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Cognitive Disability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730825/the-implication-of-ampa-receptor-in-synaptic-plasticity-impairment-and-intellectual-disability-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#1
G-R Cheng, X-Y Li, Y-D Xiang, D Liu, S M McClintock, Y Zeng
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most frequently inherited form of intellectual disability and prevalent single-gene cause of autism. A priority of FXS research is to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the cognitive and social functioning impairments in humans and the FXS mouse model. Glutamate ionotropic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPARs) mediate a majority of fast excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system and are critically important for nearly all aspects of brain function, including neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729882/breastfeeding-is-associated-with-enhanced-learning-abilities-in-school-aged-children
#2
Johanna Inhyang Kim, Bung-Nyun Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Soon-Beom Hong, Min-Sup Shin, Hee Jeong Yoo, Soo-Churl Cho
OBJECTIVE: The majority of studies on the associations between breastfeeding and cognitive functioning have focused on IQ, with only a few investigating learning skills, and none of the latter adjusting for maternal IQ. We examined the association between breastfeeding and learning abilities in school-aged children using a cross-sectional design. METHODS: We recruited 868 children, aged 8-11 years and parents completed the Learning Disability Evaluation Scale (LDES)...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729834/white-matter-hyperintensity-in-elderly-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-is-associated-with-cognitive-impairment-functional-disability-and-a-high-glycoalbumin-glycohemoglobin-ratio
#3
Yoshiaki Tamura, Yoshiyuki Kimbara, Takuya Yamaoka, Ken Sato, Yuki Tsuboi, Remi Kodera, Yuko Chiba, Seijiro Mori, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Aya M Tokumaru, Hideki Ito, Takashi Sakurai, Atsushi Araki
Aims: Although evidence has accumulated that white matter hyperintensity (WMH) is associated with the deterioration of cognitive function and impairment of activities of daily living (ADL), the clinical relevance of WMH in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is not still clear. The aim of this study was to examine whether WMH volume is associated with ADL and cognitive function and whether glucose control and glucose variability can affect WMH volume in these patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated the associations of WMH with cognitive function and instrumental ADL (IADL), as well as metabolic and vascular risk factors in a total of 178 elderly patients with diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729345/recent-advances-in-understanding-and-managing-body-dysmorphic-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Georgina Krebs, Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, David Mataix-Cols
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common and disabling psychiatric disorder characterised by excessive and persistent preoccupation with perceived defects or flaws in one's appearance, which are unnoticeable to others, and associated repetitive behaviours (eg, mirror checking). The disorder generally starts in adolescence, but often goes unnoticed and is severely underdiagnosed. Left untreated, BDD typically persists and causes marked functional impairment in multiple domains. This clinical review considers recent advances in the epidemiology and classification of BDD, including its reclassification in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders under the new 'Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders' chapter...
July 20, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728761/predictors-of-co-occurring-neurodevelopmental-disabilities-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#5
Lauren Head Zauche, Ashley E Darcy Mahoney, Melinda K Higgins
PURPOSE: Co-occurring neurodevelopmental disabilities (including cognitive and language delays and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) affect over half of children with ASD and may affect later behavioral, language, and cognitive outcomes beyond the ASD diagnosis. However, no studies have examined predictors of co-occurring neurodevelopmental disabilities in children with ASD. This study investigated whether maternal sociodemographic, perinatal and neonatal factors are associated with co-occurring disabilities...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728093/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-the-elderly-a-report-from-the-international-college-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorders-icocs
#6
B Dell'Osso, B Benatti, C I Rodriguez, C Arici, C Palazzo, A C Altamura, E Hollander, N Fineberg, D J Stein, H Nicolini, N Lanzagorta, D Marazziti, S Pallanti, M Van Ameringen, C Lochner, O Karamustafalioglu, L Hranov, M Figee, L Drummond, J Grant, D Denys, D Cath, J M Menchon, J Zohar
INTRODUCTION: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly disabling condition, with frequent early onset. Adult/adolescent OCD has been extensively investigated, but little is known about prevalence and clinical characterization of geriatric patients with OCD (G-OCD≥65years). The present study aimed to assess prevalence of G-OCD and associated socio-demographic and clinical correlates in a large international sample. METHODS: Data from 416 outpatients, participating in the ICOCS network, were assessed and categorized into 2 groups, age<vs≥65years, and then divided on the basis of the median age of the sample (age<vs≥42years)...
