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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27238004/the-pathophysiology-ecology-and-epidemiology-of-haemonchus-contortus-infection-in-small-ruminants
#1
R B Besier, L P Kahn, N D Sargison, J A Van Wyk
The parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus occurs commonly in small ruminants, and it is an especially significant threat to the health and production of sheep and goats in tropical and warm temperate zones. The main signs of disease (haemonchosis) relate to its blood-feeding activity, leading to anaemia, weakness and frequently to deaths, unless treatment is provided. Due to the high biotic potential, large burdens of H. contortus may develop rapidly when environmental conditions favour the free-living stages, and deaths may occur with little prior warning...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26387156/-the-energy-function-of-rat-cardiac-mitochondria-under-artificial-hypobiosis
#2
S D Melnytchuk, S V Khyzhnyak, V S Morozova, L I Stepanova, A A Umanskaya, V M Voitsitsky
We investigated the energy activity of mitochondria from rat cardiomyocytes under the artificial carbon dioxide hypobiosis, which led to physiological changes in the organism (the decrease of body temperature, the reduction of heart rate, etc.). The respiratory and phosphorylation activities in mitochondria of cardiomyocytes is reduced when using two oxidation substrates (succinate and malate), which characterize the rate of the oxygen consumption by the mitochondria. The partial uncoupling of the oxidation and phosphorylation processes when using the malate unlike succinate was established...
2015: Fiziolohichnyĭ Zhurnal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25229178/the-parasitic-phase-of-ostertagia-ostertagi-quantification-of-the-main-life-history-traits-through-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
S H Verschave, J Vercruysse, E Claerebout, H Rose, E R Morgan, J Charlier
Predictive models of parasite life cycles increase our understanding of how parasite epidemiology is influenced by global changes and can be used to support decisions for more targeted worm control. Estimates of parasite population dynamics are needed to parameterize such models. The aim of this study was to quantify the main life history traits of Ostertagia ostertagi, economically the most important nematode of cattle in temperate regions. The main parameters determining parasite density during the parasitic phase of O...
December 2014: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24319975/-activity-of-nad-h-generating-enzymes-and-cytochrome-content-in-mitochondria-from-rat-liver-and-myocardium-under-artificial-hypobiosis
#4
S D Mel'nychuk, S V Khyzhniak, V S Morozova, V M Voĭtsits'kyĭ
The modification particularities of the structural and functional state of the inner mitochondrial membrane of the rat liver and myocardium were observed in conditions of artificial hypobiosis, which was created using hypoxic and hypercapnic gas medium with a body temperature reduction. Under the artificial hypobiosis the activity of NAD.H-generating enzymes of the Krebs cycle of the liver mitochondria decreases. The established changes of the enzymes activity and cytochromes content of the inner mitochondrial membrane indicate the decrease of the oxidative activity of a respiratory chain, that can be limited on a terminal (cytochrome c oxidase) site and leads to the decrease (by 49% at an average) of the H+-ATPase activity of the liver mitochondria...
July 2013: Ukraïnsʹkyĭ Biokhimichnyĭ Z︠h︡urnal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24163982/-ornithine-decarboxylase-in-mammalian-organs-and-tissues-at-hibernation-and-artificial-hypobiosis
#5
O S Logvinovich, G E Aksenova
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17.) is a short-lived and dynamically regulated enzyme of polyamines biosynthesis. Regulation of functional, metabolic and proliferative state of organs and tissues involves the modifications of the ODC enzymatic activity. The organ-specific changes in ODC activity were revealed in organs and tissues (liver, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, and intestinal mucosa) of hibernating mammals - squirrels Spermophilus undulates - during the hibernating season. At that, a positive correlation was detected between the decline and recovery of the specialized functions of organs and tissues and the respective modifications of ODC activity during hibernation bouts...
