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Cognitive Disability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527135/association-between-muscle-function-cognitive-state-depression-symptoms-and-quality-of-life-of-older-people-evidence-from-clinical-practice
#1
Salah Gariballa, Awad Alessa
BACKGROUND: Although low muscle function/strength is an important predictor of poor clinical outcome in older patients, information on its impact on mental health in clinical practice is still lacking. AIMS: The aim of this report is to measure the impact of low muscle function measured by handgrip strength on mental health of older people during both acute illness and recovery. METHODS: Four hundred and thirty-two randomly selected hospitalized older patients had their baseline demographic and clinical characteristics assessed within 72 h of admission, at 6 weeks and at 6 months...
May 19, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526295/large-scale-exploratory-genetic-analysis-of-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Ignacio F Mata, Catherine O Johnson, James B Leverenz, Daniel Weintraub, John Q Trojanowski, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Beate Ritz, Rebecca Rausch, Stewart A Factor, Cathy Wood-Siverio, Joseph F Quinn, Kathryn A Chung, Amie L Peterson-Hiller, Alberto J Espay, Fredy J Revilla, Johnna Devoto, Dora Yearout, Shu-Ching Hu, Brenna A Cholerton, Thomas J Montine, Karen L Edwards, Cyrus P Zabetian
Cognitive impairment is a common and disabling problem in Parkinson's disease (PD). Identification of genetic variants that influence the presence or severity of cognitive deficits in PD might provide a clearer understanding of the pathophysiology underlying this important nonmotor feature. We genotyped 1105 PD patients from the PD Cognitive Genetics Consortium for 249,336 variants using the NeuroX array. Participants underwent assessments of learning and memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised [HVLT-R]), working memory/executive function (Letter-Number Sequencing and Trail Making Test [TMT] A and B), language processing (semantic and phonemic verbal fluency), visuospatial abilities (Benton Judgment of Line Orientation [JoLO]), and global cognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Assessment)...
April 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524462/editorial-perspective-neurodiversity-a-revolutionary-concept-for-autism-and-psychiatry
#3
EDITORIAL
Simon Baron-Cohen
Should we continue to refer to autism as a 'disease' or 'disorder', or is the framework of 'neurodiversity' a more humane and accurate lens through which to view people with autism? Evidence at the genetic, neural, behavioural and cognitive levels reveals people with autism show both differences, and signs of disability, but not disorder. Disability requires societal support, acceptance of difference and diversity, and societal "reasonable adjustment", whilst disorder is usually taken to require cure or treatment...
June 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524219/-epileptic-encephalopathies
#4
J Ramos-Lizana
According to the International League Against Epilepsy's (ILAE) Commission on Classification and Terminology, the term 'epileptic encephalopathy' reflects the notion that epileptic activity in itself can contribute to the genesis of severe cognitive or behavioural disabilities, beyond what could be expected from the pathology underlying the epilepsy. However, in many cases it is difficult to define the boundary between the relative contribution of the epileptic seizures and the underlying cause in the genesis of cognitive deficits...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524211/-rehabilitation-treatment-in-child-and-youth-patients-with-acquired-brain-injury
#5
M T Varas-Arias, S Rodriguez-Palero
Brain injury is one of the most frequent causes of death and disability in the child and adolescent. The improvement in patient care in the acute moment and the evolution of health care has meant and increase in the survival of these patients and also of the sequelae. Physical, cognitive-behavioral or organic symptoms are usually. The second is being one of the most frequent and most limiting in these patients. The brain injury affects the patient but involves the whole family because of the disability and the dependence it entails...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521527/employment-outcome-four-years-after-a-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-results-of-the-paris-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-study
#6
Alexis Ruet, Claire Jourdan, Eléonore Bayen, Emmanuelle Darnoux, Dalila Sahridj, Idir Ghout, Sylvie Azerad, Pascale Pradat Diehl, Philippe Aegerter, James Charanton, Claire Vallat Azouvi, Philippe Azouvi
OBJECTIVE: To describe employment outcome four years after a severe traumatic brain injury by the assessment of individual patients' preinjury sociodemographic data, injury-related and postinjury factors. DESIGN: A prospective, multicenter inception cohort of 133 adult patients in the Paris area (France) who had received a severe traumatic brain injury were followed up postinjury at one and four years. Sociodemographic data, factors related to injury severity and one-year functional and cognitive outcomes were prospectively collected...
