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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907169/crystal-structure-of-chitinase-chiw-from-paenibacillus-sp-str-fpu-7-reveals-a-novel-type-of-bacterial-cell-surface-expressed-multi-modular-enzyme-machinery
#1
Takafumi Itoh, Takao Hibi, Fumiko Suzuki, Ikumi Sugimoto, Akihiro Fujiwara, Koji Inaka, Hiroaki Tanaka, Kazunori Ohta, Yutaka Fujii, Akira Taketo, Hisashi Kimoto
The Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus sp. str. FPU-7 effectively hydrolyzes chitin by using a number of chitinases. A unique chitinase with two catalytic domains, ChiW, is expressed on the cell surface of this bacterium and has high activity towards various chitins, even crystalline chitin. Here, the crystal structure of ChiW at 2.1 Å resolution is presented and describes how the enzyme degrades chitin on the bacterial cell surface. The crystal structure revealed a unique multi-modular architecture composed of six domains to function efficiently on the cell surface: a right-handed β-helix domain (carbohydrate-binding module family 54, CBM-54), a Gly-Ser-rich loop, 1st immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) fold domain, 1st β/α-barrel catalytic domain (glycoside hydrolase family 18, GH-18), 2nd Ig-like fold domain and 2nd β/α-barrel catalytic domain (GH-18)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888075/the-domain-ii-loops-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1aa-form-an-overlapping-interaction-site-for-two-bombyx-mori-larvae-functional-receptors-abc-transporter-c2-and-cadherin-like-receptor
#2
Satomi Adegawa, Yui Nakama, Haruka Endo, Naoki Shinkawa, Shingo Kikuta, Ryoichi Sato
Information about the receptor-interaction region of Cry toxins, insecticidal proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, is needed to elucidate the mode of action of Cry toxins and improve their toxicity through protein engineering. We analyzed the interaction sites on Cry1Aa with ABC transporter C2 (ABCC2), one of the most important Cry1A toxin receptors. A competitive binding assay revealed that the Bombyx mori ABCC2 (BmABCC2) Cry1A binding site was the same as the BtR175 binding site, suggesting that the loop region of Cry1Aa domain II is a binding site...
November 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872187/galactomannan-catabolism-conferred-by-a-polysaccharide-utilisation-locus-of-bacteroides-ovatus-enzyme-synergy-and-crystal-structure-of-a-%C3%AE-mannanase
#3
Viktoria Bågenholm, Sumitha K Reddy, Hanene Bouraoui, Johan Morrill, Evelina Kulcinskaja, Constance M Bahr, Oskar Aurelius, Theresa Rogers, Yao Xiao, Derek T Logan, Eric C Martens, Nicole M Koropatkin, Henrik Stålbrand
A recently identified polysaccharide utilisation locus (PUL) from Bacteroides ovatus ATCC8483 is transcriptionally upregulated during growth on galacto- and glucomannans. It encodes two putative glycoside hydrolase family 26 (GH26) β-mannanases, BoMan26A and BoMan26B, and a GH36 α-galactosidase, BoGal36A. The PUL also includes two glycan binding proteins, confirmed by β-mannan affinity electrophoresis. When this PUL was deleted, B. ovatus was no longer able to grow on locust bean galactomannan. BoMan26A primarily formed mannobiose from mannan polysaccharides...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671679/zic5-drives-melanoma-aggressiveness-by-pdgfd-mediated-activation-of-fak-and-stat3
#4
Reiko Satow, Tomomi Nakamura, Chiaki Kato, Miku Endo, Mana Tamura, Ryosuke Batori, Shiori Tomura, Yumi Murayama, Kiyoko Fukami
Insights into mechanisms of drug resistance could extend the efficacy of cancer therapy. To probe mechanisms in melanoma, we performed siRNA screening of genes which mediate the development of neural crest cells from which melanocytes are derived. Here we report the identification of ZIC5 as a mediator of melanoma drug resistance. ZIC5 is a transcriptional suppressor of E-cadherin expressed highly in human melanoma. ZIC5 enhanced melanoma cell proliferation, survival, drug resistance, in vivo growth and metastasis...
