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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535598/antarctic-seals-molecular-biomarkers-as-indicators-for-pollutant-exposure-health-effects-and-diet
#1
K Lehnert, L Weirup, K C Harding, T Härkönen, O Karlsson, J Teilmann
Weddell (Leptonychotes weddellii), Ross (Ommatophoca rossii) and crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophaga) are phocid seals with a circumpolar distribution around Antarctica. As long-lived and large top predators, they bioaccumulate contaminants and are considered as sentinels of ecosystem health. Antarctic seals are increasingly exposed to climate change, pollution, shipping and fisheries. To reveal and understand possible anthropogenic impacts on their immune and health status, this study investigates sensitive biomarkers of the xenobiotic metabolism and immune system in relation to mercury (Hg) burden...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535525/expanded-hemodialysis-a-new-therapy-for-a-new-class-of-membranes
#2
Claudio Ronco, Gaetano La Manna
A wide spectrum of molecules is retained in end-stage kidney disease, normally defined as uremic toxins. These solutes have different molecular weights and radii. Current dialysis membranes and techniques only remove solutes in the range of 50-15,000 Da, with limited or no capability to remove solutes in the middle to high molecular weight range (up to 50,000 Da). Improved removal has been obtained with high cut-off (HCO) membranes, with albumin loss representing a limitation to their practical application...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535477/the-effect-of-crash-characteristics-on-cyclist-injuries-an-analysis-of-virginia-automobile-bicycle-crash-data
#3
Erin Robartes, T Donna Chen
This paper examines bicyclist, automobile driver, vehicle, environmental, and roadway characteristics that influence cyclist injury severity in order to determine which factors should be addressed to mitigate the worst bicyclist injuries. An ordered probit model is used to examine single bicycle-single vehicle crashes from Virginia police crash report data from 2010 to 2014. Five injury severity levels are considered: fatalities, severe injuries, minor or possible injuries, no apparent injuries, and no injury...
May 20, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535476/examination-of-polytrauma-typologies-a-latent-class-analysis-approach
#4
Erin Sullivan, Ateka A Contractor, Monica M Gerber, Craig Neumann
Potentially traumatizing events (PTE) are highly prevalent, and are associated with detrimental effects on psychological health, including increased risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Multiple endorsed PTEs (polytraumatization) may have even greater effects on a person's health than the impact of a single index event. To better understand patterns of polytraumatization, person-centered analytic techniques such as Latent class analysis (LCA) are recommended. The current study used LCA to explore latent subgroupings of people based on their endorsement of PTEs, thus defining patterns in PTE exposure...
May 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535463/atmospheric-concentrations-distributions-and-air-soil-exchange-tendencies-of-pahs-and-pcbs-in-a-heavily-industrialized-area-in-kocaeli-turkey
#5
Banu Cetin, Sema Yurdakul, Melek Keles, Isil Celik, Fatma Ozturk, Cevdet Dogan
Dilovasi is one of the heavily industrialized areas in Turkey with serious environmental problems. In this study, the atmospheric concentration of PAHs and PCBs were measured for a whole year at 23 sites. The average ambient air Σ15PAH and Σ41PCB concentrations were found as 285 ± 431 ng m(-3) and 4152 ± 6072 pg m(-3), respectively. PAH concentrations increased with decreasing temperature especially in urban areas, indicating the impact of residential heating. However, PCB concentrations mostly increased with temperature probably due to enhanced volatilization from their sources...
