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Eugeniya I Bekker, Dmitry P Karabanov, Yan R Galimov, Christoph R Haag, Tatiana V Neretina, Alexey A Kotov
Species with a large geographic distributions present a challenge for phylogeographic studies due to logistic difficulties of obtaining adequate sampling. For instance, in most species with a Holarctic distribution, the majority of studies has concentrated on the European or North American part of the distribution, with the Eastern Palearctic region being notably understudied. Here, we study the phylogeography of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna Straus, 1820 (Crustacea: Cladocera), based on partial mitochondrial COI sequences and using specimens from populations spread longitudinally from westernmost Europe to easternmost Asia, with many samples from previously strongly understudied regions in Siberia and Eastern Asia...
2018: PloS One
Cecília M S Pereira, Gert Everaert, Ronny Blust, Karel A C De Schamphelaere
Ecological risk assessment (ERA) is commonly based on single generation ecotoxicological tests that are usually performed at one standard temperature. We investigate the effects of nickel (Ni) on Daphnia magna reproduction at 15, 20 and 25°C along four generations. Multigenerational Ni effects on D. magna reproduction depended on the magnitude of the effect in the first generation (F0) and showed very different patterns at different temperatures. At low effect level concentrations (<EC10 of F0), chronic Ni toxicity at 15 and 20°C did not increase along four generations, and the increase of Ni toxicity at 25°C observed in F1 and F2 in some Ni treatments did not persist into F3, where complete recovery of reproduction was observed...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Arnola C Rietzler, Henri J Dumont, Odete Rocha, Marcela M Ribeiro
We investigated feeding and reproductive performance of coexisting pelagic turbellarians from experiments on predation rates of Mesostoma ehrenbergii and M. craci as a function of food (Daphnia similis, three levels) and temperature (4 levels) during 10 days. Flatworms were collected from the pelagic of a subtropical lake in Brazil. Growth was more rapid at higher temperatures: more prey were consumed, and more eggs produced. M. craci and particularly M. ehrenbergii fitted a linear mixed-effects model and showed a type II functional response...
2018: PloS One
Cécile Molinier, Céline M O Reisser, Peter Fields, Adeline Ségard, Yan Galimov, Christoph R Haag
Daphnia reproduce by cyclic-parthenogenesis, where phases of asexual reproduction are intermitted by sexual production of diapause stages. This life cycle, together with environmental sex determination, allow the comparison of gene expression between genetically identical males and females. We investigated gene expression differences between males and females in four genotypes of Daphnia magna and compared the results with published data on sex-biased gene expression in two other Daphnia species, each representing one of the major phylogenetic clades within the genus...
March 13, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Sami Johan Taipale, Kimmo Kalevi Kahilainen, Gordon William Holtgrieve, Elina Talvikki Peltomaa
The first few months of life is the most vulnerable period for fish and their optimal hatching time with zooplankton prey is favored by natural selection. Traditionally, however, prey abundance (i.e., zooplankton density) has been considered important, whereas prey nutritional composition has been largely neglected in natural settings. High-quality zooplankton, rich in both essential amino acids (EAAs) and fatty acids (FAs), are required as starting prey to initiate development and fast juvenile growth. Prey quality is dependent on environmental conditions, and, for example, eutrophication and browning are two major factors defining primary producer community structures that will directly determine the nutritional quality of the basal food sources (algae, bacteria, terrestrial matter) for zooplankton...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Alexandra Martins, Lúcia Guilhermino
The environmental contamination by microplastics is a global challenge to ecosystem and human health, and the knowledge on the long-term effects of such particles is limited. Thus, the effects of microplastics and post-exposure recovery were investigated over 4 generations (F0 , F1 , F2 , F3 ) using Daphnia magna as model. Effect criteria were parental mortality, growth, several reproductive parameters, and population growth rate. Microplastics exposure (0.1mg/l of pristine polymer microspheres 1-5μm diameter) caused parental mortality (10-100%), and significantly (p≤0...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ewaldo Leitão, Kemal A Ger, Renata Panosso
