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Cognitive Disability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674987/the-complex-interplay-between-depression-anxiety-and-executive-functioning-insights-from-the-ecas-in-a-large-als-population
#1
Laura Carelli, Federica Solca, Andrea Faini, Fabiana Madotto, Annalisa Lafronza, Alessia Monti, Stefano Zago, Alberto Doretti, Andrea Ciammola, Nicola Ticozzi, Vincenzo Silani, Barbara Poletti
Introduction: The observed association between depressive symptoms and cognitive performances has not been previously clarified in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (pALS). In fact, the use of cognitive measures often not accommodating for motor disability has led to heterogeneous and not conclusive findings about this issue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between cognitive and depressive/anxiety symptoms by means of the recently developed Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS Screen (ECAS), a brief assessment specifically designed for pALS...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674248/frequency-of-participation-and-association-with-functioning-in-adolescents-born-extremely-preterm-findings-from-a-population-based-cohort-in-northern-germany
#2
K Sell, M Rapp, H Muehlan, J Spiegler, U Thyen
BACKGROUND: Outcomes after extremely preterm birth (<28 weeks gestation) have been studied intensely, and follow-up into adulthood is well-established. Following the introduction of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, participation has been recognized to be a relevant outcome in rehabilitation research. During adolescence, participation is crucial to adapting to new social roles. The aim of our study was to investigate participation in the domains Autonomy, Relationships and Community Recreation...
April 16, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673974/randomized-controlled-trial-of-nurse-delivered-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-versus-supportive-psychotherapy-telehealth-interventions-for-chronic-back-pain
#3
Thomas Rutledge, J Hampton Atkinson, Rachael Holloway, Tatiana Chircop-Rollick, John D'Andrea, Steven R Garfin, Shetal Patel, Donald B Penzien, Mark Wallace, Anne L Weickgenant, Mark Slater
This study evaluated a nurse-delivered, telehealth intervention of cognitive behavioral therapy versus supportive psychotherapy for chronic back pain. Participants (N=61) had chronic back pain (pain "daily" ≥ 6 months at an intensity ≥4/10 scale) and were randomized to an 8-week, 12-session, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) or to Supportive Care (SC) matched for frequency, format, and time, with each treatment delivered by a primary care nurse. The primary outcome was the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673896/health-beliefs-and-medication-adherence-in-black-patients-with-diabetes-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Barry W Rovner, Robin J Casten
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate determinants of medication adherence and glycemic control in black patients with diabetes and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 143 participants with mean age of 68.8 (SD: 6.7) years; 66.4% were women. RESULTS: Eighty-seven participants (60.8%) self-reported medication nonadherence; they had more negative beliefs about medicines, greater diabetes-related distress, and more difficulty with daily living activities and affording medications than adherent participants...
March 23, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673732/self-assessment-of-social-cognitive-ability-in-schizophrenia-association-with-social-cognitive-test-performance-informant-assessments-of-social-cognitive-ability-and-everyday-outcomes
#5
Juliet M Silberstein, Amy E Pinkham, David L Penn, Philip D Harvey
BACKGROUND: Impairments in self-assessment are common in people with schizophrenia and impairments in self-assessment of cognitive ability have been found to predict impaired functional outcome. In this study, we examined self-assessment of social cognitive ability and related them to assessments of social cognition provided by informants, to performance on tests of social cognition, and to everyday outcomes. The difference between self-reported social cognition and informant ratings was used to predict everyday functioning...
April 17, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673269/dual-diagnosis-a-problematic-construct-when-applied-to-persons-with-intellectual-disabilities
#6
John D McLennan
The term dual diagnosis can refer to the co-occurrence of an intellectual disability and a mental disorder. While such a term may have some advocacy rationale aimed at facilitating improved mental health care for those with intellectual disabilities, it is proposed that the construct has flawed underpinnings, and its application may problematize mental health service delivery. A core concern is the promotion of categorical diagnostic models, whereas dimensional models may more accurately reflect underlying continuums for both cognitive and mental health challenges...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672823/developmental-disorders-with-intellectual-disability-driven-by-chromatin-dysregulation-clinical-overlaps-and-molecular-mechanisms
#7
REVIEW
L Larizza, P Finelli
Advances in genomic analyses based on next generation sequencing and integrated omics approaches, have accelerated in an unprecedented way the discovery of causative genes of developmental delay (DD) and intellectual disability (ID) disorders. Chromatin dysregulation has been recognized as common pathomechanism of mendelian DD/ID syndromes due to mutation in genes encoding chromatin regulators referred as transcriptomopathies or epigenetic disorders. Common to these syndromes are the wide phenotypic breadth and the recognition of groups of distinct syndromes with shared signs besides cognitive impairment, likely mirroring common molecular mechanisms...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672757/time-for-a-quick-word-the-striking-benefits-of-training-speed-and-accuracy-of-word-retrieval-in-post-stroke-aphasia
#8
Paul Conroy, Christina Sotiropoulou Drosopoulou, Gina F Humphreys, Ajay D Halai, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
One-third of stroke survivors experience deficits in word retrieval as a core characteristic of their aphasia, which is frustrating, socially limiting and disabling for their professional and everyday lives. The, as yet, undiscovered 'holy grail' of clinical practice is to establish a treatment that not only improves item naming, but also generalizes to patients' connected speech. Speech production in healthy participants is a remarkable feat of cognitive processing being both rapid (at least 120 words per minute) and accurate (∼one error per 1000 words)...