May 19, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535456/effectiveness-of-treatment-for-opioid-use-disorder-a-national-five-year-prospective-observational-study-in-england
#6
Brian Eastwood, John Strang, John Marsden
BACKGROUND: This the first 5-year effectiveness study of publicly funded treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) in England. METHODS: All adults initiating treatment in 2008/09 in all 149 local treatment systems reporting to the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (n=54,347). Admission polydrug use sub-populations were identified by Latent Class Analysis. The treatment outcome measure was 'successful completion and no re-presentation within six months' (SCNR) analysed by multilevel, multivariable logistic regression and funnel plots to contrast outcome by treatment system...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535192/learning-through-chain-event-graphs-the-role-of-maternal-factors-in-childhood-type-i-diabetes
#7
Claire Keeble, Peter Adam Thwaites, Paul David Baxter, Stuart Barber Pgclthe, Roger Charles Parslow, Graham Richard Law
Chain event graphs are a graphical representation of a statistical model derived from event trees, previously applied to cohort studies but not to case-control studies. We apply the chain event graph framework to a Yorkshire case-control study of childhood type I diabetes, to examine four exposure variables associated with the mother, three of which are fully observed (her school-leaving-age, amniocenteses during pregnancy and delivery type) and one with missing values (her rhesus factor), while incorporating previous type I diabetes knowledge...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535185/fifteen-years-experience-with-the-use-of-artificial-chords-for-valve-reconstruction-in-children%C3%A2
#8
Jolanda Kluin, Vladimir Sojak, David R Koolbergen, Rody Boon, Regina Bökenkamp, Mark G Hazekamp
OBJECTIVES: To retrospectively review our experience with artificial chords in mitral and tricuspid reconstructive surgery in children. METHODS: All consecutive paediatric (<18 years) patients who underwent mitral or tricuspid valve reconstruction with the use of artificial chords in our centre in the past 15 years were retrospectively analysed. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients (age 3 days to 17 years) underwent reconstruction of the mitral ( n  = 27) or tricuspid ( n  = 12) valve using artificial chords...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535183/time-caloric-restriction-inhibits-the-neoplastic-transformation-of-cirrhotic-liver-in-rats-treated-with-diethylnitrosamine
#9
Christian Molina-Aguilar, María de Jesús Guerrero-Carrillo, Jesús Javier Espinosa-Aguirre, Sitlali Olguin-Reyes, Thania Castro-Belio, Olivia Vázquez-Martínez, Julieta Berenice Rivera-Zavala, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
Hepatocellular cancer is the most common type of primary liver cancer. Cirrhosis is the main risk factor that generates this malady. It has been proven that caloric restriction protocols and restricted feeding schedules are protective in experimental carcinogenic models. We tested the influence of a time-caloric restriction protocol (2 h of food access during the daytime for 18 weeks) in an experimental model of cirrhosis-hepatocarcinoma produced by weekly administration of diethylnitrosamine. Our results indicate that time-caloric restriction reduced hepatomegaly and prevented the increase in blood leukocytes promoted by diethylnitrosamine...
May 23, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535067/emulsion-polymerization-with-a-biosurfactant
#10
Aya Kurozuka, Shohei Onishi, Takuto Nagano, Katsumi Yamaguchi, Toyoko Suzuki, Hideto Minami
Emulsion polymerization of styrene was conducted using a biosurfactant (i.e., sodium surfactin, hereinafter called just "surfactin") having very low critical micelle concentration (CMC, 2.9 × 10-3 mmol/L) and biodegradability characteristics. The nucleation mechanism was investigated by comparing with a conventional surfactant (i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) system. Unlike the emulsion polymerization systems using conventional surfactants, nucleation mechanisms changed above CMC in the presence of a biosurfactant...
May 23, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534986/overexpression-of-sox4-promotes-cell-migration-and-invasion-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-by-inducing-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#11
Hailong Ruan, Hongmei Yang, Haibin Wei, Wen Xiao, Ning Lou, Bin Qiu, Guanghua Xu, Zhengshuai Song, Haibin Xiao, Lei Liu, Yali Zhou, Wenjun Hu, Ke Chen, Xuanyu Chen, Xiaoping Zhang
Incomplete understanding remains in the molecular mechanisms underlying progression and metastasis of renal cancer. The transcription factor SOX4 is upregulated in various human malignancies, including renal cancer, indicating it may be involved in renal tumorigenesis. In this study, we explored this hypothesis by loss-of-function and gain-of-function assays of SOX4 in renal cancer cell lines and renal epithelial cell line. We found that specific knockdown of SOX4 in renal cancer cell lines significantly suppressed the migration and invasion of cancer cells; specific overexpression of SOX4 in renal epithelial cell line markedly promoted the migration and invasion of the cell line...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534960/cellular-na-handling-mechanisms-involved-in-airway-smooth-muscle-contraction-review
#12
Bettina Sommer, Edgar Flores-Soto, Georgina Gonzalez-Avila
A decrease in bronchial diameter is designated as bronchoconstriction (BC) and impedes the flow of air through the airway. Asthma is characterized by inflammation of the airways, reversible BC and nonspecific hyperreactivity. These last two symptoms are dependent on airway smooth muscle. Stimuli that trigger contraction can be characterized as chemical (neurotransmitters, cytokines and terpenoids) and physical (volume inspired, air pressure). Both stimuli activate signaling pathways by acting on membrane proteins and facilitating the passage of ions through the membrane, generating a voltage change and a subsequent depolarization...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534924/very-large-scale-characterization-of-graphene-mechanical-devices-using-a-colorimetry-technique
#13
Santiago Jose Cartamil-Bueno, Alba Centeno, Amaia Zurutuza, Peter Gerard Steeneken, Herre Sjoerd Jan van der Zant, Samer Houri
We use a scalable optical technique to characterize more than 21 000 circular nanomechanical devices made of suspended single- and double-layer graphene on cavities with different diameters (D) and depths (g). To maximize the contrast between suspended and broken membranes we used a model for selecting the optimal color filter. The method enables parallel and automatized image processing for yield statistics. We find the survival probability to be correlated with a structural mechanics scaling parameter given by D(4)/g(3)...
