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Katherine C Horton, Nermeen T Fahmy, Noha Watany, Alia Zayed, Abro Mohamed, Ammar Abdo Ahmed, Pierre E Rollin, Erica L Dueger
Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and Alkhumra virus, not previously reported in Djibouti, were detected among 141 (infection rate = 15.7 per 100, 95% CI: 13.4-18.1) tick pools from 81 (37%) cattle and 2 (infection rate = 0.2 per 100, 95% CI: 0.0-0.7) tick pools from 2 (1%) cattle, respectively, collected at an abattoir in 2010 and 2011.
October 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Michael K Lo, Pei-Yong Shi, Yen-Liang Chen, Mike Flint, Christina F Spiropoulou
There are currently no antiviral therapies available for the tick-borne flaviviruses associated with hemorrhagic fevers: Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV), both classical and the Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) subtype, and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV). In this brief study, we describe the in vitro antiviral activity of adenosine analog NITD008 against KFDV, AHFV, OHFV, as well as Tick-borne Encephalitis virus (TBEV). Alongside the well-established activity of NITD008 against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, our results have demonstrated the feasibility of identifying nucleoside analog inhibitors that have pan-flavivirus activity...
June 2016: Antiviral Research
Siti Fatimah Muhd Radzi, Claudia Rückert, Sing-Sin Sam, Boon-Teong Teoh, Pui-Fong Jee, Wai-Hong Phoon, Sazaly Abubakar, Keivan Zandi
Langat virus (LGTV), one of the members of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) complex, was firstly isolated from Ixodes granulatus ticks in Malaysia. However, the prevalence of LGTV in ticks in the region remains unknown. Surveillance for LGTV is therefore important and thus a tool for specific detection of LGTV is needed. In the present study, we developed a real-time quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for rapid detection of LGTV. Our findings showed that the developed qRT-PCR could detect LGTV at a titre as low as 0...
2015: Scientific Reports
Kimberly A Dodd, Brian H Bird, Megan E B Jones, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou
BACKGROUND: Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) are closely related members of the Flavivirus genus and are important causes of human disease in India and the Arabian Peninsula, respectively. Despite high genetic similarity, the viruses have distinctly different host ranges and ecologies. Human cases of KFDV or AHFV develop a spectrum of disease syndromes ranging from liver pathology to neurologic disease. Case reports suggest KFDV is more commonly associated with hepatic and gastrointestinal manifestations whereas AHFV is more commonly associated with neurologic disease...
2014: PloS One
Rafidah Lani, Ehsan Moghaddam, Amin Haghani, Li-Yen Chang, Sazaly AbuBakar, Keivan Zandi
Several important human diseases worldwide are caused by tick-borne viruses. These diseases have become important public health concerns in recent years. The tick-borne viruses that cause diseases in humans mainly belong to 3 families: Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Reoviridae. In this review, we focus on therapeutic approaches for several of the more important tick-borne viruses from these 3 families. These viruses are Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHF) and the newly discovered tick-borne phleboviruses, known as thrombocytopenia syndromevirus (SFTSV), Heartland virus and Bhanja virus from the family Bunyaviridae, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Powassan virus (POWV), Louping-ill virus (LIV), Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV), Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV), and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) from the Flaviviridae family...
September 2014: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Mike Flint, Laura K McMullan, Kimberly A Dodd, Brian H Bird, Marina L Khristova, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou
No antiviral therapies are available for the tick-borne flaviviruses associated with hemorrhagic fevers: Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV), both classical and the Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) subtype, and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV). We tested compounds reported to have antiviral activity against members of the Flaviviridae family for their ability to inhibit AHFV replication. 6-Azauridine (6-azaU), 2'-C-methylcytidine (2'-CMC), and interferon alpha 2a (IFN-α2a) inhibited the replication of AHFV and also KFDV, OHFV, and Powassan virus...
June 2014: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Ziad A Memish, Shamsudeen F Fagbo, Ahmed Osman Ali, Rafat AlHakeem, Fathelrhman M Elnagi, Elijah A Bamgboye
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever disease is yet to be fully understood since the virus was isolated in 1994 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. SETTING: Preventive Medicine department, Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of all laboratory confirmed cases of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever disease collected through active and passive surveillance from 1(st)-January 2009 to December, 31, 2011...
2014: PloS One
A Shibl, A Senok, Z Memish
Infectious diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Epidemiologically, differences in the patterns of infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance exist across diverse geographical regions. In this review on infectious diseases in the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt, the epidemiology of tuberculosis, malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections will be addressed. The challenges of the hepatitis C epidemic in Egypt and the epidemiology of this infection across the region will be reviewed...
November 2012: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Ziad A Memish, Shamsudeen F Fagbo, Abdullah M Assiri, Pierre Rollin, Ali M Zaki, Remi Charrel, Chris Mores, Adam MacNeil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2012: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Uwe Gerd Liebert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2012: Intervirology
Peter J Hotez, Lorenzo Savioli, Alan Fenwick
The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are highly endemic but patchily distributed among the 20 countries and almost 400 million people of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and disproportionately affect an estimated 65 million people living on less than US$2 per day. Egypt has the largest number of people living in poverty of any MENA nation, while Yemen has the highest prevalence of people living in poverty. These two nations stand out for having suffered the highest rates of many NTDs, including the soil-transmitted nematode infections, filarial infections, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, leprosy, and trachoma, although they should be recognized for recent measures aimed at NTD control...