September 26, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626482/a-vicious-cycle-between-acid-sensing-and-survival-signaling-in-myeloma-cells-acid-induced-epigenetic-alteration
#5
Ryota Amachi, Masahiro Hiasa, Jumpei Teramachi, Takeshi Harada, Asuka Oda, Shingen Nakamura, Derek Hanson, Keiichiro Watanabe, Shiro Fujii, Hirokazu Miki, Kumiko Kagawa, Masami Iwasa, Itsuro Endo, Takeshi Kondo, Sumiko Yoshida, Ken-Ichi Aihara, Kiyoe Kurahashi, Yoshiaki Kuroda, Hideaki Horikawa, Eiji Tanaka, Toshio Matsumoto, Masahiro Abe
Myeloma (MM) cells and osteoclasts are mutually interacted to enhance MM growth while creating acidic bone lesions. Here, we explored acid sensing of MM cells and its role in MM cell response to acidic conditions. Acidic conditions activated the PI3K-Akt signaling in MM cells while upregulating the pH sensor transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) in a manner inhibitable by PI3K inhibition. The acid-activated PI3K-Akt signaling facilitated the nuclear localization of the transcription factor Sp1 to trigger the expression of its target genes, including TRPV1 and HDAC1...
September 10, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616748/siah-1-is-associated-with-expression-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#6
Mitsuharu Aga, Satoru Kondo, Naohiro Wakisaka, Makiko Moriyama-Kita, Kazuhira Endo, Yosuke Nakanishi, Shigeyuki Murono, Hisashi Sugimoto, Takayoshi Ueno, Tomokazu Yoshizaki
OBJECTIVE: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor composed of the HIF-1α and HIF-1β subunits. HIF-1 is a central regulator of responses to hypoxia; it enhances metastasis-related factors such as matrix metalloproteinases and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We have reported critical roles for HIF-1α in tumor microenvironments, and oncogenic properties of HIF-1α have been suggested in malignancies. Seven in absentia homologue (Siah) appeared to upregulate HIF-1 production, which prompted us to investigate the Siah association with HIF-1α expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)...
September 8, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349986/from-dioxin-toxicity-of-human-ah-receptor-to-putative-physiologic-functions-in-homeostasis-of-stem-progenitor-cells
#7
Karl Walter Bock
Despite decades of intensive research physiologic Ah receptor (AHR) functions are not yet elucidated. Challenges include marked species differences and dependence of AHR function on the cell type and cellular context. Hints to physiologic functions may be derived (i) from feedback loops between endogenous ligands and substrates of major target enzymes such as CYP1A1 and UGT1A1, and (ii) from dioxin toxicity in human individuals. For example, dioxin-mediated chloracne is probably due to dysregulated homeostasis of sebocyte stem/progenitor cells...
June 24, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320797/hepatic-cytochromes-p450-structural-degrons-and-barcodes-posttranslational-modifications-and-cellular-adapters-in-the-erad-endgame
#8
Sung-Mi Kim, YongQiang Wang, Noushin Nabavi, Yi Liu, Maria Almira Correia
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored hepatic cytochromes P450 (P450s) are enzymes that metabolize endo- and xenobiotics i.e. drugs, carcinogens, toxins, natural and chemical products. These agents modulate liver P450 content through increased synthesis or reduction via inactivation and/or proteolytic degradation, resulting in clinically significant drug-drug interactions. P450 proteolytic degradation occurs via ER-associated degradation (ERAD) involving either of two distinct routes: Ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent 26S proteasomal degradation (ERAD/UPD) or autophagic lysosomal degradation (ERAD/ALD)...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27283294/totally-robotic-reversal-of-omega-loop-gastric-bypass-to-normal-anatomy
#9
Fabian Reche, Adrian Mancini, Anne-Laure Borel, Jean-Luc Faucheron
BACKGROUND: Gastric bypass procedures can potentially lead to middle and long-term complications (Podnos et al. Arch Surg 138(9):957-61, 2003). For several years, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reversal procedures performed by laparotomy or laparoscopic way have been described in literature (Moon et al. Surg Obes Relat Dis 11(4):821-6, 2015). Major complications are anastomotic ulcers, anastomotic complications or functional disorder such as dumping syndrome, hypocalcemia, severe hypoglycemia, and malnutrition (Moon et al...