July 4, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726593/validation-and-normalization-of-the-tower-of-london-drexel-university-test-2nd-edition-in-an-adult-population-with-intellectual-disability
#7
Javier García-Alba, Susanna Esteba-Castillo, Miguel Ángel Castellanos López, Emili Rodríguez Hidalgo, Nuria Ribas Vidal, Fernando Moldenhauer Díaz, Ramón Novell-Alsina
Despite how important it is to assess executive functioning in persons with Intellectual Disability (ID), instruments adapted and validated for this population are scarce. This study's primary goal was to find evidence for the validity of the ID version of the Tower of London (TOLDXtm) test in persons with mild (IDMi) and moderate (IDMo) levels of ID with Down Syndrome (DS). A multicenter study was carried out. Subjects (n = 63, ≥ 39 years old) had DS with mild (n = 39) or moderate ID (n = 24) with no minor neurocognitive disorder or Alzheimer's disease...
July 20, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724842/short-term-effect-of-back-school-based-on-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-involving-multidisciplinary-collaboration
#8
Ryo Motoya, Koji Otani, Takuya Nikaido, Yoko Ono, Takatomo Matsumoto, Ryohei Yamagishi, Shoji Yabuki, Shin-Ichi Konno, Shin-Ichi Niwa, Hirooki Yabe
ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive back school program that included elements of CBT (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy), implement this through multidisciplinary collaboration, and ascertain its effectiveness as a pilot study. DesignThis school was implemented in the form of five 90-minute group sessions held every other week.MethodsParticipants comprised 7 chronic low back pain patients with poor improvement in the usual treatment. Practitioners were orthopaedic surgeon, physical therapist, and a clinical psychologist...
July 20, 2017: Fukushima Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724449/novel-promoters-and-coding-first-exons-in-dlg2-linked-to-developmental-disorders-and-intellectual-disability
#9
Claudio Reggiani, Sandra Coppens, Tayeb Sekhara, Ivan Dimov, Bruno Pichon, Nicolas Lufin, Marie-Claude Addor, Elga Fabia Belligni, Maria Cristina Digilio, Flavio Faletra, Giovanni Battista Ferrero, Marion Gerard, Bertrand Isidor, Shelagh Joss, Florence Niel-Bütschi, Maria Dolores Perrone, Florence Petit, Alessandra Renieri, Serge Romana, Alexandra Topa, Joris Robert Vermeesch, Tom Lenaerts, Georges Casimir, Marc Abramowicz, Gianluca Bontempi, Catheline Vilain, Nicolas Deconinck, Guillaume Smits
BACKGROUND: Tissue-specific integrative omics has the potential to reveal new genic elements important for developmental disorders. METHODS: Two pediatric patients with global developmental delay and intellectual disability phenotype underwent array-CGH genetic testing, both showing a partial deletion of the DLG2 gene. From independent human and murine omics datasets, we combined copy number variations, histone modifications, developmental tissue-specific regulation, and protein data to explore the molecular mechanism at play...
July 19, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724355/urban-rural-differences-in-the-association-between-access-to-healthcare-and-health-outcomes-among-older-adults-in-china
#10
Xufan Zhang, Matthew E Dupre, Li Qiu, Wei Zhou, Yuan Zhao, Danan Gu
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that inadequate access to healthcare is associated with lower levels of health and well-being in older adults. Studies have also shown significant urban-rural differences in access to healthcare in developing countries such as China. However, there is limited evidence of whether the association between access to healthcare and health outcomes differs by urban-rural residence at older ages in China. METHODS: Four waves of data (2005, 2008/2009, 2011/2012, and 2014) from the largest national longitudinal survey of adults aged 65 and older in mainland China (n = 26,604) were used for analysis...