May 2013: Zhurnal Obshcheĭ Biologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22150274/lipids-in-mammalian-hibernation-and-artificial-hypobiosis
#6
REVIEW
I K Kolomiytseva
Membrane lipids-phospholipids, fatty acids, and cholesterol-participate in thermal adaptation of ectotherms (bacteria, amphibians, reptiles, fishes) mainly via changes in membrane viscosity caused by the degree of fatty acids unsaturation, cholesterol/phospholipids ratio, and phospholipid composition. Studies of thermal adaptation of endotherms (mammals and birds) revealed the regulatory role of lipids in hibernation. Cholesterol and fatty acids participate in regulation of the parameters of torpor, gene expression, and activity of enzymes of lipid metabolism...
December 2011: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21607689/transcriptional-differences-between-hypobiotic-and-non-hypobiotic-preadult-larvae-of-the-bovine-lungworm-dictyocaulus-viviparus
#7
Eva-Maria Laabs, Thomas Schnieder, Christina Strube
The survival of the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus, one of the most important parasites in cattle, inside the host is ensured by arrested development during adverse environmental conditions, commonly referred to as hypobiosis. In the present study, a subtractive hybridization approach was used to compare the transcription profiles of hypobiotic and non-hypobiotic larvae (L5hyp and L5, respectively). Thereby, 75 L5hyp-enriched and 58 L5-enriched representative ESTs (rESTs) were identified. Subsequent sequence similarity search revealed that 28 L5hyp-rESTs and 11 L5-rESTs were homologous to known transcripts, whereas 47 L5hyp-rESTs and 47 L5-rESTs showed no homologies with published sequences, thus possibly representing parasitic or even Dictyocaulus-specific genes...
January 2012: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21510934/gtp-cyclohydrolase-and-development-in-teladorsagia-circumcincta-and-dictyocaulus-viviparus-nematoda-strongylida
#8
Rachael H Baker, Sandra Buschbaum, Jacqueline B Matthews, Iain J McKendrick, Thomas Schnieder, Christina Strube, Alasdair J Nisbet
GTP-Cyclohydrolase (GTP-CH) is necessary for the production of tetrahydrobiopterin, a required cofactor for the three aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and nitric oxide synthases. The gene encoding GTP-CH is transcribed at high levels in infective third larval stages of a number of parasitic trichostrongylid nematodes. We explore the potential role of GTP-CH within the processes of nematode development and environmentally-induced hypobiosis. For two species of parasitic nematode that are of major economic and welfare importance to livestock in temperate regions, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Dictyocaulus viviparus, we have demonstrated that each of the pre-parasitic larval stages transcribe high mean levels of cat-4 (the gene encoding GTP-CH)...
August 2011: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21077832/lipids-of-nuclear-fractions-from-neurons-and-glia-of-rat-neocortex-under-conditions-of-artificial-hypobiosis
#9
I K Kolomiytseva, L N Markevich, D A Ignat'ev, O V Bykova
Lipid contents were studied in tissue and nuclei isolated from neurons and glia of neocortex of rats under conditions of normothermia and in the state of artificial hypobiosis caused by hypothermia-hypoxia-hypercapnia. Compared to the neocortex tissue, both nuclear fractions were fivefold impoverished in phospholipids and cholesterol and strongly enriched with mono- and diglycerides and fatty acids. The nuclear fractions from neurons and glia contained similar amounts of phospholipids, and only the cardiolipin content in the neuronal nuclei was lower than in the glial nuclei...
September 2010: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21077831/ornithine-decarboxylase-activity-in-rat-organs-and-tissues-under-artificial-hypobiosis
#10
G E Aksyonova, O S Logvinovich, L A Fialkovskaya, V N Afanasyev, D A Ignat'ev, I K Kolomiytseva
The influence of hypothermia-hypoxia-hypercapnia on ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17) activities in rat organs and tissues and also on the thymocyte distribution throughout the cell cycle stages was studied. The state of artificial hypobiosis in rats on decrease in the body temperature to 14.4-18.0°C during 3.0-3.5 h was accompanied by drops in the ODC activities in the neocortex and liver by 50-60% and in rapidly proliferating tissues (thymus, spleen, and small intestine mucosa) by 80% of the control value...