2012: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ziad A Memish, Ali Albarrak, Mohammad A Almazroa, Ibrahim Al-Omar, Rafat Alhakeem, Abdullah Assiri, Shamsudeen Fagbo, Adam MacNeil, Pierre E Rollin, Nageeb Abdullah, Gwen Stephens
A 2009 deployment of military units from several Saudi Arabian provinces to Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia, enabled us to evaluate exposure to Alkhurma, Crimean-Congo, dengue, and Rift Valley hemorrhagic fever viruses. Seroprevalence to all viruses was low; however, Alkhurma virus seroprevalence was higher (1.3%) and less geographically restricted than previously thought.
December 2011: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Tariq A Madani, Moujahed Kao, Esam I Azhar, El-Tayeb M E Abuelzein, Hussein M S Al-Bar, Huda Abu-Araki, Thomas G Ksiazek
Epidemiological data suggest that Alkhumra (misnamed as Alkhurma) virus (ALKV) is transmitted from livestock animals to humans by direct contact with animals or by the mosquito bites, but not by ticks. To assess the ability of the virus to replicate in mosquito cells, serum and plasma of seven acutely febrile patients with clinically suspected ALKV infection reported in Najran, Saudi Arabia in 2009 were inoculated onto Aedes albopictus mosquito cells (C6/36) and directly examined with ALKV-RNA-specific real time RT-PCR as well as indirect immunfluorescence assay (IFA) using ALKV-specific polyclonal antibodies...
March 2012: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Kimberly A Dodd, Brian H Bird, Marina L Khristova, César G Albariño, Serena A Carroll, James A Comer, Bobbie R Erickson, Pierre E Rollin, Stuart T Nichol
BACKGROUND: Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) and Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV) cause significant human disease and mortality in Saudi Arabia and India, respectively. Despite their distinct geographic ranges, AHFV and KFDV share a remarkably high sequence identity. Given its emergence decades after KFDV, AHFV has since been considered a variant of KFDV and thought to have arisen from an introduction of KFDV to Saudi Arabia from India. To gain a better understanding of the evolutionary history of AHFV and KFDV, we analyzed the full length genomes of 16 AHFV and 3 KFDV isolates...
October 2011: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Paolo Ravanini, Essi Hasu, Eili Huhtamo, Maria G Crobu, Valentina Ilaria, Diego Brustia, Anna M Salerno, Olli Vapalahti
Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) is a tick-borne flavivirus with high case fatality rates, endemic in the Arabian Peninsula. Recently AHFV was detected in travelers returning from Egypt suggesting geographical spreading. We also report AHFV infection in a traveler ex Egypt, representing atypical symptoms of rhabdomyolysis and severe muscular weakness.
November 2011: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Hassan Mohabatkar
The aim of this study was prediction of epitopes and medically important structural properties of protein E of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) and comparing these features with two closely relates viruses, i.e. Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) and Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) by bioinformatics tools. Prediction of evolutionary distance, localization, sequence of signal peptides, C, N O glycosylation sites, transmembrane helices (TMHs), cysteine bond positions and B cell and T cell epitopes of E proteins were performed...
June 2011: Protein and Peptide Letters
Fabrizio Carletti, Concetta Castilletti, Antonino Di Caro, Maria R Capobianchi, Carla Nisii, Fredy Suter, Marco Rizzi, Alessandra Tebaldi, Antonio Goglio, Cristiana Passerini Tosi, Giuseppe Ippolito
Two travelers returning to Italy from southern Egypt were hospitalized with a fever of unknown origin. Test results showed infection with Alkhurma virus. The geographic distribution of this virus could be broader than previously thought.
December 2010: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Abdullah G Alzahrani, Hassan M Al Shaiban, Mohammad A Al Mazroa, Osama Al-Hayani, Adam Macneil, Pierre E Rollin, Ziad A Memish
Alkhurma virus is a flavivirus, discovered in 1994 in a person who died of hemorrhagic fever after slaughtering a sheep from the city of Alkhurma, Saudi Arabia. Since then, several cases of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever (ALKHF), with fatality rates up to 25%, have been documented. From January 1, 2006, through April 1, 2009, active disease surveillance and serologic testing of household contacts identified ALKHF in 28 persons in Najran, Saudi Arabia. For epidemiologic comparison, serologic testing of household and neighborhood controls identified 65 serologically negative persons...
December 2010: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Tariq A Madani, Esam I Azhar, El-Tayeb M E Abuelzein, Mujahed Kao, Hussein M S Al-Bar, Huda Abu-Araki, Matthias Niedrig, Thomas G Ksiazek
OBJECTIVE: After its first appearance in Alkhumra district of Jeddah in 1994-1995, and then in Makkah in 2001-2003, the new hemorrhagic fever virus, known as Alkhumra (misnamed as Alkhurma) virus (ALKV), has subsequently been reported from Najran, in the south border of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This is a descriptive cohort study summarizing the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of ALKV infected patients diagnosed in Najran from 1 August 2003 through 31 December 2009...
January 2011: Journal of Infection
Ziad A Memish, Remi N Charrel, Ali M Zaki, Shamsudeen F Fagbo
The emergence and re-emergence of human and animal pathogens on a global scale continues unabated. One such pathogen is the arbovirus that causes Alkhurma haemorrhagic fever, which emerged in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the mid 1990s. It has since re-emerged in other regions of the country and threatens to widen its area of endemicity beyond the peninsula. Human and animal movements, especially those associated with the annual mass gathering event of Hajj (pilgrimage) may facilitate introduction into other continental masses, where it must be differentiated from dengue and other similar arboviral haemorrhagic fevers...
November 2010: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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