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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315840/ballistic-jumping-drops-on-superhydrophobic-surfaces-via-electrostatic-manipulation
#1
Ning Li, Lei Wu, Cunlong Yu, Haoyu Dai, Ting Wang, Zhichao Dong, Lei Jiang
The ballistic ejection of liquid drops by electrostatic manipulating has both fundamental and practical implications, from raindrops in thunderclouds to self-cleaning, anti-icing, condensation, and heat transfer enhancements. In this paper, the ballistic jumping behavior of liquid drops from a superhydrophobic surface is investigated. Powered by the repulsion of the same kind of charges, water drops can jump from the surface. The electrostatic acting time for the jumping of a microliter supercooled drop only takes several milliseconds, even shorter than the time for icing...
January 9, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300305/evaluation-of-well-designs-to-improve-access-to-safe-and-clean-water-in-rural-tanzania
#2
Aminata Kilungo, Linda Powers, Nathan Arnold, Kelli Whelan, Kurt Paterson, Dale Young
The objective of this study was to examine three well designs: drilled wells (20-30 m deep), closed dug wells (>5 m deep), and hand-dug open wells (<5 m deep), to determine the water quality for improving access to safe and clean water in rural communities. Heterotrophic plate count (HPC), total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and turbidity, were used to assess the water quality of 97 wells. Additionally, the study looked at the microflora diversity of the water, focusing on potential pathogens using outgrowth, PCR, and genome sequencing for 10 wells...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286524/psychophysiological-characteristics-in-the-chnpp-accident-clean-up-workers-exclusion-zone-evacuees-and-anti-terrorist-operation-servicemen
#3
K M Loganovsky, M V Gresko
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of interdependencies between psychometric parameters and spontaneous cerebral electric activity in the ChNPP accident clean up workers, evacuees from exclusion zone, and anti terrorist operation service men. OBJECT AND METHODS: Psychometric and neurophysiological parameters were reviewed in the study subjects retro spectively and in comparison. Study population included the ChNPP accident clean up workers (ACUW), evacuees from the 30 kilometer exclusion zone, specifically in a sample from a cohort of the NRCRM Clinical Epidemiological Register (n=316), and anti terrorist operation servicemen (n=81) undergoing rehabilitation in the NRCRM Radiation psychoneurology department...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286522/pilot-study-of-parathyroid-glands-in-adult-and-pediatric-subjects-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation-after-the-chnpp-accident-methodology-of-parathyroid-diagnostic-ultrasound
#4
O V Kaminskyi, O V Kopylova, D Ye Afanasyev, O V Mazurenko, S Ya Berezovskyi
OBJECTIVE: Estimation of the parathyroid hyperplasia prevalence after the ChNPP accident in adults exposed to ion izing radiation and their descendants using the diagnostic ultrasound and its methodology elaboration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pilot prospective study of the prevalence of parathyroid hyperplasia among the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident adult survivors (n=686) and their descendants (54 children) was performed using diagnostic ultrasound examination of thyroid and parathyroids...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286520/serum-content-of-total-adipionectin-in-the-chnpp-accident-clean-up-workers-of-the-%C3%A2-iodine-period%C3%A2-suffering-from-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-literature-review-and-research-data
#5
N S Dombrovska, O Ya Pleskach
OBJECTIVE: assay of the total adiponectin level in the ChNPP accident clean up workers (ACUW) of the «iodine peri od» exposed to ionizing radiation in a young age and suffering now from type 2 diabetes mellitusMaterials and methods. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident clean up workers (ACUW) of the iodine period (n=111) exposed to ionizing radiation at a young age (18-35 years) were examined in two groups: Group I (main study group, n=66) of persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and Group II (comparison group, n=45) of persons with normal glucose challenge test results...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286514/cardiovascular-diseases-and-systolic-function-of-left-ventricle-in-clean-up-workers-of-chernobyl-accident-based-on-30-years-follow-up
#6
O D Bazyka, D O Belyi
OBJECTIVE: To study the dynamics of circulatory system diseases during the 30 year period after irradiation, changes in the status of systolic function of heart left ventricle (LV) and the features of its remodeling in clean up workers (CW) of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was examined 144 CW at ChNPP, including 52 patients, who survived acute radiation sick ness (ARS) grade of severity 1-3, and 105 non irradiated persons (control group - CG)...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286498/psychosocial-state-of-the-adult-evacuees-and-risk-factors-of-negative-change
#7
V O Buzunov, K M Loganovsky, L I Krasnikova, M O Bomko, Yu M Belyayev, Zh S Yaroshenko, T E Domashevska
Numerous scientific studies have been carried out since the ChNPP accident indicating that the last one has caused a severe psychosocial stress in survivors. Population of radioactively contaminated territories, people migrated from the areas of strict radiation control, and accident consequences clean up participants in 1986 1987 were covered by the conducted research projects. Nature of the stress herewith is polygenic and includes factors directly related to the Chernobyl catastrophe, and factors being a result of social and economic circumstances...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283033/hospitals-as-factories-of-medical-garbage
#8
Sarah Hodges
Over the course of the twentieth century, as hospitals cleaned up, they came to produce more and more rubbish. Beginning in the 1970s and gaining pace in the 1980s and 1990s, single-use plastic items (syringes, blood bags, tubing) saturated everyday medical practice across the globe. This essay brings the question of plastic to bear upon the longer history of twentieth century sanitary science. The widespread adoption of single-use disposable medical plastics consolidated a century's worth of changes in medical hygiene...