September 2010: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20837381/nasal-bots-a-fascinating-world
#11
Carlos E Angulo-Valadez, Philip J Scholl, Ramón Cepeda-Palacios, Philippe Jacquiet, Philippe Dorchies
Larvae causing obligatory myiasis are numerous and they may affect cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues, wounds, nasopharyngeal cavities (nasal bots), internal organs and the digestive tract (bots) of domestic and wild animals and humans as well. Nasal bots belong to the Family Oestridae, Subfamily Oestrinae, which includes several important genera: Oestrus, Kirkioestrus, and Gedoelstia infecting Artiodactyla (except Cervidae) in Africa and Eurasia, Cephenemyia and Pharyngomyia infecting Cervidae, Rhinoestrus infecting horses, Cephalopina infecting camels, Pharyngobolus infecting African elephants, and Tracheomyia infecting Australian kangaroos...
November 24, 2010: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19915637/-endogenous-hypometabolic-hypothermic-factors-and-their-possible-application-to-life-in-the-cold
#12
REVIEW
L I Kramarova, R Kh Ziganshin, E N Gakhova
Hibernation is a natural model of Tolerance of hypometabolism, hypothermia, hypoxia, bradycardia, and longterm hypophagia. Here, we review recent advances in the isolation and identification of some natural endogenous regulators from hibernating and cold-adapted animals: proteins, peptides, and nonpeptide substances. We also discuss the employment of molecular, biochemical, and physiological bases of natural hypobiosis in ecology, cryomedicine, and the cryopreservation of genetic material from rare and endangered species...
September 2009: Bioorganicheskaia Khimiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19796644/structural-and-functional-characterisation-of-the-fork-head-transcription-factor-encoding-gene-hc-daf-16-from-the-parasitic-nematode-haemonchus-contortus-strongylida
#13
Min Hu, James B Lok, Najju Ranjit, Holman C Massey, Paul W Sternberg, Robin B Gasser
Despite their phylogenetic diversity, parasitic nematodes share attributes of longevity and developmental arrest (=hypobiosis) with free-living nematodes at key points in their life cycles, particularly in larval stages responsible for establishing infection in the host. Insulin-like signalling plays crucial roles in the regulation of life span and arrest (=dauer formation) in the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Insulin-like signalling in C. elegans negatively regulates the fork head boxO (FoxO) transcription factor encoded by daf-16, which is linked to initiating a dauer-specific pattern of gene expression...
March 15, 2010: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19604498/stage-dependent-transcriptional-changes-and-characterization-of-paramyosin-of-the-bovine-lungworm-dictyocaulus-viviparus
#14
C Strube, S Buschbaum, G von Samson-Himmelstjerna, T Schnieder
The bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus is of major economic importance in cattle farming in the temperate zones. The invertebrate protein paramyosin is one of the main components of muscle thick filaments but can also exhibit immunomodulatory functions. It represents a promising vaccine candidate in parasitic helminths. In this study, D. viviparus paramyosin (DvPmy) was characterized on the transcriptional as well as genomic level. The identified genomic sequence comprises 19 introns compared to only 10 introns in the Caenorhabditis elegans orthologue...
December 2009: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18642714/creation-of-a-gelatin-based-solution-for-preservation-of-leukocytes
#15
E P Svedentsov, E S Stepanova, T V Tumanova, O O Zaytseva, O N Solomina
A new effective and available method is proposed for preservation of human blood leukocytes at supercooling temperature (-10 degrees C). The method consists in induction of cold hypobiosis under protection of an original antifreeze protecting solution containing glycerol (cryoprotector), mexidol (antioxidant and membrane stabilizer), and gelatin preparation (modegel or gelatinol) as the solvent. No washing of the solution from the biological object before its intravenous injection is needed; the solution preserves morphological integrity of cells and their functional activity at a high level for 12 days...
