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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134443/circadian-clock-during-plant-development
#1
Keisuke Inoue, Takashi Araki, Motomu Endo
Plants have endogenous biological clocks that allow organisms to anticipate and prepare for daily and seasonal environmental changes and increase their fitness in changing environments. The circadian clock in plants, as in animals and insects, mainly consists of multiple interlocking transcriptional/translational feedback loops. The circadian clock can be entrained by environmental cues such as light, temperature and nutrient status to synchronize internal biological rhythms with surrounding environments. Output pathways link the circadian oscillator to various physiological, developmental, and reproductive processes for adjusting the timing of these biological processes to an appropriate time of day or a suitable season...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128667/bombyx-mori-abc-transporter-c2-structures-responsible-for-the-receptor-function-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1aatoxin
#2
Shiho Tanaka, Haruka Endo, Satomi Adegawa, Ami Iizuka, Kazuhiro Imamura, Shingo Kikuta, Ryoichi Sato
Because Bombyx mori ABC transporter C2 (BmABCC2) has 1000-fold higher potential than B. mori cadherin-like protein as a receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin (Tanaka et al., 2013), the gate-opening ability of the latent pore under six extracellular loops (ECLs) of BmABCC2 was expected to be the reason for its higher potential (Heckel, 2012). In this study, cell swelling assays in Sf9 cells showed that BmABCC2 mutants lacking substrate-excreting activity retained receptor activity, indicating that the gate-opening activity of BmABCC2 is not responsible for Cry1Aa toxicity...
November 8, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101521/impact-of-transducer-frequency-setting-on-speckle-tracking-measures
#3
Flemming Javier Olsen, Jesper Hastrup Svendsen, Lars Køber, Søren Højberg, Ketil Haugan, Jan Skov Jensen, Tor Biering-Sørensen
Speckle tracking echocardiography is an emerging technique, which is currently being included in clinical guidelines. We sought to investigate the impact of transducer frequency settings on speckle tracking derived measures. The study comprised of 22 subjects prospectively enrolled for a randomized controlled trial (LOOP-study, Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT02036450). Patients were above 70 years of age with increased risk of stroke, and had an echocardiogram performed, which included focused images of the left ventricle...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074498/ferritin-is-secreted-via-two-distinct-non-classical-vesicular-pathways
#4
Marianna Truman-Rosentsvit, Dina Berenbaum, Lior Spektor, Lyora A Cohen, Shirly Belizowsky-Moshe, Lena Lifshitz, Jing Ma, Wei Li, Ellina Kesselman, Inbal Abutbul-Ionita, Dganit Danino, Lucia Gutierrez, Huihui Li, Kuanyu Li, Huifang Lou, Maria Regoni, Maura Poli, Fabian Glaser, Tracey A Rouault, Esther G Meyron-Holtz
Ferritin turnover plays a major role in tissue iron homeostasis and ferritin misfunction is associated with impaired iron homeostasis and neurodegenerative diseases. In most eukaryotes, ferritin is considered an intracellular protein that stores iron in a non-toxic and bio-available form. In insects, ferritin is a classically secreted protein and plays a major role in systemic iron distribution. Mammalian ferritin lacks the signal peptide for classical ER-Golgi secretion but is found in serum and is secreted via a non-classical lysosomal secretion pathway...