December 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276082/anisotropic-reversed-micelles-with-fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon-hybrid-surfactants-in-supercritical-co2
#9
Masanobu Sagisaka, Shinji Ono, Craig James, Atsushi Yoshizawa, Azmi Mohamed, Frédéric Guittard, Robert M Enick, Sarah E Rogers, Adam Czajka, Christopher Hill, Julian Eastoe
Previous work (M. Sagisaka, et al. Langmuir 31 (2015) 7479-7487), showed the most effective fluorocarbon (FC) and hydrocarbon (HC) chain lengths in the hybrid surfactants FCm-HCn (sodium 1-oxo-1-[4-(perfluoroalkyl)phenyl]alkane-2-sulfonates, where m = FC length and n = HC length) were m and n = 6 and 4 for water solubilization, whereas m 6 and n 6, or m 6 and n 5, were optimal chain lengths for reversed micelle elongation in supercritical CO2. To clarify why this difference of only a few methylene chain units is so effective at tuning the solubilizing power and reversed micelle morphology, nanostructures of water-in-CO2 (W/CO2) microemulsions were investigated by high-pressure small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements at different water-to-surfactant molar ratios (W0) and surfactant concentrations...
December 15, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250717/correction-to-no-difference-between-manual-and-different-power-toothbrushes-with-and-without-specific-instructions-in-young-oral-healthy-adults-results-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Gerhard Schmalz, Katharina Kiehl, Jan Schmickler, Sven Rinke, Jana Schmidt, Felix Krause, Rainer Haak, Dirk Ziebolz
The type of used rotating-oscillating toothbrush was incorrectly assigned; correct used rotating-oscillating toothbrush is Pro1000 Precision Clean, Procter&Gamble GmbH, Schwalbach, Germany.
December 18, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250085/metalaxyl-effects-on-antioxidant-defenses-in-leaves-and-roots-of-solanum-nigrum-l
#11
Alexandra de Sousa, Hamada AbdElgawad, Han Asard, Ana Pinto, Cristiano Soares, Simão Branco-Neves, Teresa Braga, Manuel Azenha, Samy Selim, Soad Al Jaouni, Fernanda Fidalgo, Jorge Teixeira
Overuse of pesticides has resulted in environmental problems, threating public health through accumulation in food chains. Phytoremediation is a powerful technique to clean up contaminated environments. However, it is necessary to unravel the metabolic mechanisms underlying phytoremediation in order to increase the efficiency of this process. Therefore, growth, physiological and biochemical responses in leaves and roots of Solanum nigrum L. exposed to the commonly used fungicide metalaxyl were investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246054/finite-size-corrections-in-simulation-of-dipolar-fluids
#12
Luc Belloni, Joël Puibasset
Monte Carlo simulations of dipolar fluids are performed at different numbers of particles N = 100-4000. For each size of the cubic cell, the non-spherically symmetric pair distribution function g(r,Ω) is accumulated in terms of projections gmnl(r) onto rotational invariants. The observed N dependence is in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions for the finite-size corrections of different origins: the explicit corrections due to the absence of fluctuations in the number of particles within the canonical simulation and the implicit corrections due to the coupling between the environment around a given particle and that around its images in the neighboring cells...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243922/achieving-high-thermoelectric-figure-of-merit-in-polycrystalline-snse-via-introducing-sn-vacancies
#13
Wei Wei, Cheng Chang, Teng Yang, Jizi Liu, Huaichao Tang, Jian Zhang, Yusheng Li, Feng Xu, Zhidong Zhang, Jing-Feng Li, Guodong Tang
Thermoelectric power genetation technology has emerged as a clean 'heat engine' that can convert heat to electricity. Recently, the discovery of an ultrahigh thermoelectric figure of merit in SnSe crystals have drawn a great deal of attention. In view of their facile processing and scale-up applications, polycrystalline SnSe materials with ZT values comparable to those of the SnSe crystals are greatly desired. Here we achieve a record high ZT value 2.1 at 873 K in polycrystalline Sn1-xSe with Sn vacancies. We demonstrate that the carrier concentration increases by artificially introducing Sn vacancies, contributing significantly to the enhancements of electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power factor...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228005/rna-seq-reveals-transcriptome-changes-in-goats-following-myostatin-gene-knockout
#14
Lamei Wang, Bei Cai, Shiwei Zhou, Haijing Zhu, Lei Qu, Xiaolong Wang, Yulin Chen
Myostatin (MSTN) is a powerful negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass in mammalian species that is primarily expressed in skeletal muscles, and mutations of its encoding gene can result in the double-muscling trait. In this study, the CRISPR/Cas9 technique was used to edit MSTN in Shaanbei Cashmere goats and generate knockout animals. RNA sequencing was used to determine and compare the transcriptome profiles of the muscles from three wild-type (WT) goats, three fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) knockout goats (FGF5+/- group) and three goats with disrupted expression of both the FGF5 and MSTN genes (FM+/- group)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223818/application-of-airborne-photogrammetry-for-the-visualisation-and-assessment-of-contamination-migration-arising-from-a-fukushima-waste-storage-facility
#15
D T Connor, P G Martin, N T Smith, L Payne, C Hutton, O D Payton, Y Yamashiki, T B Scott