October 2007: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18454350/arrested-development-of-sheep-strongyles-onset-and-resumption-under-field-conditions-of-central-europe
#16
Iva Langrová, Katerina Makovcová, Jaroslav Vadlejch, Ivana Jankovská, Miloslav Petrtýl, Jan Fechtner, Petr Keil, Andriy Lytvynets, Marie Borkovcová
Two tracer tests were conducted between August 2004 and March 2007 at an ecological farm in western Bohemia. The first tracer test was performed for the summer-autumn grazing period (onset of arrested development), the second for spring (resumption of arrested development). In the first tracer test, the percentage of nematodes arresting development over the winter months reached 87.7% for Teladorsagia circumcincta, 66.7% for Haemonchus contortus, 89.9% for Nematodirus filicollis, 21.6% for Trichostrongylus axei, and 23...
July 2008: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18182366/to-delay-once-or-twice-the-effect-of-hypobiosis-and-free-living-stages-on-the-stability-of-host-parasite-interactions
#17
Sabrina Gaba, Sébastien Gourbière
The life cycle of many endoparasites can be delayed by free-living infective stages and a developmental arrestment in the host referred to as hypobiosis. We investigated the effects of hypobiosis and its interaction with delay in the free-living stages on host-parasite population dynamics by expanding a previous attempt by Dobson & Hudson. When the parasite life cycle does not include free-living stages, hypobiosis destabilizes the host-parasite interactions, irrespective of the assumptions about the regulation of the host population dynamics...
August 6, 2008: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17725030/-biochemical-strategy-of-survival-of-the-freshwater-mollusc-lymnaea-stagnalis-at-near-zero-temperatures
#18
M V Karanova, E N Gakhova
Effect of an autumn-winter decrease of the environmental temperature on changes of the content of free amino acids and reducing sugars was studied in tissue fluids of the freshwater mollusc L. stagnalis. At a decrease of the temperature to 4 and 0 degrees C at the autumn period, concentration of free alanine rose several times; an increase of histidine, glutamate, glycine, and serine concentrations was less pronounced. Accumulation of methionine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine was revealed at 0 degree C...
May 2007: Zhurnal Evoliutsionnoĭ Biokhimii i Fiziologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17558520/genetic-regulation-of-arrested-development-in-nematodes-are-age-1-and-daf-gene-orthologs-present-in-dictyocaulus-viviparus
#19
Christina Strube, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Thomas Schnieder
In opposite to the free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the genetic regulation of hypobiosis or inhibited or arrested development in parasitic nematodes is completely unknown. In C. elegans, the daf-genes or the age-1 gene are of major importance in signaling pathways regulating arrested development. To investigate if orthologs of these genes are present in the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus, a PCR analysis with gene-specific primer combinations was performed. No orthologs of the age-1 or daf-genes could be identified in D...
September 2007: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17319122/output-of-gastrointestinal-nematode-eggs-in-the-feces-of-captive-gazelles-gazella-dama-mhorr-gazella-cuvieri-and-gazella-dorcas-neglecta-in-a-semiarid-region-of-southeastern-spain
#20
Juana Ortiz, Rocío Ruiz de Ybáñez, Teresa Abaigar, Marina Goyena, Magdalena Garijo, Gerardo Espeso, Mar Cano
Feces from 62 captive African gazelles, including Mhorr gazelles (Gazella dama mhorr), Cuvier's gazelles (Gazella cuvieri), and Dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas neglecta), were examined over the course of a year to quantitate nematode egg excretion patterns. Strongyloides sp. eggs appeared only in G. dama during the rainy season. Trichostrongylidae egg excretion showed a marked seasonal variation, with very low levels during the dry and hot period, a finding that is probably attributable to hypobiosis of the predominant species (Camelostrongylus mentulatus)...
September 2006: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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