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Cognitive Disability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923146/emergency-department-use-common-presenting-issues-and-continuity-of-care-for-individuals-with-and-without-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities
#1
Anna Durbin, Robert Balogh, Elizabeth Lin, Andrew S Wilton, Yona Lunsky
This population-based cohort study examined the relationship between level of continuity of primary care and subsequent emergency department (ED) visits for adults with (n = 66,484) and without intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD)(n = 2,760,670). Individuals with IDD were more likely than individuals with no IDD to visit the ED (33.96% versus 20.28%, p < 0.0001). For both groups receiving greater continuity of primary care was associated with less ED use, but this relationship was more marked for adults with IDD...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923070/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-brief-cognitive-assessment-for-multiple-sclerosis-bicams
#2
REVIEW
Freya Corfield, Dawn Langdon
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease of the central nervous system which can lead to a range of severe physical disabilities. A large proportion of those affected will experience cognitive impairment, which is associated with a worse prognosis. Effective assessment of cognition in MS has been problematic due to a lack of suitable scales. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) was developed in 2010 as part of an international endeavour to facilitate cognitive assessment...
June 19, 2018: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922691/establishing-the-reference-value-for-timed-up-and-go-test-in-healthy-adults-of-gujarat-india
#3
Nency Khant, Vyoma Bharat Dani, Purvi Patel, Rachana Rathod
CONTEXT: Timed up-and-go (TUG) test is a valid, reliable, and an objective test for quantifying functional mobility and assessing the fall risk in all age groups. The analysis of patient scores on TUG test is limited by lack of data, having a wide range of performance scores among people without disabilities. AIM: The objective of the study was to provide the reference value for TUG test in healthy individuals of Gujarat, India. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: It was a cross-sectional observational study...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922639/narrowing-the-genetic-causes-of-language-dysfunction-in-the-1q21-1-microduplication-syndrome
#4
Antonio Benítez-Burraco, Montserrat Barcos-Martínez, Isabel Espejo-Portero, Maite Fernández-Urquiza, Raúl Torres-Ruiz, Sandra Rodríguez-Perales, Ma Salud Jiménez-Romero
The chromosome 1q21.1 duplication syndrome (OMIM# 612475) is characterized by head anomalies, mild facial dysmorphisms, and cognitive problems, including autistic features, mental retardation, developmental delay, and learning disabilities. Speech and language development are sometimes impaired, but no detailed characterization of language problems in this condition has been provided to date. We report in detail on the cognitive and language phenotype of a child who presents with a duplication in 1q21.1 (arr[hg19] 1q21...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920178/risk-factors-for-depression-in-long-term-care-a-systematic-review
#5
Rebecca Chau, David W Kissane, Tanya E Davison
OBJECTIVES: Depression rates are substantially higher among older adults in long-term care compared to older adults in the community. Furthermore, the needs of older adults in long-term care are increasingly complex, and risk factors that contribute to depression in this population are unclear. This limits not only the identification of those at risk of depression but the development of therapeutic interventions. This review summarises the evidence on risk factors for depression. METHODS: Searches were performed using CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO and Scopus for research published 1980-2017...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917048/persistent-pain-quality-as-a-novel-approach-to-assessing-risk-for-disability-in-community-dwelling-elders-with-chronic-pain
#6
Manu Thakral, Ling Shi, Janice B Foust, Kushang V Patel, Robert H Shmerling, Jonathan F Bean, Suzanne G Leveille
Background: This study aims to test whether persistent pain quality is associated with incident or worsening disability in four domains: mobility, ADL and IADL difficulty and physical performance. Methods: From the MOBILIZE Boston Study, a population-based cohort of adults aged ≥70 years, we studied participants with chronic pain who endorsed at least one pain quality descriptor (N=398) and completed baseline and 18-month assessments. Pain quality was assessed using an adapted short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire with 20 pain quality descriptors in 3 categories: sensory, cognitive/affective, neuropathic...
June 18, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916567/-chronic-diseases-in-neuromotor-rehabilitation-medicine
#7
Antonio Nardone, Elena Paola Ferrari
OBJECTIVES: Chronic diseases are a major problem, whose importance is nowadays raising up. Up to 86% of deaths are directly related to chronic diseases in Europe as they represent large amount of total diseases, with a major impact on global health spending. METHODS: Patients suffering from heterogeneous disabilities (such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis) often show an interaction between the main disease and comorbidity and multimorbidity...
