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Fitore Kusari, Alan M O'Doherty, Nikolas J Hodges, Marcin W Wojewodzic
Here we interrogated, using three separate but complementary experimental approaches, the impact of vitamin B12 availability and methotrexate exposure on Daphnia magna, which we hypothesised should have an opposite effect on One carbon metabolism (OCM). OCM is a vital biological process supporting a variety of physiological processes, including DNA methylation. Contrary to mammalian models, this process remains largely unexplored in invertebrates. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of OCM short-term alteration on the fitness and epigenome of the keystone species, Daphnia...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Marco Parolini, Beatrice De Felice, Claudia Ferrario, Noelia Salgueiro-González, Sara Castiglioni, Antonio Finizio, Paolo Tremolada
Several monitoring studies have shown that benzoylecgonine (BE) is the main illicit drug residue commonly measured in the aquatic system worldwide. Few studies have investigated the potential toxicity of this molecule towards invertebrate and vertebrate aquatic non-target organisms focusing on effects at low levels of the biological organization, but no one has assessed the consequences at higher ones. Thus, the present study was aimed at investigating the toxicity of a 48-h exposure to two concentrations of BE, similar to those found in aquatic ecosystems (0...
September 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Yi Chen, Yan Yang, Haojun Zhu, Jörg Romeis, Yunhe Li, Yufa Peng, Xiuping Chen
Cry1C is a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal protein and it can be produced by transgenic rice lines developed in China. Cladocera species are common aquatic arthropods that may be exposed to insecticidal proteins produced in Bt-transgenic plants through ingestion of pollen or crop residues in water. As the cladoceran Daphnia magna plays an important role in the aquatic food chain, it is important to assess the possible effects of Bt crops to this species. To evaluate the safety of the Cry1C protein for D...
September 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Andrea Paskuliakova, Ted McGowan, Steve Tonry, Nicolas Touzet
Landfill leachate treatment is an ongoing challenge in the wastewater management of existing sanitary landfill sites due to the complex nature of leachates and their heavy pollutant load. There is a continuous interest in treatment biotechnologies with expected added benefits for resource recovery; microalgal bioremediation is seen as promising in this regard. Toxicity reduction of landfill leachate subsequent to phycoremediation was investigated in this study. The treatment eventuated from the growth of the ammonia tolerant microalgal strain Chlamydomonas sp...
September 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Justin B Lack, Lawrence J Weider, Punidan D Jeyasingh
Resting eggs banks are unique windows that allow us to directly observe shifts in population genetics, and phenotypes over time as natural populations evolve. Although a variety of planktonic organisms also produce resting stages, the keystone freshwater consumer, Daphnia, is a well-known model for paleogenetics and resurrection ecology. Nevertheless, paleogenomic investigations are limited largely because resting eggs do not contain enough DNA for genomic sequencing. In fact, genomic studies even on extant populations include a laborious preparatory phase of batch culturing dozens of individuals to generate sufficient genomic DNA...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
Alla Khosrovyan, Tomas Angel DelValls, Angel Luque, Inmaculada Riba
The impacts of a hypothetical CO2 gas leak from freshwater sediments on the survival and reproduction of freshwater flea Daphnia magna were analyzed. Another objective was to assess the performance of standard toxicity testing protocols for CO2-induced acidification research in freshwaters. Four pH levels (7.5, 7.0, 6.5, and 6.0) and two sediments with different contamination level were tested. The results revealed that the D. magna are susceptible to a gradual but relatively rapid CO2 enrichment of the water column causing a change from circumneutral to acidic conditions...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Erica M Rutter, H T Banks, Gerald A LeBlanc, Kevin B Flores
We continue our efforts in modeling Daphnia magna, a species of water flea, by proposing a continuously structured population model incorporating density-dependent and density-independent fecundity and mortality rates. We collected new individual-level data to parameterize the individual demographics relating food availability and individual daphnid growth. Our model is fit to experimental data using the generalized least-squares framework, and we use cross-validation and Akaike Information Criteria to select hyper-parameters...
