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Cognitive Disability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054333/developmental-trend-of-children-with-down-s-syndrome-how-do-sex-and-neonatal-conditions-influence-their-developmental-patterns
#1
Sayaka Aoki, Yuko Yamauchi, Keiji Hashimoto
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated factors that would influence developmental trend of children with Down's syndrome (DS) in three different domains (motor, cognitive, language), specifically focusing on the effect of sex and neonatal conditions, including preterm birth, low birth weight, and congenital heart disease (CHD). METHODS: The participants were 158 children with DS (mean age at the initial test = 25.5 months) receiving clinical service at a rehabilitation center in Yokohama, Japan...
October 17, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053891/look-beyond-the-door-not-through-the-keyhole-evidence-from-a-cognitive-assessment-including-social-cognition-evaluation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#2
EDITORIAL
Antonio Carotenuto
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disorder leading to both physical and cognitive disability in young adults. These limitations harshly impact the overall subject's habits and are predictive of poor social integration, resulting in reduced working activity and limited social network [1]. To this point, among the cognitive domains that could be impaired in MS, Social Cognition (SC) can have a direct impact on this outcome, due to its involvement in social interactions. This article is protected by copyright...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048554/social-risk-and-resilience-factors-in-adolescent-chronic-pain-examining-the-role-of-parents-and-peers
#3
Alexandra C Ross, Laura E Simons, Amanda B Feinstein, Isabel A Yoon, Rashmi P Bhandari
Objective: The current study focuses on social risk and resilience in an adolescent population with chronic pain. Prior research identifies parental cognitions and behaviors as influential in youths' experiences of chronic pain and pain-related disability. Adolescent development is characterized by greater autonomy from parents and an increased emphasis on peer relationships. Study aims explore the potential protective effect of high-quality adolescent peer relationships on associations between parent and adolescent cognitive and behavioral responses to pain...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048264/counseling-parents-at-risk-of-delivery-of-an-extremely-premature-infant-differing-strategies
#4
Marlyse F Haward, Annie Janvier, John M Lorenz, Baruch Fischhoff
BACKGROUND: It is not known how neonatologists address the affective and cognitive loads on parents deciding whether to resuscitate infants born extremely preterm. This study explores expert neonatologists' views on these decision-making processes and their own roles in counseling parents. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews asked internationally recognized experts to share their perspectives on perinatal consultations. Their responses were subjected to thematic analysis...
October 19, 2017: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046483/deficiency-of-shank2-causes-mania-like-behavior-that-responds-to-mood-stabilizers
#5
Andrea L Pappas, Alexandra L Bey, Xiaoming Wang, Mark Rossi, Yong Ho Kim, Haidun Yan, Fiona Porkka, Lara J Duffney, Samantha M Phillips, Xinyu Cao, Jin-Dong Ding, Ramona M Rodriguiz, Henry H Yin, Richard J Weinberg, Ru-Rong Ji, William C Wetsel, Yong-Hui Jiang
Genetic defects in the synaptic scaffolding protein gene, SHANK2, are linked to a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, intellectual disability, and bipolar disorder, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the pleotropic effects of SHANK2 mutations are poorly understood. We generated and characterized a line of Shank2 mutant mice by deleting exon 24 (Δe24). Shank2Δe24-/- mice engage in significantly increased locomotor activity, display abnormal reward-seeking behavior, are anhedonic, have perturbations in circadian rhythms, and show deficits in social and cognitive behaviors...
October 19, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046152/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-is-associated-with-genetic-variations-in-cyp2j
#6
Ming Yao, Daping Lv, Jiajia Huo, Zhongwu Sun
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) can cause cognitive impairment, disability, and dementia. While it's still unclear about the pathogenesis of SVD, several risk factors of SVD have been identified, and studies suggested that hypertension may play a critical role in SVD. Furthermore, studies have demonstrated that CYP2J2 isoform, 50 G>T variant, is associated with increase the risk of ischemic stroke. Thus, we hypothesized that CYP2J2 50 G>T variant is associated with increased risk of cerebral SVD...