April 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672668/distinct-effects-of-apathy-and-dopamine-on-effort-based-decision-making-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Campbell Le Heron, Olivia Plant, Sanjay Manohar, Yuen-Siang Ang, Matthew Jackson, Graham Lennox, Michele T Hu, Masud Husain
Effort-based decision-making is a cognitive process crucial to normal motivated behaviour. Apathy is a common and disabling complication of Parkinson's disease, but its aetiology remains unclear. Intriguingly, the neural substrates associated with apathy also subserve effort-based decision-making in animal models and humans. Furthermore, the dopaminergic system plays a core role in motivating effortful behaviour for reward, and its dysfunction has been proposed to play a crucial role in the aetiology of apathy in Parkinson's disease...
April 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672647/mapping-the-knowledge-structure-of-frailty-in-journal-articles-by-text-network-analysis
#10
Youngji Kim, Soong-Nang Jang
BACKGROUNDS: This study was to understand the trends of frailty research and networking features of keywords from the academic articles focusing on frailty in the last four decades. METHOD: Keywords were extracted from articles (n = 6,424) retrieved from Web of Science, from 1981 to April 2016, using Bibexcel, and a social network analysis was conducted using Net Miner. RESULTS: The core-keywords of research on frailty are constantly changing over the last 40 years...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672076/it-takes-two-parent-functioning-within-the-pediatric-chronic-pain-experience-and-interdisciplinary-rehabilitation-treatment
#11
Ethan Benore, Alexandra Brenner, Gerard A Banez, Lu Wang, Sarah Worley
OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to examine relationships between parental behavior and cognition and treatment outcomes in children enrolled in an intensive interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation program. RESEARCH METHOD: 670 consecutive referrals of children with chronic pain were enrolled in a clinical database registry from 2009 to 2014. Participants and their parents completed measures of physical and psychosocial functioning, and pain-related severity ratings...
April 19, 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671621/a-research-framework-to-isolate-visuospatial-from-childhood-motor-coordination-phenotypes
#12
Michele Poletti
Clinicians acknowledge the presence of developmental cognitive phenotypes mainly characterized by a specific visuospatial impairment in presence of intact verbal functioning (usually referred as Nonverbal Learning Disability: NLD) since many decades, without providing sufficient empirical evidence supporting their nosological validity and inclusion in current diagnostic manuals. This contribution suggests that the goal of including NLD in future diagnostic manuals could be achieved only be the demonstration of the validity of this hypothesized clinical category...
April 19, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669268/frailty-and-cognitive-status-evaluation-can-better-predict-mortality-in-older-adults
#13
Ivan Aprahamian, Claudia Kimie Suemoto, Márlon Juliano Romero Aliberti, Sileno de Queiroz Fortes Filho, Juliana de Araújo Melo, Sumika Mori Lin, Wilson Jacob Filho
OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the improvement in one-year mortality prediction after adding a 2-min cognitive screening to a simple 1-min frailty detection instrument. Secondary outcomes were new activities of daily living (ADL) disability and falls. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A geriatric day-hospital for intermediate care. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 701 older adults with an acute or decompensated disease (79...
April 11, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669082/cognitive-functional-therapy-an-integrated-behavioral-approach-for-the-targeted-management-of-disabling-low-back-pain
#14
Peter B O'Sullivan, J P Caneiro, Mary O'Keeffe, Anne Smith, Wim Dankaerts, Kjartan Fersum, Kieran O'Sullivan
Biomedical approaches for diagnosing and managing disabling low back pain (LBP) have failed to arrest the exponential increase in health care costs, with a concurrent increase in disability and chronicity. Health messages regarding the vulnerability of the spine and a failure to target the interplay among multiple factors that contribute to pain and disability may partly explain this situation. Although many approaches and subgrouping systems for disabling LBP have been proposed in an attempt to deal with this complexity, they have been criticized for being unidimensional and reductionist and for not improving outcomes...
