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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806775/depression-screening-with-patient-targeted-feedback-in-cardiology-the-cost-effectiveness-of-depscreen-info
#1
Christian Brettschneider, Sebastian Kohlmann, Benjamin Gierk, Bernd Löwe, Hans-Helmut König
BACKGROUND: Although depression is common in patients with heart disease, screening for depression is much debated. DEPSCREEN-INFO showed that a patient-targeted feedback in addition to screening results in lower depression level six months after screening. The purpose of this analysis was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of DEPSCREEN-INFO. METHODS: Patients with coronary heart disease or arterial hypertension were included. Participants in both groups were screened for depression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806718/stochastic-separation-theorems
#2
A N Gorban, I Y Tyukin
The problem of non-iterative one-shot and non-destructive correction of unavoidable mistakes arises in all Artificial Intelligence applications in the real world. Its solution requires robust separation of samples with errors from samples where the system works properly. We demonstrate that in (moderately) high dimension this separation could be achieved with probability close to one by linear discriminants. Based on fundamental properties of measure concentration, we show that for M<aexp(bn) random M-element sets in R(n) are linearly separable with probability p, p>1-ϑ, where 1>ϑ>0 is a given small constant...
July 31, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806691/mercury-contamination-level-and-speciation-inventory-in-lakes-titicaca-uru-uru-bolivia-current-status-and-future-trends
#3
S Guédron, D Point, D Acha, S Bouchet, P A Baya, E Tessier, M Monperrus, C I Molina, A Groleau, L Chauvaud, J Thebault, E Amice, L Alanoca, C Duwig, G Uzu, X Lazarro, A Bertrand, S Bertrand, C Barbraud, K Delord, F M Gibon, C Ibanez, M Flores, P Fernandez Saavedra, M E Ezpinoza, C Heredia, F Rocha, C Zepita, D Amouroux
Aquatic ecosystems of the Bolivian Altiplano (∼3800 m a.s.l.) are characterized by extreme hydro-climatic constrains (e.g., high UV-radiations and low oxygen) and are under the pressure of increasing anthropogenic activities, unregulated mining, agricultural and urban development. We report here a complete inventory of mercury (Hg) levels and speciation in the water column, atmosphere, sediment and key sentinel organisms (i.e., plankton, fish and birds) of two endorheic Lakes of the same watershed differing with respect to their size, eutrophication and contamination levels...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806653/novel-microemulsion-based-gels-for-topical-delivery-of-indomethacin-formulation-physicochemical-properties-and-in-vitro-drug-release-studies
#4
Anna Froelich, Tomasz Osmałek, Agnieszka Snela, Paweł Kunstman, Barbara Jadach, Marta Olejniczak, Grzegorz Roszak, Wojciech Białas
HYPOTHESIS: Microemulsion-based semisolid systems may be considered as an interesting alternative to the traditional dosage forms applied in topical drug delivery. Mechanical properties of topical products are important both in terms of application and dosage form effectiveness. In this study we designed and evaluated novel microemulsion-based gels with indomethacin and analyzed the factors affecting their mechanical characteristics and drug release. EXPERIMENTS: The impact of the microemulsion composition on the extent of isotropic region was investigated with the use of pseudoternary phase diagrams...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806630/case-report-coincidental-inclusion-in-a-17-locus-y-str-mixture-wrongful-conviction-and-exoneration
#5
Greg Hampikian, Gianluca Peri, Shih-Shiang Lo, Mong-Hwa Chin, Kuo-Lan Liu
We report the case of a suspect (Suspect-3) who was convicted (and later exonerated) of participating in the multiple-attacker rape of two women. The forensic evidence against him was his inclusion in a 17-marker Y-STR mixture isolated from semen on one victim's clothing. The DNA inclusion produced a match statistic with a combined probability of inclusion of 1 in 741, and a Likelihood Ratio of 3296. While the defense team was told that Suspect-3 was included in the semen DNA mixture, they were not told that all of the Y-STR alleles could also be explained by just the other two accused attackers' haplotypes...
August 7, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806623/retroperitoneal-paraganglioma-is-pre-operative-embolization-useful
#6
Natalia Apentchenko Eriutina, Camilo J Castellón Pavón, Carlos García Vásquez, Irene Gonzalo Montesinos, Santos Jiménez de Los Galanes, Pedro A Pacheco Martínez, Juan Gómez Patiño
INTRODUCTION: Paragangliomas (PG) are rare tumors derived from chromaffin cells that are located outside the adrenal gland and are capable of producing catecholamines. The treatment is based on a surgical resection, and there is controversy regarding the usefulness of previously carrying out an embolization and what is the most adequate surgical approach. CLINICAL CASE: We will present a 17-year-old woman with a retroperitoneal tumour in contact with the aorta and the inferior vena cava, treated with embolization prior to the surgical resection via laparotomy...