September 15, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Andrea L Conine, Daniel C Rearick, Marguerite A Xenopoulos, Paul C Frost
Variable sensitivity of organisms to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) caused by changes in physico-chemical variables in aquatic ecosystems is receiving increasing attention. Variables such as dissolved organic carbon, pH, light, the presence of algae and bacteria, dissolved oxygen and different ions have all been studied individually, but it is still unclear how these variables in combination alter AgNP toxicity in natural ecosystems. Here we examined AgNP toxicity on survival of wild-caught Daphnia using AgNP suspensions placed in water from several different lakes at the IISD-Experimental Lakes Area, which span a gradient of water quality parameters...
September 6, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Alison M Bell, Laura R Stein
Listen to the news and you are bound to hear that researchers are increasingly interested in the biological manifestations of trauma that reverberate through the generations. Research in this area can be controversial in the public realm, provoking societal issues about personal responsibility (are we really born free or are we born with the burden of our ancestors' experience?). It is also a touchy subject within evolutionary biology because it provokes concerns about Lamarckianism and general scepticism about the importance of extra-genetic inheritance (Laland et al...
September 11, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Vanessa Marzetz, Apostolos-Manuel Koussoroplis, Dominik Martin-Creuzburg, Maren Striebel, Alexander Wacker
Biodiversity can strongly influence trophic interactions. The nutritional quality of prey communities and how it is related to the prey diversity is suspected to be a major driver of biodiversity effects. As consumer growth can be co-limited by the supply of several biochemical components, biochemically diverse prey communities should promote consumer growth. Yet, there is no clear consensus on how prey specific diversity is linked to community biochemical diversity since previous studies have considered only single nutritional quality traits...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Brecht Laforce, Bert Masschaele, Matthieu N Boone, David Schaubroeck, Manuel Dierick, Bart Vekemans, Christophe Walgraeve, Colin R Janssen, Veerle Cnudde, Luc Van Hoorebeke, Laszlo Vincze
The Herakles 3D X-ray scanner is a unique and versatile instrument developed at Ghent University integrating X-ray µCT, XRF tomography and confocal XRF analysis in a single laboratory instrument. The three techniques are placed side by side on a large table in order to maximize the space available for each technique. This means no compromises were needed in order to fit the components close together. Hence, each end station of Herakles (µCT, XRF-CT and confocal XRF) represents the state-of-the-art of currently available laboratory techniques...
September 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Marine Laquaz, Christophe Dagot, Christine Bazin, Thérèse Bastide, Margaux Gaschet, Marie-Cécile Ploy, Yves Perrodin
Hospital and urban effluents are a source of diverse pollutants such as organic compounds, heavy metals, detergents, disinfectants, pharmaceuticals, and microorganisms resistant to antibiotics. Usually, these two types of effluent are mixed in the sewage network, but a pilot site in France now allows studying them separately or mixed to understand more about their characteristics and the phenomena that occur following their mixing. In this study, their ecotoxicity (Daphnia magna mobility, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata growth, Brachionus calyciflorus reproduction, and SOS Chromotest) and antibiotic resistance (integron quantification) were assessed during mixing and treatment steps...
September 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dan Li, Ran Bi, Hongxing Chen, Lei Mu, Lina Zhang, Qin Chen, Haibo Xie, Yongju Luo, Lingtian Xie
Risk assessing newly synthesized chemicals prior to their applications is extremely important, if we want to ensure substitution of risky chemicals with more benign ones. During the past two decades, many analogs of bisphenol A (BPA) have been manufactured, while their toxicity remains less studied. The aim of this study was to compare the acute toxicity of a synthesized lignin-derived BPA (LD-BP) with that of BPA in representative aquatic organisms including two algal species (Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliquus), a cladoceran species (Daphnia magna), and the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)...
September 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Qiaoqiong Tong, Mengmeng Zhang, Xiao Cao, Shanliang Xu, Danli Wang, Yunlong Zhao
Death-mediating proteases such as Caspases have been implicated in aging. Remarkably, active Caspase-3 can trigger widespread damage and degeneration, playing a key role in causing cell death. In order to explore the relationship between Caspase-3 and aging in Daphnia pulex, we cloned and analyzed the full-length cDNA sequence of its Caspase-3 gene. Both mRNA expression and activity of D. pulex Caspase-3 increased with age. Moreover, different forms of Caspase-3 appeared with aging. The expression of casp3-L was higher and decreased with age, while that of casp3-S was weak and increased with age, consistent with the trend in Caspase-3 activity...