Airborne systems such as lightweight and highly portable unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are becoming increasingly widespread in both academia and industry - with an ever-increasing range of applications, including (but not limited to), air quality sampling, wildlife monitoring and land-use mapping. In this work, high-resolution airborne photogrammetry obtained using a multi-rotor system operating at low survey altitudes, is combined with ground-based radiation mapping data acquired at an interim storage facility for wastes removed as part of the large-scale Fukushima clean-up program...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215554/pets-purity-and-pollution-why-conventional-models-of-disease-transmission-do-not-work-for-pet-rat-owners
#16
Charlotte Robin, Elizabeth Perkins, Francine Watkins, Robert Christley
In the United Kingdom, following the emergence of Seoul hantavirus in pet rat owners in 2012, public health authorities tried to communicate the risk of this zoonotic disease, but had limited success. To explore this lack of engagement with health advice, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with pet rat owners and analysed them using a grounded theory approach. The findings from these interviews suggest that rat owners construct their pets as different from wild rats, and by elevating the rat to the status of a pet, the powerful associations that rats have with dirt and disease are removed...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214806/hierarchical-superhydrophobic-surfaces-with-micropatterned-nanowire-arrays-for-high-efficiency-jumping-droplet-condensation
#17
Rongfu Wen, Shanshan Xu, Dongliang Zhao, Yung-Cheng Lee, Xuehu Ma, Ronggui Yang
Self-propelled droplet jumping on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces is of interest for a variety of industrial applications including self-cleaning, water harvesting, power generation, and thermal management systems. However, the uncontrolled nucleation-induced Wenzel state of condensed droplets at large surface subcooling (high heat flux) leads to the formation of unwanted large pinned droplets, which results in the flooding phenomenon and greatly degrades the heat transfer performance. In this work, we present a novel strategy to manipulate droplet behaviors during the process from the droplet nucleation to growth and departure through a combination of spatially controlling initial nucleation for mobile droplets by closely spaced nanowires and promoting the spontaneous outward movement of droplets for rapid removal using micropatterned nanowire arrays...
December 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201629/rational-design-of-a-water-storable-hierarchical-architecture-decorated-with-amorphous-barium-oxide-and-nickel-nanoparticles-as-a-solid-oxide-fuel-cell-anode-with-excellent-sulfur-tolerance
#18
Yufei Song, Wei Wang, Lei Ge, Xiaomin Xu, Zhenbao Zhang, Paulo Sérgio Barros Julião, Wei Zhou, Zongping Shao
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which can directly convert chemical energy stored in fuels into electric power, represent a useful technology for a more sustainable future. They are particularly attractive given that they can be easily integrated into the currently available fossil fuel infrastructure to realize an ideal clean energy system. However, the widespread use of the SOFC technology is hindered by sulfur poisoning at the anode caused by the sulfur impurities in fossil fuels. Therefore, improving the sulfur tolerance of the anode is critical for developing SOFCs for use with fossil fuels...
November 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191021/dealkanative-main-group-couplings-across-the-peri-gap
#19
Laurence J Taylor, Michael Bühl, Brian A Chalmers, Matthew J Ray, Piotr Wawrzyniak, John C Walton, David B Cordes, Alexandra M Z Slawin, J Derek Woollins, Petr Kilian
Here, we highlight the ability of peri-substitution chemistry to promote a series of unique P-P/P-As coupling reactions, which proceed with concomitant C-H bond formation. This dealkanative reactivity represents an interesting and unexpected expansion to the established family of main-group dehydrocoupling reactions. These transformations are exceptionally clean, proceeding essentially quantitatively at relatively low temperatures (70-140 °C), with 100% diastereoselectivity in the products. The reaction appears to be radical in nature, with the addition of small quantities of a radical initiator (azobisisobutyronitrile) increasing the rate dramatically, as well as altering the apparent order of reaction...
November 30, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188991/self-powered-electrostatic-filter-with-enhanced-photocatalytic-degradation-of-formaldehyde-based-on-built-in-triboelectric-nanogenerators
#20
Yawei Feng, Lili Ling, Jinhui Nie, Kai Han, Xiangyu Chen, Zhenfeng Bian, Hexing Li, Zhong Lin Wang
Recently, atmospheric pollution caused by particulate matter or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has become a serious issue to threaten human health. Consequently, it is highly desirable to develop an efficient purifying technique with simple structure and low cost. In this study, by combining a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and a photocatalysis technique, we demonstrated a concept of a self-powered filtering method for removing pollutants from indoor atmosphere. The photocatalyst P25 or Pt/P25 was embedded on the surface of polymer-coated stainless steel wires, and such steel wires were woven into a filtering network...
November 30, 2017: ACS Nano
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