February 2018: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916406/subjective-and-objective-alexithymia-and-social-cognition-in-eating-disorders
#8
Michal Hason Rozenstein, Daniel Stein, Yael Latzer
BACKGROUND: Emotional difficulties characterize eating disorders (ED). We examined the construct of alexithymia (disability to recognize and understand emotions) and neurocognitive factors of social cognition in patients diagnosed with B/P-EDs and their mothers. METHOD: 34 mother-daughter dyads, in which the daughter has B/P-ED and 31 control dyads conducted subjective self-evaluation of alexithymia and underwent objective neuro-cognitive evaluation of their ability to recognize and understand emotions...
2018: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and related Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915039/large-an-intellectual-disability-associated-protein-regulates-ampa-type-glutamate-receptor-trafficking-and-memory
#9
Bo Am Seo, Taesup Cho, Daniel Z Lee, Joong-Jae Lee, Boyoung Lee, Seong-Wook Kim, Hee-Sup Shin, Myoung-Goo Kang
Mutations in the human LARGE gene result in severe intellectual disability and muscular dystrophy. How LARGE mutation leads to intellectual disability, however, is unclear. In our proteomic study, LARGE was found to be a component of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPA-R) protein complex, a main player for learning and memory in the brain. Here, our functional study of LARGE showed that LARGE at the Golgi apparatus (Golgi) negatively controlled AMPA-R trafficking from the Golgi to the plasma membrane, leading to down-regulated surface and synaptic AMPA-R targeting...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914521/the-prognostic-value-of-pain-catastrophizing-in-health-related-quality-of-life-judgments-after-total-knee-arthroplasty
#10
Esther Yakobov, William Stanish, Michael Tanzer, Michael Dunbar, Glen Richardson, Michael J L Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a highly effective procedure that yields reductions in pain and disability associated with end stage osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Quality of life instruments are frequently used to gauge the outcomes of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, research suggests that post-TKA reductions in symptom severity may not be the sole predictors of quality of life post-TKA. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the prognostic value of catastrophic thinking in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) judgments in patients with severe OA after TKA...
June 18, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913998/early-maladaptive-schemas-in-finnish-adult-chronic-male-and-female-pain-patients
#11
Tom H J Saariaho, Anita S I Saariaho, Irma A Karila, Matti I Joukamaa
Background and aims of the study The connection between chronic pain and traumatic experiences in childhood has been established in several studies. The association of emotional maltreatment with chronic pain has been studied, but to a lesser degree. Schema therapy [24] is an extension of cognitive therapy and presents the early maladaptive schema (EMS) concept. EMSs reflect early, mainly emotional maltreatment. The aim of the present study was to examine the existence of EMSs, the association between EMSs and pain variables and EMS driven patterns...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913921/applying-dialectical-behavior-therapy-to-chronic-pain-a-case-study
#12
Steven J Linton
Background and aims Chronic pain patients often present with a host of psychological and somatic problems and are unable to work despite receiving traditional pain management. For example, it is common that patients with persistent pain also suffer from a variety of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Indeed, the regulation of emotions may be one important factor that is associated with the development of persistent pain. Dialectical behavior therapy, a form of cognitive-behavioral therapy, focuses on emotion regulation and has successfully addressed other complex problems...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913852/acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-for-fibromyalgia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
G L Olsson, M Kemani, K Jensen, E Kosek, D Kadetoff, K Sorjonen, M Ingvar, R Wicksell
Background Recent developments within cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) have emphasized the utility of acceptance and mindfulness strategies, contrasting interventions focused on reduction or control of symptoms. A study of fMRI changes after CBT in females with fibromyalgia (FM) has been performed and results are presented elsewhere (under review). The aim of the present study was evaluate the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)-based intervention for patient diagnosed with FM in comparison with a wait-list control Method Female patients aged 18-55 years, fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for FM, and with a weekly self-reported average pain intensity of >40 (VAS 0-100) were considered eligible for inclusion...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913734/understanding-the-link-between-depression-and-pain
#14
Steven J Linton, Sofia Bergbom