August 31, 2017: Gene
Ariella Zehender, Melanie Bayer, Milena Bauer, Bettina Zeis, Anette Preiss, Dieter Maier
The Notch signaling pathway is highly conserved in all animal metazoa: upon Notch receptor activation, transcription of Notch target genes is turned on by an activator complex that centers on the transcription factor CSL. In the absence of signal, CSL assembles transcriptional repression complexes that display remarkable evolutionary diversity. The major antagonist of Notch signaling in insects named Hairless was originally identified in Drosophila melanogaster. It binds to the Drosophila CSL homologue Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] and recruits the two general co-repressors, Groucho and C-terminal binding protein...
August 31, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Hengxing Tang, Xinying Hou, Xiaofeng Xue, Rui Chen, Xuexia Zhu, Yuan Huang, Yafen Chen
Microcystis blooms are generally associated with zooplankton shifts by disturbing interspecific relationships. The influence of Microcystis on competitive dominance by different sized zooplanktons showed species-specific dependence. We evaluated the competitive responses of small Moina micrura and large Daphnia similoides to the presence of Microcystis using mixed diets comprising 0%, 20%, and 35% of toxic M. aeruginosa, and the rest of green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. No competitive exclusion occurred for the two species under the tested diet combinations...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Giovanni Libralato, Emilia Galdiero, Annarita Falanga, Rosa Carotenuto, Elisabetta de Alteriis, Marco Guida
Nano-based products are widespread in several sectors, including textiles, medical-products, cosmetics, paints and plastics. Nanosafety and safe-by-design are driving nanoparticle (NP) production and applications through NP functionalization (@NPs). Indeed, @NPs frequently present biological effects that differ from the parent material. This paper reviews the impact of quantum dots (QDs), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and polystyrene-cored NPs (PSNPs), evidencing the role of NP functionalization in toxicity definition...
August 31, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Katina I Spanier, Mieke Jansen, Ellen Decaestecker, Gert Hulselmans, Dörthe Becker, John K Colbourne, Luisa Orsini, Luc De Meester, Stein Aerts
Ecological genomics aims to understand the functional association between environmental gradients and the genes underlying adaptive traits. Many genes that are identified by genome-wide screening in ecologically relevant species lack functional annotations. Although gene functions can be inferred from sequence homology, such approaches have limited power. Here, we introduce ecological regulatory genomics by presenting an ontology-free gene prioritization method. Specifically, our method combines transcriptome profiling with high-throughput cis-regulatory sequence analysis in the water fleas Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna...
June 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Sara M Nedrich, Anthony Chappaz, Michelle L Hudson, Steven S Brown, G Allen Burton
Effects of hydrologic variability on reservoir biogeochemistry are relatively unknown, particularly for less studied metals like vanadium (V). Further, few studies have investigated the fate and effects of sediment-associated V to aquatic organisms in hydrologically variable systems. Our primary objective was to assess effects of hydrologic manipulation on speciation and toxicity of V (range: 635 to 1620mgkg(-1)) and other metals to Hyalella azteca and Daphnia magna. Sediments were collected from a reservoir located in a former mining area and microcosm experiments were conducted to emulate 7-day drying and inundation periods...
August 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Sebastian Kruppert, Martin Horstmann, Linda C Weiss, Ulrich Witzel, Clemens F Schaber, Stanislav N Gorb, Ralph Tollrian
The freshwater crustacean Daphnia is known for its ability to develop inducible morphological defences that thwart predators. These defences are developed only in the presence of predators and are realized as morphological shape alterations e.g. 'neckteeth' in D. pulex and 'crests' in D. longicephala. Both are discussed to hamper capture, handling or consumption by interfering with the predator's prey capture devices. Additionally, D. pulex and some other daphniids were found to armour-up and develop structural alterations resulting in increased carapace stiffness...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
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