July 19, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724317/who-among-patients-with-acquired-brain-injury-returned-to-work-after-occupational-rehabilitation-the-rapid-return-to-work-cohort-study
#11
Randi Wågø Aas, Lise Aasen Haveraaen, Evelien P M Brouwers, Lisebet Skeie Skarpaas
BACKGROUND: Acquired brain injury (ABI) is known to be severely disabling. On average, 40% of employees return to work (RTW) within two years after injury. There is, however, limited research on what might contribute to successful RTW. AIM: To examine factors that might impact the time-to first RTW for patients with ABI, participating in a RTW-program. METHODS: The study was designed as a cohort study of patients on sick leave due to mild or moderate ABI (n = 137)...
July 20, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721433/oral-health-and-the-frail-elderly
#12
L Rapp, S Sourdet, B Vellas, M-H Lacoste-Ferré
INTRODUCTION: The relationships between oral health conditions and frailty have rarely been explored. A systematic review of frailty components and oral health concluded that differences in study population endpoint criteria and study design cannot establish a relationship between frailty and oral health. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the distribution of the OHAT (Oral Health Assessment Tool) score in a population of frail subjects and to assess associated parameters (age, socio-economic status, living conditions, education level, nutritional habits, cognitive functioning, autonomy)...
2017: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721430/two-way-bridge-between-muscular-dysfunction-and-cognitive-impairment-secondary-analyses-of-sabe-bogota-study
#13
E Garcia-Cifuentes, D G David-Pardo, M G Borda, M U Perez-Zepeda, C A Cano-Gutiérrez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Muscular dysfunction and cognitive impairment are both disabling states, affecting especially the elderly. Thus, are important subjects of research. Our goal is to describe the association between these two entities in the elderly. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis from the SABE 2012 Bogota survey, which is a cross-sectional study. We define muscular dysfunction as an abnormal result in gait speed and/or handgrip strength tasks. Cognitive impairment was defined as an abnormal result in Mini Mental State Examination...
2017: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721340/post-intensive-care-syndrome-an-overview
#14
Gautam Rawal, Sankalp Yadav, Raj Kumar
Survival of critically unwell patients has improved in the last decade due to advances in critical care medicine. Some of these survivors develop cognitive, psychiatric and /or physical disability after treatment in intensive care unit (ICU), which is now recognized as post intensive care syndrome (PICS). Given the limited awareness about PICS in the medical faculty this aspect is often overlooked which may lead to reduced quality of life and cause a lot of suffering of these patients and their families. Efforts should be directed towards preventing PICS by minimizing sedation and early mobilization during ICU...
June 2017: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721027/frequency-of-frailty-and-its-association-with-cognitive-status-and-survival-in-older-chileans
#15
Cecilia Albala, Lydia Lera, Hugo Sanchez, Barbara Angel, Carlos Márquez, Patricia Arroyo, Patricio Fuentes
BACKGROUND: Age-associated brain physiologic decline and reduced mobility are key elements of increased age-associated vulnerability. OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency of frailty phenotype and its association with mental health and survival in older Chileans. METHODS: Follow-up of ALEXANDROS cohorts designed to study disability associated with obesity in community-dwelling people 60 years and older living in Santiago, Chile. At baseline, 2,098 (67% women) of 2,372 participants were identified as having the frailty phenotype: weak handgrip dynamometry, unintentional weight loss, fatigue/exhaustion, five chair-stands/slow walking speed and difficulty walking (low physical activity)...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720075/physical-activity-body-functions-and-disability-among-middle-aged-and-older-spanish-adults
#16
Alexandre Caron, Alba Ayala, Javier Damián, Carmen Rodriguez-Blazquez, Javier Almazán, Juan Manuel Castellote, Madgalena Comin, Maria João Forjaz, Jesús de Pedro
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is a health determinant among middle-aged and older adults. In contrast, poor health is expected to have a negative impact on PA. This study sought to assess to what extent specific International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) health components were associated with PA among older adults. METHODS: We used a sample of 864 persons aged ≥50 years, positively screened for disability or cognition in a cross-sectional community survey in Spain...