May 23, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534853/the-1-tosylpentan-3-one-protects-against-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-neurotoxicity
#14
Chien-Jen Kao, Wu-Fu Chen, Bo-Lin Guo, Chien-Wei Feng, Han-Chun Hung, Wen-Ya Yang, Chun-Sung Sung, Kuan-Hao Tsui, Hsin Chu, Nan-Fu Chen, Zhi-Hong Wen
Previous studies have demonstrated that the marine compound austrasulfone, isolated from the soft coral Cladiella australis, exerts a neuroprotective effect. The intermediate product in the synthesis of austrasulfone, dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol, attenuates several inflammatory responses. The present study uses in vitro and in vivo methods to investigate the neuroprotective effect of dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol-modified 1-tosylpentan-3-one (1T3O). Results from in vitro experiments show that 1T3O effectively inhibits 6-hydroxydopamine-induced (6-OHDA-induced) activation of both p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and caspase-3 in SH-SY5Y cells; and enhances nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression via phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534793/an-information-theoretic-cluster-visualization-for-self-organizing-maps
#15
Leonardo Enzo Brito da Silva, Donald C Wunsch
Improved data visualization will be a significant tool to enhance cluster analysis. In this paper, an information-theoretic-based method for cluster visualization using self-organizing maps (SOMs) is presented. The information-theoretic visualization (IT-vis) has the same structure as the unified distance matrix, but instead of depicting Euclidean distances between adjacent neurons, it displays the similarity between the distributions associated with adjacent neurons. Each SOM neuron has an associated subset of the data set whose cardinality controls the granularity of the IT-vis and with which the first- and second-order statistics are computed and used to estimate their probability density functions...
May 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534783/nahal-flex-a-numerical-and-alphabetical-hinge-detection-algorithm-for-flexible-protein-structure-alignment
#16
Samira Fotoohifiroozabadi, Mohd Saberi Mohamad, Safaai Deris
Flexible proteins are proteins that have conformational changes in their structures. Protein flexibility analysis is critical for classifying and understanding protein functionality. For that analysis, the hinge areas where proteins show flexibility must be detected. To detect the location of the hinges, previous methods have utilized the three-dimensional (3D) structure of proteins, which is highly computational. To reduce the computational complexity, this study proposes a novel text-based method using structural alphabets (SAs) for detecting the hinge position, called NAHAL-Flex...
May 17, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534770/boscc-bag-of-spatial-context-correlations-for-spatially-enhanced-3d-shape-representation
#17
Zhizhong Han, Zhenbao Liu, Chi-Man Vong, Yu-Shen Liu, Shuhui Bu, Junwei Han, Philip Chen
Highly discriminative 3D shape representations can be formed by encoding the spatial relationship among virtual words into the Bag of Words (BoW) method. To achieve this challenging task, several unresolved issues in the encoding procedure must be overcome for 3D shapes, including i) arbitrary mesh resolution, ii) irregular vertex topology, iii) orientation ambiguity on the 3D surface and iv) invariance to rigid and non-rigid shape transformations. In this work, a novel spatially enhanced 3D shape representation called Bag of Spatial Context Correlations (BoSCC) is proposed to address all these issues...
May 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534663/pulmonary-granular-cell-tumours-case-presentations-and-literature-review
#18
Petra Radić, Luka Brčić
Pulmonary granular cells tumours are very rare tumours, most probably originating from Schwann cells. Although rare, clinical and biological presentation is diverse. They are most commonly endobronchial masses, usually a solitary pulmonary lesion, although in up to 20% they can occur as multiple lesions and can be mistaken for malignant process. In spite of infiltrative growth, and rare direct lymph node invasion, they have a very good prognosis if completely removed. Here we present two cases from the archives of the Institute of Pathology, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, with literature review...
January 1, 2017: Scottish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534649/a-meta-analytical-comparison-of-atenolol-with-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-on-arterial-stiffness-peripheral-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-in-hypertensive-patients
#19
Hong Xie, Gaoqing Luo, Yong Zheng, Feng Peng, Liangdi Xie
OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis of randomized parallel controlled trials was designed to compare the efficacy of atenolol with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) in changing pulse wave velocity (PWV), peripheral blood pressure and heart rate (HR) among patients with essential hypertension. METHODS: This study was conducted according to the PRISMA guideline. Data collection was independently completed by two investigators. Statistical analyses were completed by Stata software (v12...
May 23, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534647/considering-built-environment-and-spatial-correlation-in-modelling-pedestrian-injury-severity
#20
Carlo G Prato, Sigal Kaplan, Alexandre Patrier, Thomas K Rasmussen
OBJECTIVE: This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by posing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation across crashes. METHOD: Reports for 6539 pedestrian crashes occurred in Denmark between 2006 and 2015 were merged with geographic information system resources containing detailed information about built environment and exposure at the crash locations...
May 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
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