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Cognitive Disability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922243/late-diagnosed-phenylketonuria-in-an-eight-year-old-boy-with-dyslexia-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Yılmaz Yıldız, Ali Dursun, Ayşegül Tokatlı, Turgay Coşkun, Hatice Serap Sivri
Phenylketonuria, previously a common cause of severe intellectual disability, is a metabolic disorder now promptly diagnosed and effectively treated thanks to newborn screening programs. Here, we report a male patient presenting with dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, who was diagnosed with mild phenylketonuria at eight years of age. Earlier recognition and treatment before the establishment of irreversible brain damage would have resulted in better neurobehavioural outcomes. Classical phenylketonuria and milder phenotypes of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of all cognitive and behavioural problems of unknown cause...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919792/the-role-of-posturography-in-assessing-the-process-of-rehabilitation-in-poststroke-patients-a-case-study
#2
Witold Rongies, Bartosz Słomka, Angelika Duczek, Włodzimierz Dolecki
Stroke is one of the most common causes of death and disability both in Poland and around the world. Each year, 250 out of 100,000 people in Europe are diagnosed with a disruption of cerebral perfusion in the form of stroke. In Poland, approximately 65,000-70,000 people are affected each year, with the incidence steadily increasing. Stroke survivors suffer from impaired cognitive and motor functions. Moreover, they exhibit severe gait pattern abnormalities, which together with balance disorders, constitute the main factors increasing the risk of falls in this patient group...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919483/a-systematic-review-of-anxiety-amongst-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Ellen Butler, Faith Matcham, Trudie Chalder
BACKGROUND: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease, which poses significant psychological challenges. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify factors that are associated with anxiety in people with MS (PwMS). It aimed to examine the strength of evidence for factors associated with anxiety symptoms and identify limitations of existing studies. METHOD AND RESULTS: One hundred and thirty one studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the review...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919477/practice-effect-in-symbol-digit-modalities-test-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-treated-with-natalizumab
#4
Malte Roar, Zsolt Illes, Tobias Sejbaek
OBJECTIVES: How practice effect influences cognitive testing measured by monthly Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) during natalizumab treatment, and what factors confound such effect. METHODS: Eighty patients were examined monthly with SDMT for 26.2±8.4 months. After 26.0±8.1 months, SDMT was also performed with a rearranged key in 59 cases. Results of SDMTs with the rearranged and previous regular key were compared. We examined if gender, age, Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS), relapses, and disability progression/improvement influence SDMT performed with the regular and the rearranged key, respectively...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919474/a-study-of-cognitive-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis-with-novel-clinical-and-electrophysiological-parameters-utilizing-the-event-related-potential-p300
#5
Somasundaram Aadhimoolam Chinnadurai, Srinivasan Avathvadi Venkatesan, Gobinathan Shankar, Balasubramanian Samivel, Lakshmi Narasimhan Ranganathan
BACKGROUND: Although cognitive fatigue plays a significant part in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) related impairment, knowledge regarding it is largely lacking. Until now, not many tools are available to a clinician to detect cognitive fatigue. The subjective tools of fatigue have never been reliable.tabl OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and clinical/ demographic profile of cognitive fatigue in MS using novel clinical and electrophysiological measures and to find their accuracy. We also aimed to test the three leading hypotheses - the temporal fatigue, cognitive load and cognitive domain hypotheses of cognitive fatigue in MS...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918855/best-practice-for-community-based-management-of-postnatal-depression-in-developing-countries-a-systematic-review
#6
Sara Dixon, Jaya A R Dantas
Postnatal depression (PND) is a common disorder that can be profoundly disabling for affected mothers and their infants. We reviewed published articles on the community-based management of postnatal depression (PND) in developing countries. Our aim was to propose recommendations to help women with PND. Various databases were searched for English articles from 2000 - 2014. Twelve articles met the selection criteria. We found that interventions involving cognitive behavioural therapy, infant stimulation, and problem solving can improve outcomes for PND...
December 5, 2016: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918444/mental-health-comorbidities-in-pediatric-chronic-pain-a-narrative-review-of-epidemiology-models-neurobiological-mechanisms-and-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Jillian Vinall, Maria Pavlova, Gordon J G Asmundson, Nivez Rasic, Melanie Noel
Chronic pain during childhood and adolescence can lead to persistent pain problems and mental health disorders into adulthood. Posttraumatic stress disorders and depressive and anxiety disorders are mental health conditions that co-occur at high rates in both adolescent and adult samples, and are linked to heightened impairment and disability. Comorbid chronic pain and psychopathology has been explained by the presence of shared neurobiology and mutually maintaining cognitive-affective and behavioral factors that lead to the development and/or maintenance of both conditions...