August 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121413/is-there-an-ideal-stump-closure-technique-in-laparoscopic-appendectomy
#10
Ihsan Yıldız, Koca Yavuz
BACKGROUND: There is no standard routine closure technique in the management of appendiceal stump. Therefore, the ideal method should be determined based on the condition of the radix of the appendix. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate appendiceal stump closure methods in patients undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy due to acute appendicitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The retrospective study included 196 patients who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy due to the diagnosis of acute appendicitis at Gazipasa State Hospital, Golhisar State Hospital, and Isparta State Hospital between 2009 and 2013...
April 2016: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053959/tie2-regulates-tumor-metastasis-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#11
Daisuke Kitajima, Atsushi Kasamatsu, Dai Nakashima, Isao Miyamoto, Yasushi Kimura, Tomoaki Saito, Takane Suzuki, Yosuke Endo-Sakamoto, Masashi Shiiba, Hideki Tanzawa, Katsuhiro Uzawa
The endothelial-specific receptor, tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like loops and epidermal growth factor homology domains-2 (Tie2) is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and is ubiquitous in normal tissues; however, little is known about the mechanisms and roles of Tie2 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). In the current study, we investigated the expression status of Tie2 in OSCCs by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry and the functional mechanisms of Tie2 using its overexpressed OSCC (oeTie2) cells and Tie2 blocking by its antibody...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26959085/unraveling-the-multivalent-binding-of-a-marine-family-6-carbohydrate-binding-module-with-its-native-laminarin-ligand
#12
Murielle Jam, Elizabeth Ficko-Blean, Aurore Labourel, Robert Larocque, Mirjam Czjzek, Gurvan Michel
UNLABELLED: Laminarin is an abundant brown algal storage polysaccharide. Marine microorganisms, such as Zobellia galactanivorans, produce laminarinases for its degradation, which are important for the processing of this organic matter in the ocean carbon cycle. These laminarinases are often modular, as is the case with ZgLamC which has an N-terminal GH16 module, a central family 6 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) and a C-terminal PorSS module. To date, no studies have characterized a true marine laminarin-binding CBM6 with its natural carbohydrate ligand...
May 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26928903/single-amino-acid-insertions-in-extracellular-loop-2-of-bombyx-mori-abcc2-disrupt-its-receptor-function-for-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1ab-and-cry1ac-but-not-cry1aa-toxins
#13
Shiho Tanaka, Kazuhisa Miyamoto, Hiroaki Noda, Haruka Endo, Shingo Kikuta, Ryoichi Sato
In a previous report, seven Cry1Ab-resistant strains were identified in the silkworm, Bombyx mori; these strains were shown to have a tyrosine insertion at position 234 in extracellular loop 2 of the ABC transporter C2 (BmABCC2). This insertion was confirmed to destroy the receptor function of BmABCC2 and confer the strains resistance against Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. However, these strains were susceptible to Cry1Aa. In this report, we examined the mechanisms of the loss of receptor function of the transporter by expressing mutations in Sf9 cells...
April 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26795149/overexpression-of-a-citrus-basic-helix-loop-helix-transcription-factor-cubhlh1-which-is-homologous-to-arabidopsis-activation-tagged-bri1-suppressor-1-interacting-factor-genes-modulates-carotenoid-metabolism-in-transgenic-tomato
#14
Tomoko Endo, Hiroshi Fujii, Aiko Sugiyama, Michiharu Nakano, Naoko Nakajima, Yoshinori Ikoma, Mitsuo Omura, Takehiko Shimada
To explore the transcription factors associated with carotenoid metabolism in citrus fruit, one transcription factor (CubHLH1) was selected through microarray screening in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit, which was treated with exogenous ethylene or gibberellin (GA), accelerating or retarding carotenoid accumulation in peel, respectively. The amino acid sequence of CubHLH1 has homology to Arabidopsis activation-tagged bri1 suppressor 1 (ATBS1) interacting factor (AIF), which is functionally characterized as a negative regulator of the brassinolide (BR) signalling pathway...
February 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26727288/control-of-lysosomal-biogenesis-and-notch-dependent-tissue-patterning-by-components-of-the-tfeb-v-atpase-axis-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Emiliana Tognon, Francis Kobia, Ilaria Busi, Arianna Fumagalli, Federico De Masi, Thomas Vaccari
In vertebrates, TFEB (transcription factor EB) and MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor) family of basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factors regulates both lysosomal function and organ development. However, it is not clear whether these 2 processes are interconnected. Here, we show that Mitf, the single TFEB and MITF ortholog in Drosophila, controls expression of vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase pump (V-ATPase) subunits. Remarkably, we also find that expression of Vha16-1 and Vha13, encoding 2 key components of V-ATPase, is patterned in the wing imaginal disc...
