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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350369/analyses-of-combat-related-injuries-to-the-maxillofacial-and-cervical-regions-and-experiences-in-an-operational-field-hospital
#1
Mehmet Burak Aşık, Sinan Akay, Sami Eksert
BACKGROUND: With the changing conditions of war, maxillofacial injuries are observed more frequently. Particularly in urban areas, high-energy explosive devices (HEEDs), such as improvised explosive devices, are often used alongside long-barreled weapons (LBWs). It is important to use trauma scoring systems and a multidisciplinary approach for medically and accurately responding to the trauma patient in a timely manner. This study aimed to compare the Military Combat Injury Scale (MCIS) and Military Functional Incapacity Scale (MFIS) between injuries sustained by LBWs or HEEDs and to share experiences of an operational field hospital...
January 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349592/overview-of-current-and-future-adjuvant-therapy-for-high-risk-localized-renal-cell-carcinoma
#2
REVIEW
Lakshminarayanan Nandagopal, Gurudatta Naik, Guru Sonpavde
High-risk localized renal cell carcinoma represents a therapeutic challenge with high recurrence rates and poor survival with nephrectomy alone. Multiple agents targeting angiogenic and immunologic pathways have demonstrated remarkable efficacy in the metastatic setting but have failed to replicate similar successes in localized disease. Study results with adjuvant anti-angiogenic therapies may have been compromised by the high incidence of treatment discontinuations or dosage reductions secondary to intolerable side effects...
January 18, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346275/a-review-on-recent-advances-in-stabilizing-peptides-proteins-upon-fabrication-in-hydrogels-from-biodegradable-polymers
#3
REVIEW
Faisal Raza, Hajra Zafar, Ying Zhu, Yuan Ren, Aftab -Ullah, Asif Ullah Khan, Xinyi He, Han Han, Md Aquib, Kofi Oti Boakye-Yiadom, Liang Ge
Hydrogels evolved as an outstanding carrier material for local and controlled drug delivery that tend to overcome the shortcomings of old conventional dosage forms for small drugs (NSAIDS) and large peptides and proteins. The aqueous swellable and crosslinked polymeric network structure of hydrogels is composed of various natural, synthetic and semisynthetic biodegradable polymers. Hydrogels have remarkable properties of functionality, reversibility, sterilizability, and biocompatibility. All these dynamic properties of hydrogels have increased the interest in their use as a carrier for peptides and proteins to be released slowly in a sustained manner...
January 18, 2018: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343958/preparation-of-anastrozole-loaded-peg-pla-nanoparticles-evaluation-of-apoptotic-response-of-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#4
Yusra A Alyafee, Manal Alaamery, Shahad Bawazeer, Mansour S Almutairi, Badr Alghamdi, Nawaf Alomran, Atia Sheereen, Maha Daghestani, Salam Massadeh
Purpose: Anastrozole (ANS) is an aromatase inhibitor that is widely used as a treatment for breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Despite the wide use of ANS, it is associated with serious side effects due to uncontrolled delivery. In addition, ANS exhibits low solubility and short plasma half-life. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery has the potential to enhance the efficacy of drugs and overcome undesirable side effects. In this study, we aimed to prepare novel ANS-loaded PLA-PEG-PLA nanoparticles (ANS-NPs) and to compare the apoptotic response of MCF-7 cell line to both ANS and ANS-loaded NPs...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343186/association-between-palliative-care-and-life-sustaining-treatments-for-patients-with-dementia-a-nationwide-5-year-cohort-study
#5
Ping-Jen Chen, Fu-Wen Liang, Chung-Han Ho, Shao-Yi Cheng, Yi-Chen Chen, Yu-Han Chen, Yueh-Chun Chen
BACKGROUND: The association between palliative care and life-sustaining treatments for patients with dementia is unclear in Asian countries. AIM: To analyse the use of palliative care and its association with aggressive treatments based on Taiwanese national data. DESIGN: A matched cohort study was conducted. The association between intervention and outcome was evaluated using conditional logistic regression analyses. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: The source population comprised 239,633 patients with dementia diagnosed between 2002 and 2013...
January 1, 2018: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343041/forgoing-life-sustaining-treatments-in-the-icu-to-withhold-or-to-withdraw-is-that-the-question
#6
Giuseppe R Gristina, Francesca Baroncelli, Marco Vergano
In the last decades, mortality from severe acute illnesses has considerably declined thanks to the advances in intensive care medicine. Meanwhile, critical care physicians realized that lifesustaining treatments (LST) may not be appropriate for every patient, and end-of-life care in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) started to receive growing attention. Most deaths occurring in the ICU now follow a decision to forgo life-sustaining treatments (DFLST), which can be implemented either by withdrawing (WDLST) or withholding (WHLST) life-sustaining treatments...
