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haemonchus contortus

Joanne Lello, Susan J McClure, Kerri Tyrrell, Mark E Viney
It is normal for hosts to be co-infected by parasites. Interactions among co-infecting species can have profound consequences, including changing parasite transmission dynamics, altering disease severity and confounding attempts at parasite control. Despite the importance of co-infection, there is currently no way to predict how different parasite species may interact with one another, nor the consequences of those interactions. Here, we demonstrate a method that enables such prediction by identifying two nematode parasite groups based on taxonomy and characteristics of the parasitological niche...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Guillaume Sallé, Roz Laing, James A Cotton, Kirsty Maitland, Axel Martinelli, Nancy Holroyd, Alan Tracey, Matthew Berriman, W David Smith, George F J Newlands, Eve Hanks, Eileen Devaney, Collette Britton
Some nematode species are economically important parasites of livestock, while others are important human pathogens causing some of the most important neglected tropical diseases. In both humans and animals, anthelmintic drug administration is the main control strategy, but the emergence of drug-resistant worms has stimulated the development of alternative control approaches. Among these, vaccination is considered to be a sustainable and cost effective strategy. Currently, Barbervax® for the ruminant strongylid Haemonchus contortus is the only registered subunit vaccine for a nematode parasite, although a vaccine for the human hookworm Necator americanus is undergoing clinical trials (HOOKVAC consortium)...
March 10, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Gajenthiran Sinnathamby, Gemma Henderson, Saleh Umair, Peter Janssen, Ross Bland, Heather Simpson
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192164.].
2018: PloS One
Zora Váradyová, Dominika Mravčáková, Michal Babják, Magdalena Bryszak, Ľubomíra Grešáková, Klaudia Čobanová, Svetlana Kišidayová, Iveta Plachá, Alžbeta Königová, Adam Cieslak, Sylwester Slusarczyk, Lukasz Pecio, Mariusz Kowalczyk, Marián Várady
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus is a pathogenic organism resistant to several anthelmintics. This study assessed the efficacy of a medicinal herbal mixture (Herbmix) and organic zinc, as an essential trace element for the proper functioning of both unspecific and specific immune defensive mechanisms, against experimental infections with H. contortus in lambs. All lambs were infected orally with approximately 5000 third-stage larvae of a strain of H...
March 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
María Elena González-Sánchez, Montserrat Cuquerella, José M Alunda
Haemonchus contortus is the most pathogenic gastrointestinal helminth of small ruminants. Natural or experimental repeated infections and several native antigens confer a partially protective immune response but vaccination with subunit antigens has been elusive. Promising results have been obtained with a recombinant form of a somatic antigen (rHc23). In this paper we present the results obtained in vaccination trials in lambs using two dosages of rHc23 and standard adjuvants. Six-months old Manchego females lambs were vaccinated with rHc23 (50 or 200 μg/dose) adjuvanted with 1mL aluminum hydroxide on days -42, -28 and -14 or with 200 μg/dose rHc23 and 5 mg Quil A on days -49, -28 and -7...
2018: PloS One
Priyo Sambodo, Joko Prastowo, Kurniasih Kurniasih, Sudarmanto Indarjulianto
Aim: Haemonchus contortus is a major problem in small ruminants in Indonesia. The frequent use of the anthelmintic drugs has given rise to drug-resistant populations which increase the need for new anthelminthic compounds, particularly from endemic plants. This study evaluated the in vitro effects of Biophytum petersianum crude aqueous extract (BAE) as an anthelmintic compound against H. contortus adult worm isolated from goats. Materials and Methods: Adult worm collected from naturally infected abomasums were obtained from slaughtered goats on the day of slaughter...
January 2018: Veterinary World
José E García, Leónides Gómez, Pedro Mendoza-de-Gives, José L Rivera-Corona, Jair Millán-Orozco, Juan A Ascacio, Miguel A Medina, Miguel Mellado
An in vitro study was conducted to determine the anthelminthic activity of hydro-methanolic extracts of Larrea tridentata on sheathed and exsheathed larvae of Haemonchus contortus. Larvae of the parasite were incubated at 20-25 °C in hydro-methanolic extracts at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL for 24, 48, or 72 h. Ivermectin and water were the positive and negative controls, respectively. Total phenolic compounds of leaves of L. tridentata were 97.88 ± 10.45 mg/g of dry matter. Other compounds detected in this shrub by HPLC-mass spectrometry were sesamin, galocatechin, peonidin 3-O rutinoside, methyl galangin, epigallocatechin 7-O-glucuronide, and epigalocatechin...