July 18, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720016/first-grade-cognitive-predictors-of-writing-disabilities-in-grades-2-through-4-elementary-school-students
#17
Lara-Jeane Costa, Melissa Green, John Sideris, Stephen R Hooper
The primary aim of this study was determining Grade 1 cognitive predictors of students at risk for writing disabilities in Grades 2 through 4. Applying cognitive measures selected to align with theoretical and empirical models of writing, tasks were administered to Grade 1 students assessing fine-motor, linguistic, and executive functions: 84 at risk (bottom quartile for age-base expectations) and 54 typically developing. A model with individual predictors was compared to a previously developed latent trait model to determine the relative predictive worth of each approach...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719298/cognitive-outcomes-and-psychiatric-symptoms-of-retinopathy-positive-cerebral-malaria-cohort-description-and-baseline-results
#18
Rachel Brim, Sebastian Mboma, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Sam Kampondeni, Jed Magen, Terrie Taylor, John Langfitt
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a common cause of death and disability among children in sub-Saharan Africa. Many prior studies of neuropsychiatric morbidity have been limited by a cross-sectional design or a short duration of follow-up. Most have included subjects who may have presented with coma due to a disease process other than CM. No studies have assessed the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and long-term outcomes. The Cognitive Outcomes and Psychiatric symptoms of retinopathy-positive CM (COPS) cohort is the first large (N = 221) prospectively recruited cohort of stringently defined cases of CM and hospital-based, age-matched, non-CM controls in whom cognitive and psychiatric outcomes are assessed with standardized measures semi-annually for up to 5 years...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717969/decreasing-the-expression-of-gabaa-%C3%AE-5-subunit-containing-receptors-partially-improves-cognitive-electrophysiological-and-morphological-hippocampal-defects-in-the-ts65dn-model-of-down-syndrome
#19
Verónica Vidal, Susana García-Cerro, Paula Martínez, Andrea Corrales, Sara Lantigua, Rebeca Vidal, Noemí Rueda, Laurence Ozmen, Maria-Clemencia Hernández, Carmen Martínez-Cué
Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome (DS) is the most common cause of intellectual disability of a genetic origin. The Ts65Dn (TS) mouse, which is the most commonly used and best-characterized mouse model of DS, displays many of the cognitive, neuromorphological, and biochemical anomalies that are found in the human condition. One of the mechanisms that have been proposed to be responsible for the cognitive deficits in this mouse model is impaired GABA-mediated inhibition. Because of the well-known modulatory role of GABAA α5 subunit-containing receptors in cognitive processes, these receptors are considered to be potential targets for improving the intellectual disability in DS...
July 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716256/post-stroke-depression-in-ghana-characteristics-and-correlates
#20
Fred Stephen Sarfo, Carolyn Jenkins, Arti Singh, Mayowa Owolabi, Akin Ojagbemi, Nathaniel Adusei, Raelle Saulson, Bruce Ovbiagele
BACKGROUND: Poststroke depression (PSD) is prevalent and is an important determinant of functional recovery, quality of life and mortality after stroke. Scanty data on the nature of PSD among stroke survivors in sub-Saharan Africa prompted this study. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and predictors of depression in a convenience sample of Ghanaian stroke survivors. METHODS: We evaluated consecutive stroke survivors encountered at a comprehensive neurology clinic in a tertiary medical center in Ghana...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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