europe, and some cases of co-infestation were recently observed on five Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and one Red deer (Cervus elaphus) in France...
November 1, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Nikki M Schweizer, Derek M Foster, William B Knox, Hannah J Sylvester, Kevin L Anderson
Haemonchus contortus parasitism is a major disease of sheep, with these parasites frequently demonstrating multi-drug class anthelmintic resistance. Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) have shown potential as adjuncts or alternatives to anthelmintics in resistant flocks. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of two different COWP treatment regimens or placebo in the control of H. contortus in weaned lambs within a flock historically shown to have multi-drug resistant H. contortus using the DrenchRite(®) assay...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
H W Ploeger, A F G Antonis, J C Verkaik, P Vellema, M H Bokma-Bakker
Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections are considered among one of the toughest challenges sheep farmers face worldwide. Control still is largely based on the use of anthelmintics, but anthelmintic resistance is becoming rampant. To facilitate implementation of alternative nematode control strategies and to reduce anthelmintic usage, the purpose of this study was twofold: (i) to gain insight in common practices, knowledge gaps and perceptions of farmers regarding nematode control, and (ii) to provide foci of attention for improving parasite control practices and transfer of knowledge within the sheep husbandry...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Lorena Meier, Paul R Torgerson, Hubertus Hertzberg
Forty goats, aged from 2 to 5 months were subjected to two different immunization protocols with a vaccine containing Haemonchus contortus gut membrane proteins H11/H-gal-GP to evaluate protection against H. contortus on pre-contaminated pastures. Goats were allocated to four groups of ten, three of them received their first vaccination before turnout. One group (V4) was then vaccinated at 4-week-intervals whereas another two groups (V6 and V6SEP) were vaccinated at 6-week-intervals. A control group (CTRL) remained unvaccinated...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
H Rose Vineer, J Steiner, F Knapp-Lawitzke, K Bull, E von Son-de Fernex, A Bosco, H Hertzberg, J Demeler, L Rinaldi, A A Morrison, P Skuce, D J Bartley, E R Morgan
The impact of climate change on parasites and parasitic diseases is a growing concern and numerous empirical and mechanistic models have been developed to predict climate-driven spatial and temporal changes in the distribution of parasites and disease risk. Variation in parasite phenotype and life-history traits between isolates could undermine the application of such models at broad spatial scales. Seasonal variation in the transmission of the haematophagous gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus, one of the most pathogenic helminth species infecting sheep and goats worldwide, is primarily determined by the impact of environmental conditions on the free-living stages...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
O M Kandil, K A Abdelrahman, H A Fahmy, M S Mahmoud, A H El Namaky, J E Miller
Haemonchus contortus is a major parasite of small ruminants and its blood-feeding behaviour causes effects ranging from mild anaemia to death. Knowledge of the genetic variation within and among H. contortus populations can provide the foundation for understanding transmission patterns and aid in the control of haemonchosis. Adult male H. contortus were collected from three geographical regions in Egypt. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced directly...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
Zongze Zhang, Robin B Gasser, Xin Yang, Fangyuan Yin, Guanghui Zhao, Min Bao, Baoliang Pan, Weiyi Huang, Chunren Wang, Fengcai Zou, Yanqin Zhou, Junlong Zhao, Rui Fang, Min Hu
Haemonchus contortus is one of the most important parasitic nematodes of small ruminants around the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. The control of haemonchosis relies mainly on anthelmintics, but the excessive and prolonged use of anthelmintics is causing serious drug resistance issues in many countries. As benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics have been broadly used in China, we hypothesized that resistance is widespread. Given the link between three known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, designated F167Y, E198A and F200Y) in the isotype-1 β-tubulin gene and BZ resistance, our goal here was to explore the presence of these mutations in H...