August 5, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806613/automatic-blood-vessels-segmentation-based-on-different-retinal-maps-from-octa-scans
#7
Nabila Eladawi, Mohammed Elmogy, Omar Helmy, Ahmed Aboelfetouh, Alaa Riad, Harpal Sandhu, Shlomit Schaal, Ayman El-Baz
The retinal vascular network reflects the health of the retina, which is a useful diagnostic indicator of systemic vascular. Therefore, the segmentation of retinal blood vessels is a powerful method for diagnosing vascular diseases. This paper presents an automatic segmentation system for retinal blood vessels from Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) images. The system segments blood vessels from the superficial and deep retinal maps for normal and diabetic cases. Initially, we reduced the noise and improved the contrast of the OCTA images by using the Generalized Gauss-Markov random field (GGMRF) model...
August 7, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806510/reaction-between-pyridine-and-ch3nh3pbi3-_-surface-confined-reaction-or-bulk-transformation
#8
Xiaozhou Yu, Haoming Yan, Qing Peng
Pyridine molecules have been used to passivate the surface Pb2+ sites of CH3NH3PbI3, to recrystallize CH3NH3PbI3, and to bleach CH3NH3PbI3. These results contradict each other as recrystallization and optical-bleach require transformation of bulk CH3NH3PbI3, but surface passivation demands the confinement of the reaction at the surface region. The underlying mechanism for these seemly contradicting results are not yet understood. In this paper, we show, at 25 ºC, partial pressure of pyridine vapor is a determining factor for its reaction behaviors with CH3NH3PbI3: one can modify the surface region of CH3NH3PbI3 by using pyridine vapor of pressure 1...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806496/anterior-superior-alveolar-nerve-injury-after-extended-endoscopic-medial-maxillectomy-a-preclinical-study-to-predict-neurological-morbidity
#9
Alberto Schreiber, Davide Mattavelli, Marco Ferrari, Vittorio Rampinelli, Davide Lancini, Marco Ravanelli, Giacomo Bertazzoni, Luigi Fabrizio Rodella, Barbara Buffoli, Francesco Doglietto, Piero Nicolai
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic medial maxillectomies (EMMs) are used to optimize exposure of the maxillary sinus and retromaxillary areas. Although in type D EMM (Sturmann-Canfield procedure) the anterior superior alveolar nerve (ASAN) is always at risk of injury, only 29% of patients complained of alveolar process and dental anesthesia. The purpose of this anatomical study is to assess the neural anastomotic network of the ASAN (ASAN-NAN) and describe different extensions of type D EMMs in a preclinical setting...
August 14, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806429/current-concepts-of-bruxism
#10
Daniele Manfredini, Junia Serra-Negra, Fabio Carboncini, Frank Lobbezoo
Bruxism is a common phenomenon, and emerging evidence suggests that biologic, psychologic, and exogenous factors have greater involvement than morphologic factors in its etiology. Diagnosis should adopt the grading system of possible, probable, and definite. In children, it could be a warning sign of certain psychologic disorders. The proposed mechanism for the bruxism-pain relationship at the individual level is that stress sensitivity and anxious personality traits may be responsible for bruxism activities that may lead to temporomandibular pain, which in turn is modulated by psychosocial factors...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Prosthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806420/perceptions-of-health-risks-of-cigarette-smoking-a-new-measure-reveals-widespread-misunderstanding
#11
Jon A Krosnick, Neil Malhotra, Cecilia Hyunjung Mo, Eduardo F Bruera, LinChiat Chang, Josh Pasek, Randall K Thomas
Most Americans recognize that smoking causes serious diseases, yet many Americans continue to smoke. One possible explanation for this paradox is that perhaps Americans do not accurately perceive the extent to which smoking increases the probability of adverse health outcomes. This paper examines the accuracy of Americans' perceptions of the absolute risk, attributable risk, and relative risk of lung cancer, and assesses which of these beliefs drive Americans' smoking behavior. Using data from three national surveys, statistical analyses were performed by comparing means, medians, and distributions, and by employing Generalized Additive Models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806418/seasonality-affects-dietary-diversity-of-school-age-children-in-northern-ghana
#12
Abdul-Razak Abizari, Fusta Azupogo, Miwako Nagasu, Noortje Creemers, Inge D Brouwer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dietary diversity score (DDS) is relatively easy to measure and is shown to be a very useful indicator of the probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Dietary diversity, however, is usually assessed during a single period and little is known about the effect of seasonality on it. This study investigates whether dietary diversity is influenced by seasonality. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in two different seasons-dry season (October 2010) and rainy season (May 2011) among the same school-age children (SAC) in two rural schools in northern Ghana...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806354/trends-in-adult-chlamydia-and-gonorrhea-prevalence-incidence-and-urethral-discharge-case-reporting-in-morocco-over-1995-2015-estimates-using-the-spectrum-sexually-transmitted-infection-model
#13
Amina El-Kettani, Guy Mahiané, Aziza Bennani, Laith Abu-Raddad, Alex Smolak, Jane Rowley, Nico Nagelkerke, Houssine El-Rhilani, Kamal Alami, Amina Hançali, Eline Korenromp
BACKGROUND: Evolving health priorities and resource constraints mean that countries require data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) trends to inform program planning and resource allocation. METHODS: The Spectrum modeling tool estimated prevalence and incidence of gonorrhea and chlamydia in Morocco's 15- to 49-year-old population, based on prevalence surveys. Incident cases, broken down between symptomatic and asymptomatic, and treated versus untreated, were compared with urethral discharge (UD) case reports, to estimate reporting completeness among treated UD cases...
