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Zsófia Horváth, Csaba F Vad, Christian Preiler, Julia Birtel, Blake Matthews, Radka Ptáčníková, Robert Ptacnik
Lakes in the Alps represent a considerable fraction of nutrient-poor lakes in Central Europe, with unique biodiversity and ecosystem properties. Although some individual lakes are well-studied, less knowledge is available on large-scale patterns essential to generalise the understanding of their functioning. Here, we aimed to describe crustacean zooplankton communities (Cladocera, Copepoda) and identify their environmental drivers in the pelagic zone of 54 oligotrophic lakes in the montane region of the Alps (400-1200 m) in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland, covering a spatial scale of 650 km...
May 2, 2017: Inland Waters
Yalda Liaghati Mobarhan, Jochem Struppe, Blythe Fortier-McGill, André J Simpson
High-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR is a powerful technique that can provide metabolic profiles and structural constraints on intact biological and environmental samples such as cells, tissues and living organisms. However, centripetal force from fast spinning can lead to a loss of sample integrity. In analyses focusing on structural organization, metabolite compartmentalization or in vivo studies, it is critical to keep the sample intact. As such, there is growing interest in slow spinning studies that preserve sample longevity...
June 23, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Vasiliki S Thomaidi, Christos Matsoukas, Athanasios S Stasinakis
Ιn this study a probabilistic risk assessment was applied to investigate the environmental risks for the European aquatic environment associated with triclosan (TCS) occurrence in treated wastewater. The concentrations of TCS in effluents of European Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) were recorded through literature review, while toxicity data was collected for three groups of aquatic organisms (algae, Daphnia magna and fish). The ratio of Measured Environmental Concentration (MEC) and Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC), expressed as a Risk Quotient (RQ), was calculated for risk characterization, while Monte Carlo simulation was applied to quantify the associated uncertainty...
June 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jos Schilder, Maarten van Hardenbroek, Paul Bodelier, Emiliya P Kirilova, Markus Leuenberger, André F Lotter, Oliver Heiri
Methane-derived carbon, incorporated by methane-oxidizing bacteria, has been identified as a significant source of carbon in food webs of many lakes. By measuring the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ(13)C values) of particulate organic matter, Chironomidae and Daphnia spp. and their resting eggs (ephippia), we show that methane-derived carbon presently plays a relevant role in the food web of hypertrophic Lake De Waay, The Netherlands. Sediment geochemistry, diatom analyses and δ(13)C measurements of chironomid and Daphnia remains in the lake sediments indicate that oligotrophication and re-eutrophication of the lake during the twentieth century had a strong impact on in-lake oxygen availability...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Nicole R Hales, Drew R Schield, Audra L Andrew, Daren C Card, Matthew R Walsh, Todd A Castoe
Research has shown that a change in environmental conditions can alter the expression of traits during development (i.e., 'within-generation phenotypic plasticity') as well as induce heritable phenotypic responses that persist for multiple generations (i.e., 'transgenerational plasticity'). It has long been assumed that shifts in gene expression are tightly linked to observed trait responses at the phenotypic level. Yet, the manner in which organisms couple within- and trans-generational plasticity at the molecular level is unclear...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Margit Heinlaan, Marge Muna, Katre Juganson, Olena Oriekhova, Serge Stoll, Anne Kahru, Vera I Slaveykova
Despite the significant progress made in ecotoxicological research on nanoparticles (NPs), there is still very limited information available regarding the biological effects of certain types of NPs such as Co3O4 and Mn2O3. Only a couple of studies provide data on their impact on aquatic organisms whereas, alarmingly, these NPs have been proposed to have high toxicity potential. In addition, more data are needed to determine whether the adverse effects the metal NPs induce on aquatic organisms are rather due to their chemical or particulate nature...