May 18, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521040/cortical-remyelination-is-heterogeneous-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Eva M M Strijbis, Evert-Jan Kooi, Paul van der Valk, Jeroen J G Geurts
Cortical lesions (CLs) are an important component of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology; they correlate better with physical disability and cognitive impairment than white matter lesions (WMLs). Because remyelination can be extensive in CLs, we quantified remyelination in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), addressing oligodendrocyte (OGD) maturation state and clinical relevance of remyelination. Brain tissue samples from 21 chronic MS patients were immunohistochemically stained for myelin proteolipid protein, Olig2, which is strongly expressed in OGD precursor cells (OPCs), but weakly expressed in mature OGDs and other OGD markers...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515552/the-influence-of-psychosocial-dysfunctions-in-chronic-schizophrenia-patients-in-remission-a-hospital-based-study
#8
Sarada Prasanna Swain, Sushree Sangita Behura, Manoj Kumar Dash, Anil Kumar Nayak, Saswati Sucharita Pati
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial dysfunctions in the various psychosocial areas in chronic schizophrenic patients predict the long-term course, outcome, and quality of life of these patients, which always varies with years of treatment. OBJECTIVE: To know the influence and compare the level of psychosocial dysfunctions and severity of disability burden in chronic schizophrenic patients who are in remission with duration of 5 and 20 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample was collected from the OPD of Mental Health Institute (COE), S...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515545/traumatic-brain-injury-and-neuropsychiatric-complications
#9
REVIEW
Saeed Ahmed, Hema Venigalla, Hema Madhuri Mekala, Sara Dar, Mudasar Hassan, Shahana Ayub
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating injury results in damage to the brain. It is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in young people with a higher prevalence in men. TBI is the leading cause of disability and mortality between the ages 1 and 45. TBI can be caused either by the direct result of trauma or due to a complication of the primary injury. The most common etiological factors for TBI are falls, road traffic accidents, violent physical assaults, and injuries associated with athletic activities...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514882/interventions-in-pain-management-for-persons-with-an-intellectual-disability
#10
Owen Doody, Maria E Bailey
Pain is a multidimensional and subjective experience, and an ideal pain management regime needs to be comprehensive, integrative and involve all relevant persons. Multimodal interventions may include pharmacological, physical, social, psychological and spiritual approaches in order to address pain management at a molecular, functional, behavioural, cognitive and affective levels. Pain management interventions will vary according to pain aetiology, patient characteristics and preferences. In keeping with best practice guidelines for effective pain management, a structured approach incorporating an effective assessment of pain by the healthcare professional, identification of the source and type of pain and accurate documentation is essential...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities: JOID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512065/long-term-functional-and-psychosocial-outcomes-after-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-a-case-controlled-comparison-to-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Meredith Harbinson, Sareh Zarshenas, Nora Cullen
BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing rate of survival from Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury (HIBI), there is a paucity of evidence on the long-term functional outcomes after inpatient rehabilitation among these non-traumatic patients compared to patients with Traumatic Brain injury (TBI). OBJECTIVES: To compare functional and psychosocial outcomes of patients with HIBI vs. case-matched patients with TBI 4 to11 years after brain insult. DESIGN: Retrospective, matched case-controlled study...
May 13, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511678/multidimensional-daily-diary-of-fatigue-fibromyalgia-17-items-mdf-fibro-17-part-1-development-and-content-validity
#12
S Morris, Y Li, J A M Smith, S Dube', C Burbridge, T Symonds
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia (FM), a disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain and tenderness, affects greater than five million individuals in the United States alone. Patients experience multiple symptoms in addition to pain, and among them, fatigue is one of the most bothersome and disabling. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that fatigue is a multidimensional concept. Currently, to our knowledge, no multidimensional Patient Reported Outcome (PRO) measure of FM-related fatigue meets Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements to support a product label claim...
May 16, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506956/web-based-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-depression-in-people-with-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Jill Newby, Lisa Robins, Kay Wilhelm, Jessica Smith, Therese Fletcher, Inika Gillis, Trevor Ma, Adam Finch, Lesley Campbell, Gavin Andrews
BACKGROUND: Depression is twice as common in diabetes mellitus (DM) as the general population and is associated with adverse health outcomes, but access to evidence-based therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is limited in routine diabetes care. Past research has shown that generic Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) is an effective treatment for depression in the general population, but it has never been evaluated in people with comorbid depression and DM...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506748/copy-number-variation-analysis-of-patients-with-intellectual-disability-from-north-west-spain
#14
Inés Quintela, Jesús Eirís, Carmen Gómez-Lado, Laura Pérez-Gay, David Dacruz, Raquel Cruz, Manuel Castro-Gago, Luz Míguez, Ángel Carracedo, Francisco Barros
Intellectual disability (ID) is a complex and phenotypically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significant deficits in cognitive and adaptive skills, debuting during the developmental period. In the last decade, microarray-based copy number variation (CNV) analysis has been proved as a strategy particularly useful in the discovery of loci and candidate genes associated with these phenotypes and is widely used in the clinics with a diagnostic purpose. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of two genome-wide high density SNP microarrays -Cytogenetics Whole-Genome 2...