Background and aims Patients seeking care for a pain problem very often also report symptoms of depression.In fact, depression is associated with the development of chronic pain as well as poor treatment results. Yet, the mechanisms by which depression and pain impact upon one another are not clear. This paper provides a critical review of the literature with the aim of shedding light on the relationship between pain and depression. Further, we introduce the Örebro Behavioral Emotion Regulation Model which may stimulate understanding in addition to research...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913653/pain-and-other-symptoms-in-patients-with-chronic-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo-bppv
#15
Wenche Iglebekk, Carsten Tjell, Peter Borenstein
Background and aim A diagnosis of chronic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is based on brief attacks of rotatory vertigo and concomitant nystagmus elicited by rapid changes in head position relative to gravity. However, the clinical course of BPPV may vary considerably from a self-limiting to a persisting and/or recurrent disabling problem. The authors' experience is that the most common complaints of patients with chronic BPPV are nautical vertigo or dizziness with other symptoms including neck pain, headache, widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and visual disturbances...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912792/neurocognitive-effects-of-agomelatine-treatment-in-schizophrenia-patients-suffering-from-comorbid-depression-results-from-the-agopsych-study
#16
Susanne Englisch, Hanna Sophie Jung, Sarah Eisenacher, Antje Lewien, Anna Becker, Ulrike Nowak, Hanna Braun, Jascha Thiem, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Mathias Zink
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is highly disabling and remains one of the major therapeutic challenges. Agomelatine (AGO), an agonist at melatonergic MT1/MT2 receptors and antagonist at 5-HT2C receptors, increases dopamine and norepinephrine in the prefrontal cortex and may therefore have the potential of improving neurocognition in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with schizophrenia and comorbid depression were treated with AGO in addition to stable doses of antipsychotic drugs...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911605/happy-despite-pain-pilot-study-of-a-positive-psychology-intervention-for-patients-with-chronic-pain
#17
Ida K Flink, Elke Smeets, Sofia Bergboma, Madelon L Peters
Background and purpose Dealing with chronic pain is difficult and affects physiological as well as psychological well-being. Patients with chronic pain are often reporting concurrent emotional problems such as low mood and depressive symptoms. Considering this, treatments need to involve strategies for improving mood and promoting well-being in this group of patients. With the rise of the positive psychology movement, relatively simple intervention strategies to increase positive feelings, cognitions, and behaviours have become available...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911180/mammalian-trim67-functions-in-brain-development-and-behavior
#18
Nicholas P Boyer, Caroline Monkiewicz, Shalini Menon, Sheryl S Moy, Stephanie L Gupton
Class I members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases evolutionarily appeared just prior to the advent of neuronal like cells and have been implicated in neuronal development from invertebrates to mammals. The single Class I TRIM in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans and the mammalian Class I TRIM9 regulate axon branching and guidance in response to the guidance cue netrin, whereas mammalian TRIM46 establishes the axon initial segment. In humans, mutations in TRIM1 and TRIM18 are implicated in Opitz Syndrome, characterized by midline defects and often intellectual disability...
May 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910801/lifelong-impacts-of-moderate-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-on-neuroimmune-function
#19
REVIEW
Shahani Noor, Erin D Milligan
In utero alcohol exposure is emerging as a major risk factor for lifelong aberrant neuroimmune function. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder encompasses a range of behavioral and physiological sequelae that may occur throughout life and includes cognitive developmental disabilities as well as disease susceptibility related to aberrant immune and neuroimmune actions. Emerging data from clinical studies and findings from animal models support that very low to moderate levels of fetal alcohol exposure may reprogram the developing central nervous system leading to altered neuroimmune and neuroglial signaling during adulthood...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910733/preclinical-models-of-traumatic-brain-injury-emerging-role-of-glutamate-in-the-pathophysiology-of-depression
#20
REVIEW
Darik A O'Neil, Melissa A Nicholas, Naima Lajud, Anthony E Kline, Corina O Bondi
More than 10 million people worldwide incur a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year, with two million cases occurring in the United States. TBI survivors exhibit long-lasting cognitive and affective sequelae that are associated with reduced quality of life and work productivity, as well as mental and emotional disturbances. While TBI-related disabilities often manifest physically and conspicuously, TBI has been linked with a "silent epidemic" of psychological disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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