October 17, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045836/arc-requires-psd95-for-assembly-into-postsynaptic-complexes-involved-with-neural-dysfunction-and-intelligence
#7
Esperanza Fernández, Mark O Collins, René A W Frank, Fei Zhu, Maksym V Kopanitsa, Jess Nithianantharajah, Sarah A Lemprière, David Fricker, Kathryn A Elsegood, Catherine L McLaughlin, Mike D R Croning, Colin Mclean, J Douglas Armstrong, W David Hill, Ian J Deary, Giulia Cencelli, Claudia Bagni, Menachem Fromer, Shaun M Purcell, Andrew J Pocklington, Jyoti S Choudhary, Noboru H Komiyama, Seth G N Grant
Arc is an activity-regulated neuronal protein, but little is known about its interactions, assembly into multiprotein complexes, and role in human disease and cognition. We applied an integrated proteomic and genetic strategy by targeting a tandem affinity purification (TAP) tag and Venus fluorescent protein into the endogenous Arc gene in mice. This allowed biochemical and proteomic characterization of native complexes in wild-type and knockout mice. We identified many Arc-interacting proteins, of which PSD95 was the most abundant...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045492/multitasking-in-older-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#8
Jason L Rucker, Joan M McDowd, Jonathan D Mahnken, Jeffrey M Burns, Carla H Sabus, Amanda J Britton-Carpenter, Nora B Utech, Patricia M Kluding
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Deficits in the ability to multitask contribute to gait abnormalities and falls in many at-risk populations. However, it is unclear whether older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) also demonstrate impairments in multitasking. The purpose of this study was to compare multitasking performance in cognitively intact older adults with and without DM and explore its relationship to measures of gait and functional ability. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 40 individuals aged 60 and older with type 2 DM and a matched group of 40 cognitively intact older adults without DM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045421/enlarged-virchow-robin-spaces-associate-with-cognitive-decline-in-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Alice Favaretto, Andrea Lazzarotto, Alice Riccardi, Stefano Pravato, Monica Margoni, Francesco Causin, Maria Giulia Anglani, Dario Seppi, Davide Poggiali, Paolo Gallo
The clinical significance of Virchow Robin spaces (VRS) in inflammatory brain disorders, especially in multiple sclerosis (MS), is still undefined. We analysed enlarged VRS (eVRS) by means of phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) MRI sequence and investigated their association with inflammation or brain atrophy, and to clinical or physical disability. Forty-three MS patients (21 clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of MS [CIS], 15 RRMS, 7 progressive [PMS]) and 10 healthy controls (HC) were studied. 3DT1, 3DFLAIR and 2DPSIR images were obtained with a 3T MRI scanner...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044765/a-novel-inborn-error-of-the-coenzyme-q10-biosynthesis-pathway-cerebellar-ataxia-and-static-encephalomyopathy-due-to-coq5-c-methyltransferase-deficiency
#10
May Christine V Malicdan, Thierry Vilboux, Bruria Ben-Zeev, Jennifer Guo, Aviva Eliyahu, Ben Pode-Shakked, Amir Dori, Sravan Kakani, Settara C Chandrasekharappa, Carlos Ferreira, Natalia Shelestovich, Dina Marek-Yagel, Hadass Pri-Chen, Ilan Blatt, John E Niederhuber, Langping He, Camilo Toro, Robert W Taylor, John Deeken, Tal Yardeni, Douglas C Wallace, William A Gahl, Yair Anikster
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ; MIM# 607426) deficiencies are an emerging group of inherited mitochondrial disorders with heterogonous clinical phenotypes. Over a dozen genes are involved in the biosynthesis of CoQ10 , and mutations in several of these are associated with human disease. However, mutations in COQ5 (MIM# 616359), catalyzing the only C-methylation in the CoQ10 synthetic pathway, have not been implicated in human disease. Here, we report three female siblings of Iraqi-Jewish descent, who had varying degrees of cerebellar ataxia, encephalopathy, generalized tonic-clonic seizures and cognitive disability...
October 16, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044754/factors-affecting-access-to-daily-oral-and-dental-care-among-adults-with-intellectual-disabilities
#11
Darren Chadwick, Melanie Chapman, Gill Davies
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Accessing oral health care can be more difficult for adults with intellectual disabilities with reports of poorer levels of oral health. This investigation identifies factors influencing engagement in day-to-day oral and dental health care for adults with intellectual disabilities. METHOD: A survey, containing questions about facilitators and barriers to maintaining oral health and hygiene, was completed with adults with intellectual disabilities and their caregivers (N = 372)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044626/the-cost-effectiveness-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-bulimia-nervosa-in-the-australian-context
#12
Long Khanh-Dao Le, Phillipa Hay, Tracey Wade, Stephen Touyz, Cathrine Mihalopoulos
OBJECTIVE: This study was to model the cost-effectiveness of specialist-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (CBT-BN) compared to no intervention within the Australian context. METHOD: An illness-death model was developed to estimate the cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted of CBT-BN over 2 years from the healthcare perspective. Target population was adults aged 18-65 years with BN. Results are reported as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) in 2013 Australian dollars per DALY averted...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043654/evaluation-of-selected-micrornas-expression-in-remission-phase-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-their-potential-link-to-cognition-depression-and-disability
#13
Marta Niwald, Monika Migdalska-Sęk, Ewa Brzeziańska-Lasota, Elżbieta Miller