May 12, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506706/cognitive-and-functional-deficits-in-people-with-schizophrenia-evidence-for-accelerated-or-exaggerated-aging
#15
Philip D Harvey, Jennifer B Rosenthal
Cognitive and functional deficits are commonly seen in people with schizophrenia. The profile of these impairments has a resemblance to the cognitive changes seen in healthy aging. In specific, many of the cognitive ability domains that change the most with aging in healthy people are the most salient of these deficits seen in people with schizophrenia, including prominent deficits in processing speed, working memory, and episodic memory. Functional deficits seen in schizophrenia are also similar to those seen in healthy aging...
May 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503963/nominal-group-technique-for-individuals-with-cognitive-disability-a-systematic-review
#16
Ali Lakhani, David P Watling, Heidi Zeeman, Courtney J Wright, Jason Bishara
RATIONALE: Considering the perspectives of individuals with cognitive disability is important for their participation in their self-directed health care. The nominal group technique (NGT) has been identified as a method to gather opinions of people with cognitive disability; however, a synthesis of methodological considerations to undertake when employing the approach among people with cognitive disability is non-existent. METHOD: A systematic review guided by the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols was undertaken...
May 13, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503714/depression-severity-and-concentration-difficulties-are-independently-associated-with-hrqol-in-patients-with-unipolar-depressive-disorders
#17
A Fattori, L Neri, A Bellomo, M Vaggi, C Mencacci
PURPOSE: Cognitive impairment is a core feature of major depressive disorder (MDD), and dysfunctions in this area strongly contribute to MDD-associated disability. Whether cognitive impairment has an independent clinical course and a unique impact on HRQOL is still debated. We sought to characterize the relationship between depression severity and HRQOL, evaluating the burden of concentration difficulties on HRQOL. METHODS: Six hundred ninety-two patients with unipolar depressive disorders recruited in 19 Italian centers answered a self-administered survey (SF-12 questionnaire, socio-demographic information)...
May 13, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501473/electrical-status-epilepticus-during-sleep-in-mowat-wilson-syndrome
#18
Paolo Bonanni, Susanna Negrin, Anna Volzone, Nicoletta Zanotta, Roberta Epifanio, Claudio Zucca, Elisa Osanni, Elisa Petacchi, Franco Fabbro
AIM: Mowat-Wilson Syndrome (MWS) is a genetic rare disease. Epilepsy is present in 70-75% of Patients and an age-dependent electroclinical pattern has been described. Up to date, there are studies with overnight sleep EEGs, probably because of the severe intellectual disability (ID) and hyperactivity of these Patients. Our purpose was to verify the hypothesis that MWS Patients might have electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep (ESES pattern). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of anamnestic and electrographic data was performed on 7 consecutive MWS Patients followed between 2007 and 2016...
May 10, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500650/aberrant-cognitive-phenotypes-and-altered-hippocampal-bdnf-expression-related-to-epigenetic-modifications-in-mice-lacking-the-post-synaptic-scaffolding-protein-shank1-implications-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
A Özge Sungur, Magdalena C E Jochner, Hani Harb, Ayşe Kılıç, Holger Garn, Rainer K W Schwarting, Markus Wöhr
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a class of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by persistent deficits in social communication/interaction, together with restricted/repetitive patterns of behavior. ASD is among the most heritable neuropsychiatric conditions, and while available evidence points to a complex set of genetic factors, the SHANK gene family has emerged as one of the most promising candidates. Here, we assessed ASD-related phenotypes with particular emphasis on social behavior and cognition in Shank1 mouse mutants in comparison to heterozygous and wildtype littermate controls across development in both sexes...
May 12, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499574/use-of-computer-and-mobile-technologies-in-the-treatment-of-depression
#20
REVIEW
Judith A Callan, Jesse Wright, Greg J Siegle, Robert H Howland, Britney B Kepler
Major depression (MDD) is a common and disabling disorder. Research has shown that most people with MDD receive either no treatment or inadequate treatment. Computer and mobile technologies may offer solutions for the delivery of therapies to untreated or inadequately treated individuals with MDD. The authors review currently available technologies and research aimed at relieving symptoms of MDD. These technologies include computer-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy (CCBT), web-based self-help, Internet self-help support groups, mobile psychotherapeutic interventions (i...
June 2017: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
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