December 2, 2016: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918176/comparing-depression-screening-tools-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-ms
#8
Joshua Hanna, Jonathan B Santo, Mervin Blair, Kathy Smolewska, Erin Warriner, Sarah A Morrow
OBJECTIVE: Depression is more common among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) than the general population. Depression in MS is associated with reduced quality of life, transition to unemployment, and cognitive impairment. Two proposed screening measures for depression in MS populations are the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS). Our objective was to compared the associations of the BDI-FS and the HADS-D scores with history of depressive symptoms, fatigue, and functional outcomes to determine the differential clinical utility of these screening measures among persons with MS...
December 5, 2016: Rehabilitation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913539/prevention-of-central-nervous-system-sequelae-in-sickle-cell-disease-without-evidence-from-randomized-controlled-trials-the-case-for-a-team-based-learning-collaborative
#9
Michael R DeBaun, Allison A King
Since 1998, the National Institutes of Health has funded 5 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for primary and secondary prevention of strokes in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). In a systematic fashion, these trials have significantly advanced the care of children with SCA. In the absence of an RCT, clinicians are often compelled to make decisions at the bedside, based on experience, observational studies, and principles of hematology. We will provide an initial example that describes how a team-based, learning collaborative developed a multisite standard care protocol with a low budget (<$10 000 per year) to overcome the intrinsic limitations of advancing the care of neurologic complications in sickle cell disease (SCD)...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912992/brain-tumors-and-metastases
#10
REVIEW
Mary M Vargo
Patients with brain tumor exhibit wide-ranging prognoses and functional implications of their disease and treatments. In general, the supportive care needs of patients with brain tumor, including disabling effects, have been recognized to be high. This review (1) briefly summarizes brain tumor types, treatments, and prognostic information for the rehabilitation clinician; (2) reviews evidence for rehabilitation, including acute inpatient rehabilitation and cognitive rehabilitation, and the approaches to selected common symptom and medical management issues; and (3) examines emerging data about survivorship, such as employment, community integration, and fitness...
February 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912106/a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial-for-bright-light-therapy-in-adults-with-intellectual-disabilities-and-depression-study-protocol-and-obstacle-management
#11
Pauline C M Hamers, Heleen M Evenhuis, Heidi Hermans
Due to the limited cognitive and communicative abilities of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), current treatment options for depression are often limited to lifestyle changes and pharmacological treatment. Bright light therapy (BLT) is an effective intervention for both seasonal and non-seasonal depression in the general population. BLT is an inexpensive, easy to carry out intervention with minimal side effects. However, knowledge on its anti-depressant effect in adults with ID is lacking. Obstacles in realizing a controlled intervention study in this particular study population may have contributed to this lack...
November 29, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911284/different-types-of-exercise-in-multiple-sclerosis-aerobic-exercise-or-pilates-a-single-blind-clinical-study
#12
Bilge Kara, Fadime Küçük, Esra Coşkuner Poyraz, Melda Soysal Tomruk, Egemen İdıman
BACKROUND: The aim of our study is to examine effects of aerobic and Pilates exercises on disability, cognition, physical performance, balance, depression and fatigue in relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients as compared to healthy controls. METHODS: The subjects were divided as aerobic exercise (n = 26), Pilates (n = 9), and the healthy control group (n = 21). We used MSFC, physical performance, Berg balance scale, Beck depression scale, fatique impact scale...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910102/association-of-serum-klotho-with-loss-of-bone-mineral-density-and-fracture-risk-in-older-adults
#13
Didier Chalhoub, Elisa Marques, Osorio Meirelles, Richard D Semba, Luigi Ferrucci, Suzanne Satterfield, Michael Nevitt, Jane A Cauley, Tamara Harris
OBJECTIVES: Klotho deficiency has been previously linked to aging-like phenotypes such as osteoporosis, cognitive impairment, and sarcopenia. Low serum klotho was shown to be related to grip strength and disability. Nonetheless, no previous study has explored the association between serum klotho and fractures. The purpose of this report is to examine the relationship of serum klotho with bone mineral density (BMD) loss and fractures in older adults. DESIGN: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study is a longitudinal cohort study of 3,075 community-dwelling older adults...