January 17, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342284/two-ways-to-kill-a-patient
#7
Ben Bronner
According to the Standard View, a doctor who withdraws life-sustaining treatment does not kill the patient but rather allows the patient to die-an important distinction, according to some. I argue that killing (and causing death) can be understood in either of two ways, and given the relevant understanding, the Standard View is insulated from typical criticisms. I conclude by noting several problems for the Standard View that remain to be fully addressed.
January 12, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341962/withdrawal-of-life-sustaining-therapy
#8
Barbara G Jericho
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to examine literature relating to the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy (WLST). RECENT FINDINGS: Discussions regarding end-of-life issues in adults and children are not occurring comprehensively. Discussions relating to the WLST in the pediatric population varies by institution and may vary by race, age, health insurance, diagnosis, and severity of illness. Completing advance directives prior to placement of life-sustaining treatments is not consistent practice...
January 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338466/valbenazine-as-the-first-and-only-approved-treatment-for-adults-with-tardive-dyskinesia
#9
Harini Sarva, Claire Henchcliffe
Valbenazine is a selective VMAT2 inhibitor that the FDA approved in April 2017 for the specific treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD), a movement disorder commonly caused by dopamine blocking agents. Valbenazine acts to decrease dopamine release, reducing excessive movement found in TD. Areas covered: This drug profile reviews the development of valbenazine and the clinical trials that led to its approval as the first treatment specific to TD. The literature search was performed with the PubMed online database...
January 17, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338380/transplantation-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-reveals-structural-and-functional-improvements-in-the-spastic-han-wistar-rat-model-of-ataxia
#10
Ruslan L Nuryyev, Toni L Uhlendorf, Wesley Tierney, Suren Zatikyan, Oleg Kopyov, Alex Kopyov, Jessica Ochoa, William Van Trigt, Cindy S Malone, Randy W Cohen
The use of regenerative medicine to treat nervous system disorders like ataxia has been proposed to either replace or support degenerating neurons. In this study, we assessed the ability of human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to repair and restore the function of dying neurons within the spastic Han-Wistar rat (sHW), a model of ataxia. The sHW rat suffers from neurodegeneration of specific neurons, including cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells leading to the observed symptoms of forelimb tremor, hind-leg rigidity, gait abnormality, motor incoordination, and a shortened life span...
November 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334495/the-ethics-of-interventional-procedures-for-patients-too-ill-for-surgery
#11
Caroline G Kan, Michael Nurok
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Minimally invasive interventional procedures are increasingly popular options for patients who are high-risk candidates for open surgical procedures. It is unclear how to proceed in the rare circumstance of a complication during an interventional procedure, where addressing the complication would require exposing the patient to the full risk that was being avoided with the minimally invasive technique. This review provides recommendations on how to approach this paradoxical scenario...
January 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334338/at-home-genital-nerve-stimulation-for-individuals-with-sci-and-neurogenic-detrusor-overactivity-a-pilot-feasibility-study
#12
Dennis J Bourbeau, Kenneth J Gustafson, Steven W Brose
OBJECTIVE: Neurogenic bladder dysfunction, including neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) is one of the most clinically significant problems for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), affecting health and quality of life. Genital nerve stimulation (GNS) can acutely inhibit NDO-related reflex bladder contractions and increase bladder capacity. However, it is unknown if GNS can improve urinary continence or help meet individuals' bladder management goals during sustained use, which is required for GNS to be clinically effective...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333065/hepatitis-c-infection-in-patients-with-hereditary-bleeding-disorders-epidemiology-natural-history-and-management
#13
REVIEW
Nikolaos Papadopoulos, Vasiliki Argiana, Melanie Deutsch
Hereditary bleeding disorders include a group of diseases with abnormalities of coagulation. Prior to 1990, infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) was mainly transmitted via pooled plasma products as a treatment for hereditary bleeding disorders. Anti-HCV positivity in these patients may be as high as >70% in some areas, while some of them have also been coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. Since about 20% of HCV-infected patients clear the infection naturally, chronic HCV infection represents a significant health problem in this group of patients...
January 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331971/a-study-protocol-for-a-non-randomised-comparison-trial-evaluating-the-feasibility-and-effectiveness-of-a-mobile-cognitive-behavioural-programme-with-integrated-coaching-for-anxious-adults-in-primary-care
#14
Eva Szigethy, Francis Solano, Meredith Wallace, Dina L Perry, Lauren Morrell, Kathryn Scott, Megan Jones Bell, Megan Oser
INTRODUCTION: Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and subclinical GAD are highly prevalent in primary care. Unmanaged anxiety worsens quality of life in patients seen in primary care practices and leads to increased medical utilisation and costs. Programmes that teach patients cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques have been shown to improve anxiety and to prevent the evolution of anxiety symptoms to disorders, but access and engagement have hampered integration of CBT into medical settings...