October 26, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073165/negative-legacy-of-obesity
#5
Kohsuke Shirakawa, Jin Endo, Yoshinori Katsumata, Tsunehisa Yamamoto, Masaharu Kataoka, Sarasa Isobe, Naohiro Yoshida, Keiichi Fukuda, Motoaki Sano
Obesity promotes excessive inflammation, which is associated with senescence-like changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. We have reported that a unique population of CD44hi CD62Llo CD4+ T cells that constitutively express PD-1 and CD153 exhibit cellular senescence and cause VAT inflammation by producing large amounts of osteopontin. Weight loss improves glycemic control and reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors, but its long-term effects on cardiovascular events and longevity in obese individuals with T2DM are somewhat disappointing and not well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031294/a-label-free-and-highly-sensitive-strategy-for-uracil-dna-glycosylase-activity-detection-based-on-stem-loop-primer-mediated-exponential-amplification-spea
#6
Wenfang Du, Junjie Li, Fubing Xiao, Ruqin Yu, Jianhui Jiang
Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) plays essential roles in base excision repair (BER) pathway by eliminating uracil from DNA to sustain the genome integrity. Sensitive detection of UDG activity is of great significance in the study of many fundamental biochemical processes and clinical applications. We develop a label-free method for UDG activity detection using stem-loop primer-mediated exponential amplification (SPEA). In the presence of active UDG, the uracil base in helper hairpin probe (HP) can be excised to generate an abasic site (AP site), which can be cleaved by endonuclease IV (Endo IV) with a blocked primer released...
October 23, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030482/membrane-scission-driven-by-the-proppin-atg18
#7
Navin Gopaldass, Bruno Fauvet, Hilal Lashuel, Aurélien Roux, Andreas Mayer
Sorting, transport, and autophagic degradation of proteins in endosomes and lysosomes, as well as the division of these organelles, depend on scission of membrane-bound tubulo-vesicular carriers. How scission occurs is poorly understood, but family proteins bind these membranes. Here, we show that the yeast PROPPIN Atg18 carries membrane scission activity. Purified Atg18 drives tubulation and scission of giant unilamellar vesicles. Upon membrane contact, Atg18 folds its unstructured CD loop into an amphipathic α-helix that inserts into the bilayer...
October 13, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976110/a-mutation-in-an-exoglucanase-of-xanthomonas-oryzae-pv-oryzae-that-confers-an-endo-mode-of-activity-affects-bacterial-virulence-but-not-the-induction-of-immune-responses-in-rice
#8
Lavanya Tayi, Sushil Kumar, Rajkanwar Nathawat, Asfarul S Haque, Roshan V Maku, Hitendra Kumar Patel, Rajan Sankaranarayanan, Ramesh V Sonti
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight, a serious disease of rice. Xoo secretes a repertoire of cell wall degrading enzymes which includes cellulases, xylanases, pectinases to degrade various polysaccharide components of the rice cell wall. A secreted Xoo cellulase, CbsA, is not only a key virulence factor of Xoo but is also a potent inducer of innate immune responses of rice. In this study, we have solved the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of CbsA protein to a resolution of 1...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924207/novel-ecto-tagged-integrins-reveal-their-trafficking-in-live-cells
#9
Clotilde Huet-Calderwood, Felix Rivera-Molina, Daniel V Iwamoto, Emil B Kromann, Derek Toomre, David A Calderwood
Integrins are abundant heterodimeric cell-surface adhesion receptors essential in multicellular organisms. Integrin function is dynamically modulated by endo-exocytic trafficking, however, major mysteries remain about where, when, and how this occurs in living cells. To address this, here we report the generation of functional recombinant β1 integrins with traceable tags inserted in an extracellular loop. We demonstrate that these 'ecto-tagged' integrins are cell-surface expressed, localize to adhesions, exhibit normal integrin activation, and restore adhesion in β1 integrin knockout fibroblasts...