December 2, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906880/hypoglycemia-in-patients-with-insulin%C3%A2-treated-diabetes
#14
Janusz Gumprecht, Katarzyna Nabrdalik
Hypoglycemia is the major barrier for optimal glycemic control in patients on maintenance insulin therapy. It is widely known that good glycemic control leads to prevention of or delay in the development of microvascular complications, and can reduce macrovascular events. It is thought that hypoglycemia may predispose patients to cognitive deterioration and may negatively affect the cardiovascular system. Hypoglycemia per se can contribute to a blunted counterregulatory response and disabling hypoglycemia, while hypoglycemia avoidance restores normal response to low blood glucose levels...
October 11, 2016: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906067/aspartylglycosaminuria-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Maria Arvio, Ilkka Mononen
Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU), a recessively inherited lysosomal storage disease, is the most common disorder of glycoprotein degradation with a high prevalence in the Finnish population. It is a lifelong condition affecting on the patient's appearance, cognition, adaptive skills, physical growth, personality, body structure, and health. An infantile growth spurt and development of macrocephalia associated to hernias and respiratory infections are the key signs to an early identification of AGU. Progressive intellectual and physical disability is the main symptom leading to death usually before the age of 50 years...
December 1, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905966/rapid-assessment-of-disability-in-the-philippines-understanding-prevalence-well-being-and-access-to-the-community-for-people-with-disabilities-to-inform-the-w-dare-project
#16
Manjula Marella, Alexandra Devine, Graeme Ferdinand Armecin, Jerome Zayas, Ma Jesusa Marco, Cathy Vaughan
BACKGROUND: International recognition that people with disabilities were excluded from the Millennium Development Goals has led to better inclusion of people with disabilities in the recently agreed Global Goals for Sustainable Development (SDGs) 2015-2030. Given the current global agenda for disability inclusion, it is crucial to increase the understanding of the situation of people with disabilities in the Philippines. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of disability and compare the well-being and access to the community between people with and without disabilities...
August 2, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904818/the-government-s-role-in-regulating-coordinating-and-standardizing-the-response-to-alzheimer-s-disease-anticipated-international-cooperation-in-the-area-of-intractable-and-rare-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Qi Tang, Peipei Song, Lingzhong Xu
The World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasized that aging of the population is inextricably linked to many other global public health issues, such as universal health coverage, non-communicable diseases, and disability. However, Alzheimer's Disease International (ADI) estimates that 46.8 million elderly people worldwide were living with dementia in 2015. Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases and is the main cause of cognitive impairment...
November 2016: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903937/identification-and-validation-of-clinically-meaningful-benchmarks-in-the-12-item-multiple-sclerosis-walking-scale
#18
Myla D Goldman, Melanie D Ward, Robert W Motl, David E Jones, John H Pula, Diego Cadavid
BACKGROUND: The 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (12-MSWS) is a validated questionnaire which assessed walking function; it has been widely adopted in multiple sclerosis (MS) clinical research. OBJECTIVE: Identify and validate clinically meaningful 12-MSWS benchmarks in MS. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 159 MS patients permitted identification of clinically meaningful 12-MSWS benchmarks based on their relationship to real-life anchors...
November 30, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902848/topiramate-in-migraine-prevention-a-2016-perspective
#19
Stephen D Silberstein
BACKGROUND: In evidence-based guidelines published in 2000, topiramate was a third-tier migraine preventive with no scientific evidence of efficacy; recommendation for its use reflected consensus opinion and clinical experience. Its neurostabilizing activity, coupled with its favorable weight profile, made topiramate an attractive alternative to other migraine preventives that caused weight gain. When guidelines for migraine prevention in episodic migraine were published in 2012, topiramate was included as a first-line option based on double-blind, randomized controlled trials involving nearly 3000 patients...
November 30, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901522/the-effect-of-remission-status-on-work-functioning-in-employed-patients-treated-for-major-depressive-disorder
#20
David Sarfati, Kurtis Stewart, Cindy Woo, Sagar V Parikh, Lakshmi N Yatham, Raymond W Lam
BACKGROUND: The ability to function at work is impaired in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) but few clinical trials include occupational outcome assessments. This study examined whether symptom remission following treatment for MDD is associated with work functioning improvement. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a 12-week randomized clinical trial comparing escitalopram with or without telephone-administered cognitive therapy in employed patients with MDD (N = 86)...
November 1, 2016: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
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