September 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806345/pediatric-optic-neuritis-what-is-new
#14
Mark Borchert, Grant T Liu, Stacy Pineles, Amy T Waldman
Few diseases blur the margins between their childhood and adult-onset varieties as much as optic neuritis. This report will review our state of knowledge of pediatric optic neuritis, as well as its relationship to the latest consensus definitions of neuroinflammatory disease. Current diagnostic and treatment options will be explored, as well as our potential to uncover an understanding of pediatric optic neuritis through systematic prospective studies. The risk of evolving multiple sclerosis is probably less than in adults, but pediatric optic neuritis is more likely to be an initial manifestation of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis...
September 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806130/existential-risk-and-cost-effective-biosecurity
#15
Piers Millett, Andrew Snyder-Beattie
In the decades to come, advanced bioweapons could threaten human existence. Although the probability of human extinction from bioweapons may be low, the expected value of reducing the risk could still be large, since such risks jeopardize the existence of all future generations. We provide an overview of biotechnological extinction risk, make some rough initial estimates for how severe the risks might be, and compare the cost-effectiveness of reducing these extinction-level risks with existing biosecurity work...
August 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806058/metalloproteases-of-the-inner-mitochondrial-membrane
#16
Roman Levytskyy, Iryna Bohovych, Oleh Khalimonchuk
The inner mitochondrial membrane (IM) is among most protein-rich cellular compartments. The metastable IM sub-proteome where the concentration of proteins is approaching oversaturation creates a challenging protein folding environment with high probability for protein malfunction or aggregation. Failure to maintain protein homeostasis in such a setting can impair functional integrity of the mitochondria and drive clinical manifestations. The IM is equipped with a series of highly conserved, proteolytic complexes dedicated to the maintenance of normal protein homeostasis within this mitochondrial sub-compartment...
August 14, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806035/a-primer-on-diagnostic-and-financial-implications-of-d-dimer-testing
#17
Kalyan Chakravarthy Potu, Sujithasree Ketineni, Randall Lamfers
Given the high incidence of deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE) (300,000 to 600,000 per year in the U.S.) and the 30 percent mortality rate associated with undiagnosed PE, diagnostic evaluation is very important. One of the tools used to evaluate for DVT and PE is D-dimer testing. A negative D-dimer test, along with a low Wells clinical probability score, can safely rule out DVT/PE without the need for additional imaging. This approach can reduce cost; however, D-dimer testing is not indicated in all patients...
September 2016: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805849/topology-of-polymer-chains-under-nanoscale-confinement
#18
Vahid Satarifard, Maziar Heidari, Samaneh Mashaghi, Sander J Tans, Mohammad Reza Ejtehadi, Alireza Mashaghi
Spatial confinement limits the conformational space accessible to biomolecules but the implications for bimolecular topology are not yet known. Folded linear biopolymers can be seen as molecular circuits formed by intramolecular contacts. The pairwise arrangement of intra-chain contacts can be categorized as parallel, series or cross, and has been identified as a topological property. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the contact order distributions and topological circuits of short semi-flexible linear and ring polymer chains with a persistence length of lp under a spherical confinement of radius Rc...
August 14, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805835/a-comparison-study-on-polysaccharides-extracted-from-laminaria-japonica-using-different-methods-structural-characterization-and-bile-acid-binding-capacity
#19
Jie Gao, Lianzhu Lin, Baoguo Sun, Mouming Zhao
In this study, the structural characterization and bile acid-binding capacity of Laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LP), obtained by seven different extraction methods, were investigated. The results indicated that extraction methods exhibited significant effects on extraction yield, molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and the content of neutral sugar, fucose, uronic acid and sulfate of LP. AFM analysis indicated that LP extracted by different methods exhibited certain different, flexible and worm-like chains with many branches...
August 14, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805809/x-ray-structures-of-endothelin-etb-receptor-bound-to-clinical-antagonist-bosentan-and-its-analog
#20
Wataru Shihoya, Tomohiro Nishizawa, Keitaro Yamashita, Asuka Inoue, Kunio Hirata, Francois Marie Ngako Kadji, Akiko Okuta, Kazutoshi Tani, Junken Aoki, Yoshinori Fujiyoshi, Tomoko Doi, Osamu Nureki
Endothelin receptors (ETRs) have crucial roles in vascular control and are targets for drugs designed to treat circulatory-system diseases and cancer progression. The nonpeptide dual-ETR antagonist bosentan is the first oral drug approved to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension. Here we report crystal structures of human endothelin ETB receptor bound to bosentan and to the ETB-selective analog K-8794, at 3.6-Å and 2.2-Å resolution, respectively. The K-8794-bound structure reveals the detailed water-mediated hydrogen-bonding network at the transmembrane core, which could account for the weak negative allosteric modulation of ETB by Na(+) ions...
August 14, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
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