September 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820910/impaired-dendritic-growth-and-positioning-of-cortical-pyramidal-neurons-by-activation-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-signaling-in-the-developing-mouse
#10
Eiki Kimura, Ken-Ichiro Kubo, Toshihiro Endo, Wenting Ling, Kazunori Nakajima, Masaki Kakeyama, Chiharu Tohyama
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors exert multiple functions in mammalian cerebral cortex development. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a member of the bHLH-Per-Arnt-Sim subfamily, is a ligand-activated transcription factor reported to regulate nervous system development in both invertebrates and vertebrates, but the functions that AhR signaling pathway may have for mammalian cerebral cortex development remains elusive. Although the endogenous ligand involved in brain developmental process has not been identified, the environmental pollutant dioxin potently binds AhR and induces abnormalities in higher brain function of laboratory animals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813441/cross-over-endocytosis-of-claudins-is-mediated-by-interactions-via-their-extracellular-loops
#11
Nora Gehne, Agathe Lamik, Martin Lehmann, Reiner F Haseloff, Anuska V Andjelkovic, Ingolf E Blasig
Claudins (Cldns) are transmembrane tight junction (TJ) proteins that paracellularly seal endo- and epithelial barriers by their interactions within the TJs. However, the mechanisms allowing TJ remodeling while maintaining barrier integrity are largely unknown. Cldns and occludin are heterophilically and homophilically cross-over endocytosed into neighboring cells in large, double membrane vesicles. Super-resolution microscopy confirmed the presence of Cldns in these vesicles and revealed a distinct separation of Cldns derived from opposing cells within cross-over endocytosed vesicles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731303/lead-ii-binding-in-natural-and-artificial-proteins
#12
Virginia Cangelosi, Leela Ruckthong, Vincent L Pecoraro
This article describes recent attempts to understand the biological chemistry of lead using a synthetic biology approach. Lead binds to a variety of different biomolecules ranging from enzymes to regulatory and signaling proteins to bone matrix. We have focused on the interactions of this element in thiolate-rich sites that are found in metalloregulatory proteins such as Pbr, Znt, and CadC and in enzymes such as δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). In these proteins, Pb(II) is often found as a homoleptic and hemidirectic Pb(II)(SR)3- complex...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646149/crucial-role-of-4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose-uronate-reductase-for-alginate-utilization-revealed-by-adaptive-evolution-in-engineered-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#13
Fumiya Matsuoka, Makoto Hirayama, Takayuki Kashihara, Hideki Tanaka, Wataru Hashimoto, Kousaku Murata, Shigeyuki Kawai
In brown macroalgae, alginate and D-mannitol are promising carbohydrates for biorefinery. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used as a microbial cell factory, but this budding yeast is unable to utilize either alginate or D-mannitol. Alginate can be depolymerized by both endo-type and exo-type alginate lyases, yielding a monouronate, 4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronate (DEH), a key intermediate in the metabolism of alginate. Here, we constructed engineered two S. cerevisiae strains that are able to utilize both DEH and D-mannitol on two different strain backgrounds, and we also improved their aerobic growth in a DEH liquid medium through adaptive evolution...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623232/the-ring-finger-and-pdz-domain-containing-protein-pdzrn3-controls-localization-of-the-mg-2-regulator-claudin-16-in-renal-tube-epithelial-cells
#14
Kana Marunaka, Chisa Furukawa, Naoko Fujii, Toru Kimura, Takumi Furuta, Toshiyuki Matsunaga, Satoshi Endo, Hajime Hasegawa, Naohiko Anzai, Yasuhiro Yamazaki, Masahiko Yamaguchi, Akira Ikari
Ion exchange in the renal tubules is fundamental to the maintenance of physiological ion levels. Claudin-16 (CLDN16) regulates the paracellular reabsorption of Mg(2+) in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop in the kidney, with dephosphorylation of CLDN16 increasing its intracellular distribution and decreasing paracellular Mg(2+) permeability. CLDN16 is located in the tight junctions, but the mechanism regulating its localization is unclear. Using yeast two-hybrid systems, we found that CLDN16 binds to PDZRN3, a protein containing both RING-finger and PDZ domains...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588473/a-human-robot-interaction-perspective-on-assistive-and-rehabilitation-robotics
#15
Philipp Beckerle, Gionata Salvietti, Ramazan Unal, Domenico Prattichizzo, Simone Rossi, Claudio Castellini, Sandra Hirche, Satoshi Endo, Heni Ben Amor, Matei Ciocarlie, Fulvio Mastrogiovanni, Brenna D Argall, Matteo Bianchi
Assistive and rehabilitation devices are a promising and challenging field of recent robotics research. Motivated by societal needs such as aging populations, such devices can support motor functionality and subject training. The design, control, sensing, and assessment of the devices become more sophisticated due to a human in the loop. This paper gives a human-robot interaction perspective on current issues and opportunities in the field. On the topic of control and machine learning, approaches that support but do not distract subjects are reviewed...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455329/rational-engineering-of-a-cold-adapted-%C3%AE-amylase-from-the-antarctic-ciliate-euplotes-focardii-for-simultaneous-improvement-of-thermostability-and-catalytic-activity
#16
Guang Yang, Hua Yao, Matteo Mozzicafreddo, Patrizia Ballarini, Sandra Pucciarelli, Cristina Miceli
The α-amylases are endo-acting enzymes that hydrolyze starch by randomly cleaving the 1,4-α-d-glucosidic linkages between the adjacent glucose units in a linear amylose chain. They have significant advantages in a wide range of applications, particularly in the food industry. The eukaryotic α-amylase isolated from the Antarctic ciliated protozoon Euplotes focardii (EfAmy) is an alkaline enzyme, different from most of the α-amylases characterized so far. Furthermore, EfAmy has the characteristics of a psychrophilic α-amylase, such as the highest hydrolytic activity at a low temperature and high thermolability, which is the major drawback of cold-active enzymes in industrial applications...