May 1, 2018: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667443/implications-of-structural-and-functional-brain-changes-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#15
Thanuja Dharmadasa, William Huynh, Jun Tsugawa, Yoshimitsu Shimatani, Yan Ma, Matthew C Kiernan
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive muscle weakness and disability, eventually leading to death. Heterogeneity of disease has become a major barrier to understanding key clinical questions such as prognosis and disease spread, and has disadvantaged clinical trials in search of therapeutic intervention. Patterns of disease have been explored through recent advances in neuroimaging, elucidating structural, molecular and functional changes. Unique brain signatures have emerged that have lent a greater understanding of critical disease mechanisms, offering opportunities to improve diagnosis, guide prognosis, and establish candidate biomarkers to direct future therapeutic strategies...
April 19, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667152/falls-in-mexican-older-adults-aged-60-years-and-older
#16
Luis M Valderrama-Hinds, Soham Al Snih, Nai-Wei Chen, Martin A Rodriguez, Rebeca Wong
BACKGROUND: Falls are a major cause of disability, morbidity, institutionalization, and mortality in older adults. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to examine the risk factors for falls among Mexican older adults aged 60 years and older. METHODS: This study included 6247 participants and their spouse or partner aged 60 years and older from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, an ongoing longitudinal study (2001-2012) conducted in Mexico...
April 17, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666169/impact-of-transitional-care-on-endocrine-and-anthropometric-parameters-in-prader-willi-syndrome
#17
Anne-Cécile Paepegaey, Muriel Coupaye, Asma Jaziri, Florence Menesguen, Béatrice Dubern, Michel Polak, Jean-Michel Oppert, Maithe Tauber, Graziella Pinto, Christine Poitou
CONTEXT: The transition of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) to adult life for medical care is challenging because of multiple comorbidities, including hormone deficiencies, obesity, and cognitive and behavioral disabilities. OBJECTIVE: To assess endocrine management, and metabolic and anthropometric parameters of PWS adults who received (n=31) or not (n=64) transitional care, defined as specialized pediatric care followed by a structured care pathway to a multidisciplinary adult team...
April 17, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665854/a-community-based-physical-activity-intervention-to-prevent-mobility-related-disability-for-retired-older-people-retirement-in-action-react-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Afroditi Stathi, Janet Withall, Colin J Greaves, Janice L Thompson, Gordon Taylor, Antonieta Medina-Lara, Colin Green, James Bilzon, Selena Gray, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Claire E Sexton, Max J Western, Jolanthe L de Koning, Jessica C Bollen, Sarah J Moorlock, Naiara Demnitz, Poppy Seager, Jack M Guralnik, W Jack Rejeski, Ken R Fox
BACKGROUND: The REtirement in ACTion (REACT) study is a multi-centre, pragmatic, two-arm, parallel-group randomised controlled trial (RCT) with an internal pilot phase. It aims to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community, group-based physical activity intervention for reducing, or reversing, the progression of functional limitations in older people who are at high risk of mobility-related disability. METHODS/DESIGN: A sample of 768 sedentary, community-dwelling, older people aged 65 years and over with functional limitations, but who are still ambulatory (scores between 4 and 9 out of 12 in the Short Physical Performance Battery test (SPPB)) will be randomised to receive either the REACT intervention, delivered over a period of 12 months by trained facilitators, or a minimal control intervention...
April 17, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663869/the-effect-of-self-assessed-fatigue-and-subjective-cognitive-impairment-on-work-capacity-the-case-of-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Gisela Kobelt, Dawn Langdon, Linus Jönsson
OBJECTIVES: The impact of physical disability in multiple sclerosis on employment is well documented but the effect of neurological symptoms has been less well studied. We investigated the independent effect of self-reported fatigue and cognitive difficulties on work. METHODS: In a large European cost of illness survey, self-reported fatigue, subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), and productivity at work were assessed with visual analogue scales (VAS 0-10). The analysis controlled for country, age, age at diagnosis, gender, education, and physical disability...
April 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661557/a-new-therapy-prevents-intellectual-disability-in-mouse-with-phenylketonuria
#20
Tiziana Pascucci, Luigia Rossi, Marco Colamartino, Claudia Gabucci, Claudia Carducci, Alessandro Valzania, Valeria Sasso, Noemi Bigini, Francesca Pierigè, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Rossella Ventura, Simona Cabib, Mauro Magnani, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Vincenzo Leuzzi
Untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) results in severe neurodevelopmental disorders, which can be partially prevented by an early and rigorous limitation of phenylalanine (Phe) intake. Enzyme substitution therapy with recombinant Anabaena variabilis Phe Ammonia Lyase (rAvPAL) proved to be effective in reducing blood Phe levels in preclinical and clinical studies of adults with PKU. Aims of present study were: a) to gather proofs of clinical efficacy of rAvPAL treatment in preventing neurological impairment in an early treated murine model of PKU; b) to test the advantages of an alternative delivering system for rAvPAL such as autologous erythrocytes...
April 7, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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