Accumulating data suggests that miRNAs might play a major role in neuroinflammatory processes. Therefore, our study aimed to first estimate the levels of miR-155, miR-326, and miR-301a in serum of RR-MS patients in the remission phase and then compare the levels of the examined miRNAs at different times after relapse. In this study, 36 RR-MS patients in the remission phase took part. We analyzed two subgroups of RR-MS: one, 1 to 2 months after completing steroid treatment during relapse (post-acute; n = 13) and the other, over 2 years without any relapse (stable; n = 23)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042813/rehabilitation-management-of-low-back-pain-it-s-time-to-pull-it-all-together
#14
Yannick Tousignant-Laflamme, Marc Olivier Martel, Anand B Joshi, Chad E Cook
In the past, rehabilitation research initiatives for low back pain (LBP) have targeted outcome enhancement through personalized treatment approaches, namely through classification systems (CS). Although the use of CS has enhanced outcomes, common management practices have not changed, the prevalence of LBP is still high, and only selected patients meet the CS profile, namely those with a nociceptive context. Similarly, although practice guidelines propose some level of organization and occasionally a timeline of care provision, each mainly provides best practice for isolated treatment approaches...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042781/children-with-borderline-intellectual-functioning-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-developmental-trajectories-from-4-to-11-years-of-age
#15
Martina Barnevik Olsson, Anette Holm, Joakim Westerlund, Åsa Lundholm Hedvall, Christopher Gillberg, Elisabeth Fernell
BACKGROUND: Studies on autism have tended to focus either on those with intellectual disability (ie, those with intellectual quotient [IQ] under 70) or on the group that is referred to as "high-functioning", that is, those with borderline, average or above average IQ. The literature on cognition and daily functioning in autism spectrum disorder combined specifically with borderline intellectual functioning (IQ 70-84) is limited. METHODS: From a representative group of 208 preschool children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, those 50 children in the group with borderline intellectual functioning at ages 4...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041863/clinical-outcome-measures-for-progressive-ms-trials
#16
Daniel Ontaneda, Jeffrey A Cohen, Maria Pia Amato
Treatment options for progressive multiple sclerosis remain the main unmet need of the field. As the understanding of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis improves, new pathways and molecules will be tested for potential reparative, remyelinating, or neuroprotective effects. The clinical outcomes used will determine successful demonstration of beneficial treatment effects to regulatory agencies, clinicians, and persons with MS. This review focuses on clinical outcome measures including the Expanded Disability Status Scale, Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite, and novel composite measures of disability...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040889/factors-associated-with-happiness-in-the-elderly-persons-living-in-the-community
#17
Bruna Moretti Luchesi, Nathalia Alves de Oliveira, Daiene de Morais, Rebeca Mendes de Paula Pessoa, Sofia Cristina I Pavarini, Marcos Hortes N Chagas
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate factors associated with happiness in a sample of Brazilian older adults. METHODS: A study was conducted with 263 elderly people in the area of coverage of a family health unit located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The Subjective Happiness Scale was used to measure happiness, the final score of which determined one of three outcomes: not happy, intermediate, and happy. Disability, sociodemographic characteristics, and psychological, cognitive, and physical factors were considered for the multinomial logistic regression analysis...
October 12, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040554/frailty-syndrome-an-emerging-clinical-problem-in-the-everyday-management-of-clinical-arrhythmias-the-results-of-the-european-heart-rhythm-association-survey
#18
Stefano Fumagalli, Tatjana S Potpara, Torben Bjerregaard Larsen, Kristina H Haugaa, Dan Dobreanu, Alessandro Proclemer, Nikolaos Dagres
The age of patients presenting with complex arrhythmias is increasing. Frailty is a multifaceted syndrome characterized by an increased vulnerability to stressors and a decreased ability to maintain homeostasis. The prevalence of frailty is associated with age. The aims of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) EP Wire survey were to evaluate the proportion of patients with frailty and its influence on the clinical management of arrhythmias. A total of 41 centres-members of the EHRA Electrophysiology Research Network-in 14 European countries completed the web-based questionnaire in June 2017...
October 10, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038693/bio-psycho-social-factors-affecting-sexual-self-concept-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Robabeh Potki, Tayebe Ziaei, Mahbobeh Faramarzi, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Zohreh Shahhosseini
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, it is believed that mental and emotional aspects of sexual well-being are the important aspects of sexual health. Sexual self-concept is a major component of sexual health and the core of sexuality. It is defined as the cognitive perspective concerning the sexual aspects of 'self' and refers to the individual's self-perception as a sexual creature. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the different factors affecting sexual self-concept...
September 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038245/mitochondrial-calcium-dysregulation-contributes-to-dendrite-degeneration-mediated-by-pd-lbd-associated-lrrk2-mutants
#20
Manish Verma, Jason Callio, P Anthony Otero, Israel Sekler, Zachary P Wills
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) contribute to development of late-onset familial Parkinson's disease (PD), with clinical features of motor and cognitive dysfunction indistinguishable from sporadic PD. Calcium dysregulation plays an important role in PD pathogenesis, but the mechanisms of neurodegeneration remain unclear. Recent reports indicate enhanced excitatory neurotransmission in cortical neurons expressing mutant LRRK2, which occurs prior to the well-characterized phenotype of dendritic shortening...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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