Top-down grazer control of cyanobacteria is a controversial topic due to conflicting reports of success and failure as well as a bias toward studies in temperate climates with large generalist grazers like Daphnia . In the tropical lowland lakes of Brazil, calanoid copepods of the Notodiaptomus complex dominate zooplankton and co-exist in high abundance with permanent blooms of toxic cyanobacteria, raising questions for grazer effects on bloom dynamics (i.e., top-down control vs. facilitation of cyanobacterial dominance)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Apurva Patange, Daniela Boehm, Michelle Giltrap, Peng Lu, P J Cullen, Paula Bourke
Generation of wastewater is one of the main environmental sustainability issues across food sector industries. The constituents of food process effluents are often complex and require high energy and processing for regulatory compliance. Wastewater streams are the subject of microbiological and chemical criteria, and can have a significant eco-toxicological impact on the aquatic life. Thus, innovative treatment approaches are required to mitigate environmental impact in an energy efficient manner. Here, dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) was evaluated for control of key microbial indicators encountered in food industry effluent...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Berit Glomstad, Florian Zindler, Bjørn M Jenssen, Andy M Booth
The dispersion behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is influenced by both their physicochemical properties and by the aqueous media properties (e.g. ionic strength, presence of divalent cations and natural organic matter) in which they are dispersed. In the current study, the dispersibility and dispersion stability of four multi-walled CNTs (MWCNT) and a single walled CNT (SWCNT) with different physicochemical properties were investigated in three freshwater growth media (with and without natural organic matter; NOM) used in algae and daphnia ecotoxicity studies...
March 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Sebastian Heger, Miaomiao Du, Kevin Bauer, Andreas Schäffer, Henner Hollert
The ecotoxicity of two biofuel candidates (1‑octanol and 2‑butanone) was investigated by an integrative test strategy using three bioassays: the acute immobilisation test with water flea (D. magna), the fish embryo acute toxicity test with zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the in vitro micronucleus assay with Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) V79 cells. The median effective concentration (EC50 ) values were 14.9±0.66mgL-1 for 1‑octanol, and 2152.1±44.6mgL-1 for 2‑butanone in the D. magna test. Both 1‑octanol and 2‑butanone caused teratogenic and lethal effects on zebrafish embryos, while exposure to 1‑octanol significantly induced these effects at concentrations ≥2...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Vanessa Andreu, Annabel Levert, Anaïs Amiot, Anaïs Cousin, Nicolas Aveline, Cédric Bertrand
Five plant extracts traditionally used in organic and biodynamic farming for pest control and antifungal (downy mildew) disease management were selected after a farmer survey and analyzed for their chemical composition in LC-PDA-MS-MS and using adapted analytical method from food chemistry for determination of class of component (e.g., protein, sugar, lipids…). Their antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis allii, brown rot causing agents (Monilinia laxa and Monilinia fructigena), and grape downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) was examined in vitro...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jason P Andras, Peter D Fields, Dieter Ebert
Knowledge of a species' population genetic structure can provide insight into fundamental ecological and evolutionary processes including gene flow, genetic drift, and adaptive evolution. Such inference is of particular importance for parasites, as an understanding of their population structure can illuminate epidemiological and coevolutionary dynamics. Here we describe the population genetic structure of the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa, a parasite that infects planktonic crustaceans of the genus Daphnia. This system has become a model for investigations of host-parasite interactions and represents an example of coevolution via negative frequency-dependent selection (a...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Zhen Zhang, Jiangli Fan, Yuhui Zhao, Yao Kang, Jianjun Du, Xiaojun Peng
Superoxide anion (O2•-), as the precursor of other reactive oxygen species (ROS), is significantly important in the maintenance of redox homeostasis and various cellular signaling pathways. Here we present a ratiometric mitochondria-accessing fluorescent probe (NA-T) based on nucleophilic substitution mechanism for real-time measuring O2•-. By regulating the intramolecular charge of 1, 8-naphthalimide, a ratiometric response model was obtained, which evinced 18-fold enhancement of fluorescence ratio (I540 nm/I475 nm) in the presence of O2•- over other ROS with rapid response (132 s), high sensitivity (DL = 0...