June 6, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Carole Di Poi, Katherine Costil, Valérie Bouchart, Marie-Pierre Halm-Lemeille
Despite a growing scientific attention on ecological impact of emerging pollutants (EPs) such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides, knowledge gaps remain regarding mixture toxicity and effects on aquatic organisms. Several EPs were screened in seawater (Normandy, France), and the ecotoxicity of five compounds, chosen on their occurrence in ecosystems and use worldwide, was assessed and were the biocides methylparaben (MP) and triclosan (TCS), a pesticide degradation product (AMPA), and the pharmaceuticals venlafaxine (VEN) and carbamazepine (CBZ)...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Clayton E Cressler, Stefan Bengtson, William A Nelson
Individual differences in genetics, age, or environment can cause tremendous differences in individual life-history traits. This individual heterogeneity generates demographic heterogeneity at the population level, which is predicted to have a strong impact on both ecological and evolutionary dynamics. However, we know surprisingly little about the sources of individual heterogeneity for particular taxa or how different sources scale up to impact ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Here we experimentally study the individual heterogeneity that emerges from both genetic and nongenetic sources in a species of freshwater zooplankton across a large gradient of food quality...
July 2017: American Naturalist
Kristien I Brans, Mieke Jansen, Joost Vanoverbeke, Nedim Tüzün, Robby Stoks, Luc De Meester
Worldwide, urbanization leads to tremendous anthropogenic environmental alterations, causing strong selection pressures on populations of animals and plants. Although a key feature of urban areas is their higher temperature ("urban heat islands"), adaptive thermal evolution in organisms inhabiting urban areas has rarely been studied. We tested for evolution of a higher heat tolerance (CTMAX ) in urban populations of the water flea Daphnia magna, a keystone grazer in freshwater ecosystems, by carrying out a common garden experiment at two temperatures (20 °C and 24 °C) with genotypes of 13 natural populations ordered along a well-defined urbanization gradient...
June 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
Siddiq Akbar, Jingjing Du, Hong Lin, Xiangshi Kong, Shucun Sun, Xingjun Tian
Cyanobacterial and zooplankton inducible defenses are important but understudied process that regulate the trophic interactions of freshwater ecosystem. Daphnia due to its large size is considered an important zooplankton with the high potential to control cyanobacterial blooms. It has been shown that Daphnia through maternal induction transfer tolerance to their next generation against Microcystis toxicity. Maternal induction has been investigated in different Daphnia species without considering phenotypic plasticity of prey...
June 2017: Harmful Algae
Roberta Croce, Filippo Cinà, Anna Lombardo, Gregory Crispeyn, Claudia Ileana Cappelli, Matteo Vian, Simone Maiorana, Emilio Benfenati, Diego Baderna
Dyes are widely used in various sectors and can be released into the environment where they persist for a long time because of their high stability to light or temperature and their resistance to environmental degradation. Dyes are often poorly characterized and toxicological/ecotoxicological data are available only for a few. These features, coupled with their toxicity, make dyes a possible source of ecological concern, particularly for freshwater aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, new data may be very useful for their risk assessment...
June 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Martynas Tichonovas, Edvinas Krugly, Dalia Jankunaite, Viktoras Racys, Dainius Martuzevicius
A bench-scale advanced oxidation (AO) reactor was investigated for the degradation of six pollutants (2-naphthol, phenol, oxalic acid, phthalate, methylene blue, and D-glucose) in a model wastewater at with the aim to test opportunities for the further upscale to industrial applications. Six experimental conditions were designed to completely examine the experimental reactor, including photolysis, photocatalysis, ozonation, photolytic ozonation, catalytic ozonation, and photocatalytic ozonation. The stationary catalyst construction was made from commercially available TiO2 nanopowder by mounting it on a glass support and subsequently characterized for morphology (X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy) as well as durability...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Guilherme Dilarri, Carlos Renato Corso
Waste from textile industries can severely harm the environment. Dyes are the main residues of these effluents. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is already known to be an efficient adsorbent for the removal of dyes. However, the lack of applicability and limitation of the use of cell biomass in an industrial treatment makes it impossible to apply them. Thus the aim of this work was to immobilize S. cerevisiae in cross-linked chitosan beads by two different techniques (contact immobilization and encapsulation in the polymer matrix), proposing two new materials for adsorption...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Technology
Beata Bober, Jan Bialczyk