October 5, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Javaid Ali Gadahi, Muhammad Ehsan, Shuai Wang, ZhenChao Zhang, Yujian Wang, RuoFeng Yan, XiaoKai Song, LiXin Xu, XiangRui Li
14-3-3 proteins have been found to be an excreted/secreted antigen and assumed to be released into the host-parasite interface and described in several unicellular and multicellular parasites. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory effects of H. controtus 14-3-3 protein on host cell. In present study, 14-3-3 isoform 2 gene, designated as Hcftt-2, was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from the adult H. contortus cDNA and cloned into expression plasmid pET32a (+) and expression of the recombinant protein (rHcftt-2) was induced by IPTG...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Jeannine Hess, Malay Patra, Abdul Jabbar, Vanessa Pierroz, Sandro Konatschnig, Bernhard Spingler, Stefano Ferrari, Robin B Gasser, Gilles Gasser
In this study, we present the design, synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of structurally new ferrocenyl and ruthenocenyl derivatives of the organic anthelmintic monepantel (Zolvix(®)). All seven metallocenyl derivatives prepared (4a/b, 5a/b, 6a/b and 7) were isolated as racemates and characterized by (1)H, (13)C and (19)F NMR spectroscopies, mass spectrometry, IR spectroscopy and elemental microanalysis. The molecular structures of four compounds (4a/b, 6a and 7) were further confirmed by X-ray crystallography...
October 17, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jeannine Hess, Malay Patra, Loganathan Rangasamy, Sandro Konatschnig, Olivier Blacque, Abdul Jabbar, Patrick Mac, Erik M Jorgensen, Robin B Gasser, Gilles Gasser
The discovery of novel drugs against animal parasites is in high demand due to drug-resistance problems encountered around the world. Herein, the synthesis and characterization of 27 organic and organometallic derivatives of the recently launched nematocidal drug monepantel (Zolvix(®) ) are described. The compounds were isolated as racemates and were characterized by (1) H, (13) C, and (19) F NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and IR spectroscopy, and their purity was verified by microanalysis. The molecular structures of nine compounds were confirmed by X-ray crystallography...
October 5, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Flávia Carolina Fávero, Carolina Buzzulini, Breno Cayeiro Cruz, Gustavo Felippelli, Willian Giquelin Maciel, Bruna Salatta, Débora Siniscalchi, Welber Daniel Zanetti Lopes, Weslen Fabricio Pires Teixeira, Vando Edésio Soares, Gilson Pereira de Oliveira, Alvimar José da Costa
The present study had the primary objective of evaluating clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters, as well as observing anatomical and histopathological characteristics of abomasums, from calves prime-infected with Haemonchus contortus or H. placei. Ten male Holstein newborns were subdivided in three groups (GI placebo; GII infected with H. contortus; GIII inoculated with H. placei). Eye mucosa staining was evaluated. Hematological and biochemical tests were performed on animals. The euthanasia of all ten experimental calves was performed on the 42nd day post-inoculation...
September 28, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Luis E Ferreira, Bruno I Benincasa, Ana L Fachin, Suzelei C França, Silvia S H T Contini, Ana C S Chagas, Rene O Beleboni
Haemonchus contortus is an important gastrointestinal parasite on sheep farms in tropical regions. The resistance of the parasite against most anthelmintic drugs represents a great economic problem to sheep farming and is a major challenge that needs to be overcome. The searches for new anthelmintic agents that act on different stages of the parasite's life cycle are necessary for the development of new therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against H...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Dhouha Alimi, Soumaya Hajaji, Mourad Rekik, Amel Abidi, Mohamed Gharbi, Hafidh Akkari
Antipathogenic properties of camel milk have been investigated to substitute for drugs hence overcome drug resistance. The main objective of this present study was to investigate the anthelmintic activity of camel milk in relationship to its chemical composition. In vitro anthelmintic effects of camel milk against Haemonchus contortus from sheep were ascertained by egg hatching and worm motility inhibitions in comparison to milks from cow, ewe and goat as well as a reference drug albendazole. Chemical composition revealed that camel milk has higher contents of protective protein (lactoferrin) and vitamin C than other species' milk...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Ali Raza, Neil H Bagnall, Abdul Jabbar, Steven R Kopp, Andrew C Kotze
BACKGROUND: There is some evidence that ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters play a role in resistance to anthelmintics, particularly against macrocyclic lactones. Some anthelmintics, including ivermectin (IVM), have been shown to induce transcription of multiple ABC transporters in nematodes; however, the effects of monepantel (MPL) on transcription of these transporter genes has not been studied. METHODS: Larvae of two MPL-susceptible isolates of Haemonchus contortus were exposed to MPL at two concentrations (2...
September 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
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