March 6, 2018: ACS Sensors
Serli Önlü, Melek Türker Saçan
Freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has a critical ecological importance owing to its unique properties. This study presents for the first time an in silico approach to determine a priori the acute toxicity of contaminants of emerging concern towards D. japonica. Quantitative structure-toxicity/toxicity-toxicity relationship (QSTR/QTTR) models provided here allow producing reliable information using the existing data, thus, reducing the demand of in vivo and in vitro experiments, and contributing to the need for a more holistic approach to environmental safety assessment...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Rosa Acevedo-Barrios, Consuelo Sabater-Marco, Jesus Olivero-Verbel
Perchlorate is an inorganic ion widespread in the environment, generated as a natural and anthropogenic pollutant, with known endocrine disruption properties in the thyroid gland. Nonetheless, there are few reports of its ecotoxicological impact on wildlife. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adverse effects of KClO4 exposure on different cell lines, HEK, N2a, and 3T3, as well as in ecological models such as Vibrio fischeri, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna, and Eisenia fetida. Perchlorate exhibited similar toxicity against tested cell lines, with LC50 values of 19, 15, and 19 mM for HEK, N2a, and 3T3, respectively; whereas in V...
March 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Elena R Toenshoff, Peter D Fields, Yann X Bourgeois, Dieter Ebert
The planktonic freshwater crustacean of the genus Daphnia are a model system for biomedical research and, in particular, invertebrate-parasite interactions. Up until now, no virus has been characterized for this system. Here we report the discovery of an iridovirus as the causative agent of White Fat Cell Disease (WFCD) in Daphnia WFCD is a highly virulent disease of Daphnia that can easily be cultured under laboratory conditions. Although it has been studied from sites across Eurasia for more than 60 years, its causative agent had not been described, nor had an iridovirus been connected to WFCD before now...
February 27, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Yingying Liu, Wenli Han, Zhizhen Xu, Wenhong Fan, Weihua Peng, Shenglian Luo
To investigate the chronic toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) and its functionalized products (GO-carboxyl, GO-imidazole and GO-polyethylene glycol), a two-generation study was conducted using the aquatic model species Daphnia magna. Each generation of daphnids were exposed for 21 days to 1.0 mg L-1 graphene material, with body length, neonate number, time of first brood and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) assessed as endpoints. Chronic exposure to GO, GO-carboxyl, and GO-imidazole had no adverse effect on body length or offspring number in the daphnid F0 generation, however, this exposure paradigm led to significant growth or reproduction inhibition in the following generation...
February 24, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Xiang Wu, Hao Wu, Saijun Wang, Yimian Wang, Rongfei Zhang, Xiaobin Hu, Jinyun Ye
Reducing the formation and growth of Microcystis colonies is an important prerequisite for the effective prevention and treatment of cyanobacterial blooms. Microcystis flos-aquae colonies was selected to investigate the potential of propionamide for use in controlling cyanobacterial blooms. Propionamide, one of the major allelochemicals in the root exudates of E. crassipes, was tested using different concentrations (0, 0.2, 1, and 2mgL-1 ) and dosing methods (one-time addition, semi-continuous addition, and continuous addition) to assess its effect on the growth of M...
February 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Marie Trijau, Jana Asselman, Olivier Armant, Christelle Adam-Guillermin, Karel Ac De Schamphelaere, Frédéric Alonzo
Our aim was to investigate epigenetic changes in Daphnia magna after a 25-day chronic external gamma irradiation (generation F0 exposed to 6.5 µGy h-1 or 41.3 mGy h-1) and their potential inheritance by subsequent recovering generations, namely F2 (exposed as germline cells in F1 embryos) and F3 (the first truly unexposed generation). Effects on survival, growth and reproduction were observed and DNA was extracted for whole genome bisulfite sequencing in all generations. Results showed effects on reproduction in F0 but no effect in the subsequent generations F1, F2 and F3...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Hadi Parastar, Elba Garreta-Lara, Bruno Campos, Carlos Barata, Silvia Lacorte, Roma Tauler
The performances of gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry are examined through comparison of Daphnia magna metabolic profiles. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry were used to compare the concentration changes of metabolites under saline conditions. In this regard, a chemometric strategy based on wavelet compression and multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares is used to compare the performances of gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the untargeted metabolic profiling of D...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
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