February 9, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Andressa Soldera-Silva, Melina Seyfried, Luciano Henrique Campestrini, Selma Faria Zawadzki-Baggio, Alessandro Pelegrine Minho, Marcelo Beltrão Molento, Juliana Bello Baron Maurer
The aim of this study was to characterize the extracts and fractions of Persea americana Mill. (Avocado) seeds and to determine the composition and the in vitro anthelmintic activity against third-stage larvae (L3) of Haemonchus contortus. The fresh (F) and dried (H) avocado seeds (PA) were subjected to extraction with hot water (W-PAF, W-PAH), ethanol (E-PAF, E-PAH) or methanol 70% (v/v), and partition with solvents of increasing polarity [n-hexane (H-PAF, H-PAH), chloroform (C-PAF, C-PAH), ethyl acetate (Ea-PAF, Ea-PAH), and n-butanol (B-PAF, B-PAH)], yielding a total of 14 extracts/fractions...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Jessica Quijada, Christopher Drake, Elodie Gaudin, Ramzi El Korso, Herve Hoste, Irene Mueller-Harvey
The variable anthelmintic efficacy of condensed tannins (CT) against gastrointestinal nematodes may depend on CT concentration, composition or fate along the digestive tract. We analyzed CT concentration and composition by acetone-HCl-butanol and thiolysis coupled to HPLC-MS in digesta and feces of lambs. Lambs had been infected with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis and received sainfoin pellets and hazelnut skins of contrasting prodelphinidin/procyanidin ratios. The digesta and feces had lower CT concentrations than the original feeds, but similar concentration patterns across the digestive compartments...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Gajenathirin Sinnathamby, Gemma Henderson, Saleh Umair, Peter Janssen, Ross Bland, Heather Simpson
Culture-independent methods were used to study the microbiota of adult worms, third-stage larvae and eggs, both in faeces and laid in vitro, of Haemonchus contortus, a nematode parasite of the abomasa of ruminants which is a major cause of production losses and ill-health. Bacteria were identified in eggs, the female reproductive tract and the gut of adult and third-stage larvae (L3). PCR amplification of 16S rRNA sequences, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone libraries were used to compare the composition of the microbial communities of the different life-cycle stages of the parasites, as well as parasites and their natural environments...
2018: PloS One
Lucie Raisová Stuchlíková, Petra Matoušková, Ivan Vokřál, Jiří Lamka, Barbora Szotáková, Anna Sečkařová, Diana Dimunová, Linh Thuy Nguyen, Marián Várady, Lenka Skálová
Haemonchus contortus (family Trichostrongylidae, Nematoda), a hematophagous gastrointestinal parasite found in small ruminants, has a great ability to develop resistance to anthelmintic drugs. We studied the biotransformation of the three benzimidazole anthelmintics: albendazole (ABZ), ricobendazole (albendazole S-oxide; RCB) and flubendazole (FLU) in females and males of H. contortus in both a susceptible ISE strain and resistant IRE strain. The ex vivo cultivation of living nematodes in culture medium with or without the anthelmintics was used...
January 27, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Melanie Abongwa, Djordje S Marjanovic, James G Tipton, Fudan Zheng, Richard J Martin, Sasa M Trailovic, Alan P Robertson
Zolvix® is a recently introduced anthelmintic drench containing monepantel as the active ingredient. Monepantel is a positive allosteric modulator of DEG-3/DES-2 type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in several nematode species. The drug has been reported to produce hypercontraction of Caenorhabditis elegans and Haemonchus contortus somatic muscle. We investigated the effects of monepantel on nAChRs from Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes...
December 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Javaid Ali Gadahi, Muhammad Ehsan, Shuai Wang, Zhenchao Zhang, Ruofeng Yan, Xiaokai Song, Lixin Xu, Xiangrui Li
ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are members of the Ras-related small GTPase family involved in the vesicular trafficking regulation. Immunomodulatory effects of these proteinson host cell arenot being addressed yet. H. contortus small GTPase ADP-ribosylation 1 gene (HcARF1) was cloned and recombinant protein of HcARF1 (rHcARF1) was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Binding activity of rHcARF1 to goat PBMCs was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and its immunomudulatory effects on cytokine secretion, cell proliferation, cell migration and nitric oxide production (NO) were observed by co-incubation of rHcARF1...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
Ewa Jankowska, Lisa M Parsons, Xuezheng Song, Dave F Smith, Richard D Cummings, John F Cipollo
Here we present a Caenorhabditis elegans N-glycan shotgun array. This nematode serves as a model organism for many areas of biology including but not limited to tissue development, host-pathogen interactions, innate immunity, and genetics. C. elegans N-glycans contain structural motifs that are also found in other nematodes as well as trematodes and lepidopteran species. Glycan binding toxins that interact with C. elegans glycoconjugates also do so with some agriculturally relevant species, such as Haemonchus contortus, Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichoplusia ni...