January 13, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331091/terminal-spreading-depolarization-and-electric-silence-in-death-of-human-cortex
#15
Jens P Dreier, Sebastian Major, Brandon Foreman, Maren K L Winkler, Eun-Jeung Kang, Denny Milakara, Coline L Lemale, Vince DiNapoli, Jason M Hinzman, Johannes Woitzik, Norberto Andaluz, Andrew Carlson, Jed A Hartings
OBJECTIVE: Restoring the circulation is the primary goal in emergency treatment of cerebral ischemia. However, better understanding of how the brain responds to energy depletion could inform the time available for resuscitation until irreversible damage and advance development of interventions that prolong this span. Experimentally, injury to central neurons begins only with anoxic depolarization. This potentially reversible, spreading wave typically starts 2-5 min after the onset of severe ischemia, marking the onset of a toxic intraneuronal change that eventually results in irreversible injury...
January 13, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330835/international-guidelines-for-groin-hernia-management
#16
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, more than 20 million patients undergo groin hernia repair annually. The many different approaches, treatment indications and a significant array of techniques for groin hernia repair warrant guidelines to standardize care, minimize complications, and improve results. The main goal of these guidelines is to improve patient outcomes, specifically to decrease recurrence rates and reduce chronic pain, the most frequent problems following groin hernia repair. They have been endorsed by all five continental hernia societies, the International Endo Hernia Society and the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery...
January 12, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329501/sustained-plasma-hepcidin-suppression-and-iron-elevation-by-anticalin-derived-hepcidin-antagonist-in-cynomolgus-monkey
#17
Andreas M Hohlbaum, Hendrik Gille, Stefan Trentmann, Maria Kolodziejczyk, Barbara Rattenstetter, Coby M Laarakkers, Galina Katzmann, Hans Jürgen Christian, Nicole Andersen, Andrea Allersdorfer, Shane A Olwill, Bernd Meibohm, Laurent P Audoly, Dorine W Swinkels, Rachel P L van Swelm
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Anaemia of chronic disease (ACD) has been linked to iron restricted erythropoiesis imposed by high circulating levels of hepcidin, a 25 amino acid hepatocyte-derived peptide that controls systemic iron homeostasis. Here we report the engineering of the human lipocalin-derived, small protein-based Anticalin PRS-080 hepcidin antagonist with high affinity and selectivity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Anticalin- and hepcidin-specific pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling was used to design and select the suitable drug candidate based on half life extension and duration of hepcidin suppression...
January 12, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325675/mycophenolate-mofetil-as-a-therapeutic-agent-for-interstitial-lung-diseases-in-systemic-sclerosis
#18
REVIEW
Takahiro Ueda, Takuro Sakagami, Toshiaki Kikuchi, Toshinori Takada
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an intractable disease that causes fibrosis in all organs. Approximately 40% of patients with SSc have some degree of interstitial lung disease (ILD). One third of patients with SSc and ILD, approximately 15% of all patients, have pulmonary lesions, which slowly progress to respiratory failure resistant to corticosteroid and other treatments. A randomized controlled trial conducted in the United States indicated that one year of treatment with oral cyclophosphamide in patients with SSc-ILD had a significant but modest beneficial effect on lung function, dyspnea, thickening of the skin, and health-related quality of life...
January 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325571/development-of-a-hospital-based-patient-reported-outcome-framework-for-lung-cancer-patients-a-study-protocol
#19
Natasha Moloczij, Karla Gough, Benjamin Solomon, David Ball, Linda Mileshkin, Mary Duffy, Mei Krishnasamy
BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcome (PRO) data is central to the delivery of quality health care. Establishing sustainable, reliable and cost-efficient methods for routine collection and integration of PRO data into health information systems is challenging. This protocol paper describes the design and structure of a study to develop and pilot test a PRO framework to systematically and longitudinally collect PRO data from a cohort of lung cancer patients at a comprehensive cancer centre in Australia...
January 11, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325112/autologous-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-ahsct-in-severe-crohn-s-disease-a-review-on-behalf-of-ecco-and-ebmt
#20
John A Snowden, Julián Panés, Tobias Alexander, Matthieu Allez, Sandro Ardizzone, Daan Dierickx, Jürgen Finke, Peter Hasselblatt, Chris Hawkey, Majid Kazmi, James O Lindsay, Francesco Onida, Azucena Salas, Riccardo Saccardi, Severine Vermeire, Montserrat Rovira, Elena Ricart
Despite the major recent progress in the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD), there is a subset of patients in whom the disease runs an aggressive course with progressive tissue damage requiring early and repeated surgical management. Increasing evidence supports sustained and profound improvement in gastrointestinal parameters and quality of life following high dose immunosuppressive therapy and autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) compared to standard therapy in this context. In addition, international transplant registry data reflects the use of AHSCT in CD outside of trials in selected patients...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
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