2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26707336/loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-the-antibiotic-resistance-gene-isaba1-blaoxa-51-like-in-acinetobacter-baumannii
#16
Xiaoqin Mu, Ryuichi Nakano, Akiyo Nakano, Tsuneyuki Ubagai, Takane Kikuchi-Ueda, Shigeru Tansho-Nagakawa, Hirotoshi Kikuchi, Go Kamoshida, Shiro Endo, Hisakazu Yano, Yasuo Ono
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, which are mainly induced by the production of OXA-type β-lactamases, are among the leading causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Among the β-lactamase genes, the presence of the OXA-51-like gene carrying the upstream insertion sequence, ISAba1, was found to be one of the most prevalent carbapenem resistance mechanisms utilized by these bacteria. Consequently, it is necessary to develop a rapid detection method for ISAba1-blaOXA-51-like sequence for the timely and appropriate antibiotic treatment of A...
February 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26692146/small-non-coding-rnas-and-their-associated-proteins-in-spermatogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Ling-Feng Luo, Cong-Cong Hou, Wan-Xi Yang
The importance of the gene regulation roles of small non-coding RNAs and their protein partners is of increasing focus. In this paper, we reviewed three main small RNA species which appear to affect spermatogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single stand RNAs derived from transcripts containing stem-loops and hairpins which target corresponding mRNAs and affect their stability or translation. Many miRNA species have been found to be related to normal male germ cell development. The biogenesis of piRNAs is still largely unknown but several models have been proposed...
March 10, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26654358/-in-process-citation
#18
Tamás Sztipits, Péter Mészáros, Zsolt Dubóczki, Ádám Tarpay, Tamás Mersich
UNLABELLED: A 35-year-old female presented with epigastric symptoms and fatigue. Gastroscopy revealed a 2 cm ulcerated lesion in the antrum region. Biopsy confirmed an invasive intestinal type adenocc. Staging CT and EUS: cT2cN0cM0. Laparoscopic subtotal gastric resection + modified D2 lymphadenectomy was performed with Roux-en-Y reconstruction of the alimentary tract. Mobilisation of the duodenum and stomach was performed with a 5 mm Ligasure. Distal and proximal resection was performed using Endo GIA 60 mm staplers...
December 2015: Magyar Sebészet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26494689/crystal-structure-of-thermophilic-dextranase-from-thermoanaerobacter-pseudethanolicus
#19
Nobuhiro Suzuki, Naomi Kishine, Zui Fujimoto, Mutsumi Sakurai, Mitsuru Momma, Jin-A Ko, Seung-Hee Nam, Atsuo Kimura, Young-Min Kim
The crystal structures of the wild type and catalytic mutant Asp-312→Gly in complex with isomaltohexaose of endo-1,6-dextranase from the thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus (TpDex), belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 66, were determined. TpDex consists of three structural domains, a catalytic domain comprising an (β/α)8-barrel and two β-domains located at both N- and C-terminal ends. The isomaltohexaose-complex structure demonstrated that the isomaltohexaose molecule was bound across the catalytic site, showing that TpDex had six subsites (-4 to +2) in the catalytic cleft...
March 2016: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26487229/an-experimental-study-in-six-fresh-human-cadavers-using-a-novel-approach-to-avoid-abdominal-wall-incisions-in-total-colectomy-totally-transanal-laparoendoscopic-single-site-pull-through-colectomy-with-j-pouch-creation
#20
M Reza Vahdad, Grigore Cernaianu, Alexander Semaan, Tobias Klein, Samuel Faran, Harry Zemon, Thomas Boemers, Hamid Reza Foroutan
BACKGROUND: The use of transanal laparoscopic access to completely avoid abdominal wall incisions represents the most current evolution in minimally invasive surgery. The combination of single-site surgery and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES™) can be used for totally transanal laparoendoscopic pull-through colectomy with J-pouch creation (TLPC-J). The aim of the present study was to provide evidence for the feasibility of TLPC-J in adult human cadavers. METHODS: TLPC-J was performed in six fresh adult human cadavers...
July 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
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