July 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435130/intramyometrial-injection-of-vasopressin-a-novel-method-for-hemostasis-at-laparoscopic-management-of-cornual-ectopic
#17
Ramesh Bettaiah, Shwetha Sudhakar Kamath
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Although all ectopic pregnancies are associated with risk of hemorrhage, cornual pregnancies are feared for catastrophic hemorrhage and uncontrollable bleeding. The maternal mortality rate can be as high as 2.5%, which is 7 times higher than the mortality rate for ectopic pregnancies in general. Different techniques have been used to control hemostasis, including purse string suture, square suture, endo-loop, electrocoagulation, and devascularization. Injection of vasopressin into the uterus is a simple method that greatly reduces the blood loss at cornuostomy...
November 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374258/a-novel-grasp-and-loop-closure-method-for-defect-closure-after-endoscopic-full-thickness-resection-with-video
#18
Jian-Wei Hu, Lei Ge, Ping-Hong Zhou, Quan-Lin Li, Yi-Qun Zhang, Wei-Feng Chen, Tao Chen, Li-Qing Yao, Mei-Dong Xu, Yuan Chu
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) is a minimally invasive method for en bloc resection of gastrointestinal (GI) lesions originating from the muscularis propria layer. Successful closure of the wall defect is a critical step. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a novel and simplified endoscopic grasp-and-loop (GAL) closure method using an endo-loop assisted with grasping forceps for defect closure...
April 3, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236179/post-operative-outcomes-and-complications-of-suspensory-loop-fixation-device-versus-hook-plate-in-acute-unstable-acromioclavicular-joint-dislocation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Alisara Arirachakaran, Manusak Boonard, Peerapong Piyapittayanun, Wichan Kanchanatawan, Kornkit Chaijenkij, Akom Prommahachai, Jatupon Kongtharvonskul
BACKGROUND: Treatment of acute (≤3 weeks) acromioclavicular joint dislocation type III-VI is still controversial. Currently, the two modern techniques that are widely used are hook plate (HP) fixation and coracoclavicular ligament fixation using a suspensory loop device that consists of either a tightrope (single or double), endo-button (single or double), or synthetic ligament and absorbable polydioxansulfate sling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Official Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163025/structural-basis-for-the-transglycosylase-activity-of-a-gh57-type-glycogen-branching-enzyme-from-pyrococcus-horikoshii
#20
Soohui Na, Minjeong Park, Inseong Jo, Jaeho Cha, Nam-Chul Ha
Glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) catalyzes the formation of α-1,6-branching points during glycogenesis by cleaving α-1,4 bonds and making new α-1,6 bonds. Most GBEs belong to the glycoside hydrolase 13 family (GH13), but new GBEs in the GH57 family have been isolated from Archaea. Here, we determined the crystal structure of a GH57 GBE from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhGBE) at a resolution of 2.3 Å. PhGBE exhibits both α-1,6-branching activity and endo-α-1,4 hydrolytic activity...
March 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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