Cyanobacterial blooms are undesirable for ecological and health reasons. While Woronichinia naegeliana is a cyanobacterial species that appears frequently in freshwater, information about it is limited. An evaluation of its toxicity was conducted via tests based on the crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Daphnia pulex. The greatest effect of the aqueous extract obtained from W. naegeliana cells was observed for T. platyurus. The denoted semi-lethal concentration (LC50) after 24 h of exposure was 0.99 mg of dry weight (d...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
Daiane Tomacheski, Michele Pittol, Douglas Naue Simões, Vanda Ferreira Ribeiro, Ruth Marlene Campomanes Santana
In order to reduce the level of transmission of diseases caused by bacteria and fungi, the development of antimicrobial additives for use in personal care, hygiene products, clothing and others has increased. Many of these additives are based on metals such as silver and titanium. The disposal of these products in the environment has raised concerns pertaining to their potential harmfulness for beneficial organisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the shape, surface chemistry, size and carrier of three additives containing silver and one with titanium dioxide (TiO2) on microcrustacean survival...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Louise M Stevenson, Katherine E Krattenmaker, Erica Johnson, Alexandra J Bowers, Adeyemi S Adeleye, Edward McCauley, Roger M Nisbet
Daphnia in the natural environment experience fluctuations in algal food supply, with periods when algal populations bloom and seasons when Daphnia have very little algal food. Standardized chronic toxicity tests, used for ecological risk assessment, dictate that Daphnia must be fed up to 400 times more food than they would experience in the natural environment (outside of algal blooms) in order for a toxicity test to be valid. This disconnect can lead to underestimating the toxicity of a contaminant. We followed the growth, reproduction, and survival of Daphnia exposed to 75 and 200 µg/L silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at four food rations for up to 99 days and found that AgNP exposure at low, environmentally-relevant food rations increased the toxicity of AgNPs...
May 29, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Alexandra A Mushegian, Jean-Claude Walser, Karen E Sullam, Dieter Ebert
1.A critical question in symbiosis research is where and how organisms obtain beneficial microbial symbionts in different ecological contexts. Microbiota of juveniles are often derived directly from their mother or from the immediate environment. The origin of beneficial symbionts, however, is less obvious in organisms with diapause and dispersal stages, such as plants with dormant seeds and animals in ephemeral or strongly seasonal habitats. In these cases, parents and offspring are separated in time and space, which may affect opportunities for both vertical and horizontal transmission of symbionts...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
Chunhong Na, Ying Zhang, Xie Quan, Shuo Chen, Wei Liu, Yaobin Zhang
Coking wastewater contains many types of toxic and hazardous pollutants that have serious toxic effects on human beings as well as aquatic organisms. However, few studies have evaluated the detoxification efficiencies of the treatment processes that are extensively performed in operational coking wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study investigates the detoxification efficiencies of a combined anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A(2)O)-ozonation and A(2)O-Fenton oxidation process in two coking WWTPs using an acute immobilization test for Daphnia magna, acute toxicity test for adult zebrafish, embryo toxicity test for zebrafish and the comet assay...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Sinja Rist, Anders Baun, Nanna B Hartmann
Evidence is increasing that micro- and nanoplastic particles can have adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Exposure studies have so far mainly been qualitative since quantitative measurements of particle ingestion are analytically challenging. The aim of this study was therefore to use a quantitative approach for determining ingestion and egestion of micro- and nanoplastics in Daphnia magna and to analyze the influence of particle size, exposure duration and the presence of food. One week old animals were exposed to 2 μm and 100 nm fluorescent polystyrene beads (1 mg/l) for 24 h, followed by a 24 h egestion period in clean medium...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Tiago Bortolotto, Jaqueline da Silva, Alex Célio Sant'Ana, Kamila Osowski Tomazi, Reginaldo Geremias, Elídio Angioletto, Claus Tröger Pich
Red ceramic industry in southern Brazil commonly uses wood biomass as furnace fuel generating great amounts of gas emissions and ash. To avoid their impact on atmospheric environment, wet scrubbing is currently being applied in several plants. However, the water leachate formed could be potentially toxic and not managed as a common water-based effluent, since the resulting wastewater could carry many toxic compounds derived from wood pyrolysis. There is a lack of studies regarding this kind of effluent obtained specifically and strictly from wooden-based biomass furnaces...
May 25, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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