January 9, 2018: Glycobiology
Wanlapa Chaibangyang, Amornrat Geadkaew-Krenc, Suksiri Vichasri-Grams, Smarn Tesana, Rudi Grams
Calreticulin (CALR), a multifunctional protein thoroughly researched in mammals, comprises N-, P-, and C-domain and has roles in calcium homeostasis, chaperoning, clearance of apoptotic cells, cell adhesion, and also angiogenesis. In this study, the spatial and temporal expression patterns of the Opisthorchis viverrini CALR gene were analyzed, and calcium-binding and chaperoning properties of recombinant O. viverrini CALR (OvCALR) investigated. OvCALR mRNA was detected from the newly excysted juvenile to the mature parasite by RT-PCR while specific antibodies showed a wide distribution of the protein...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Andrew C Kotze, Angela Ruffell, Jane Lamb, Tim P Elliott
There is an increasing interest in the use of combination anthelmintic products for the control of intestinal nematode parasites of livestock. These products are seen as attractive options for parasite control in the face of increasing levels of resistance to the different anthelmintic drug classes, as well as a means to slow the rate at which resistance develops to the individual components of the combination. With the recent introduction of an anthelmintic combination product containing abamectin and monepantel (at 1:12...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Melissa M George, Lorraine Lopez-Soberal, Bob E Storey, Sue B Howell, Ray M Kaplan
Motility is a commonly used in vitro phenotype for assessing anthelmintic activity of candidate compounds, and for detecting anthelmintic resistance in nematodes. Third-stage larvae (L3) of parasitic nematodes are commonly used in motility-based assays because L3 are simple to obtain and can remain viable in storage for extended periods. To improve the measurement of motility of microscopic stages of nematodes, our laboratory developed the Worminator, which quantitatively measures motility of parasites. Using the Worminator, we compared the dose-response characteristics of several avermectin/milbemycin (AM) compounds using L3 from both AM-susceptible and AM-resistant Cooperia spp...
December 18, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Sandra Alves Araújo, Alexandra Martins Dos Santos Soares, Carolina Rocha Silva, Eduardo Bezerra Almeida Júnior, Cláudia Quintino Rocha, André Teixeira da Silva Ferreira, Jonas Perales, Livio M Costa-Júnior
Gastrointestinal nematodes are a significant concern for animal health and well-being, and anthelmintic treatment is mainly performed through the use of chemical products. However, bioactive compounds produced by plants have shown promise for development as novel anthelmintics. The aim of this study is to assess the anthelmintic activity of protein fractions from Spigelia anthelmia on the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus. Plant parts were separated into leaves, stems and roots, washed with distilled water, freeze-dried and ground into a fine powder...
2017: PloS One
Ashenafi Assefa, Yisehak Kechero, Taye Tolemariam, Assefa Kebede, Eshetu Shumi
Condensed tannins (CT) extracted from Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica, and Celtis toka browses were used to evaluate their anthelmintic effect on different developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus. To achieve this objective, various serial concentrations of each CT extract of the foliages were used to test adult motility, inhibition of egg hatchability, and larval development. The fodders were selected based on their multipurpose advantage and accessibility to use as fodder for livestock in the low lands of the Gambella region...
December 12, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
C A Sandoval-Castro
We would like to comment on a recent paper by Hernandez-Bolio et al. (2017, Nat. Prod. Res. DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1317774) where an extract free of condensed tannin (CT) was evaluated and concluded that Lysiloma latisiliquum CT does not have a role in its anthelmintic (AH) activity. This letter discusses the AH potential of L. latisiliquum based on previously published evidence of a partial role of CT using different AH assays and Haemonchus contortus isolates. Because the experimental design employed in the above-mentioned paper did not allow a clear-cut conclusion regarding the role of CT, this suggests that a specific experiment must be designed to confirm or reject the involvement of CT fraction(s) on L...
December 11, 2017: Natural Product Research
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