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Kyasanur forest disease

Devendra T Mourya, Hamish C Shahani, Pragya D Yadav, Pradip V Barde
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Various conventional methods such as gaseous, vapour and misting systems, fogging, manual spray and wipe techniques employing a number of chemical agents are used for decontamination of enclosed spaces. Among all these methods, use of aerosolized formaldehyde is the most preferred method due to cost-effectiveness and practical aspects. However, being extremely corrosive in nature generating very irritating fumes and difficulty in maintaining a high level of gas concentration, many laboratories prefer the vaporization of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as an alternative...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
P V Shiji, Veena Viswanath, Sreena Sreekumar, R Sreejith, Abdul Majeed, V Udayabhaskaran
Kyasanur Forest disease is a tick-borne arboviral fever with biphasic course of illness with prominent hemorrhagic features in the first phase and encephalitic picture in the second phase. So far it has been described in the southern Karnataka only. Here we report a case of Kyasanur Forest Disease for the first time from Kerala in an 18 year old male from Noolpuzha - Alathoor colony of Wayanad district.
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Miguel A Martín-Acebes, Ángela Vázquez-Calvo, Juan-Carlos Saiz
Flaviviruses are emerging arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, West Nile encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, Kyasanur Forest disease, tick-borne encephalitis, or Zika disease. This viral genus groups >50 viral species of small enveloped plus strand RNA virus that are phylogenetically closely related to hepatitis C virus. Importantly, the flavivirus life cycle is intimately associated to host cell lipids. Along this line, flaviviruses rearrange intracellular membranes from the endoplasmic-reticulum of the infected cells to develop adequate platforms for viral replication and particle biogenesis...
October 1, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
C Sadanandane, A Elango, Noonu Marja, P V Sasidharan, K H K Raju, P Jambulingam
Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a zoonotic viral haemorrhagic fever and has been endemic to Karnataka State, India. Outbreaks of KFD were reported in new areas of Wayanad and Malappuram districts of Kerala, India during 2014-2015. Investigation of the outbreaks was carried out in these districts during May 2015. The line-list data of KFD cases available with District Medical Office, Wayanad were analysed. Case investigation was carried out to determine the risk factors associated with the outbreak and possible site of contraction infections...
January 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Bradley W M Cook, Charlene Ranadheera, Aidan M Nikiforuk, Todd A Cutts, Darwyn Kobasa, Deborah A Court, Steven S Theriault
BACKGROUND: The tick-borne flavivirus, Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) causes seasonal infections and periodic outbreaks in south-west India. The current vaccine offers poor protection with reported issues of coverage and immunogenicity. Since there are no approved prophylactic therapeutics for KFDV, type I IFN-α/β subtypes were assessed for antiviral potency against KFDV in cell culture. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The continued passage of KFDV-infected cells with re-administered IFN-α2a treatment did not eliminate KFDV and had little effect on infectious particle production whereas the IFN-sensitive, green fluorescent protein-expressing vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-GFP) infection was controlled...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Pragya Yadav, Anita Shete, Vijay Bondre, Deepak Patil, Prasad Kokate, Sweena Chaudhari, Sneha Srivastava, Santosh Jadhav, Devendra Mourya
During a study on Japanese encephalitis (JE) from Kolar district of Karnataka state, India in 1986; two virus isolates were obtained in infant Swiss albino mouse from a pig and a human serum sample. For characterization of these virus isolates, they were propagated in Vero CCL-81 cells. These virus isolates were screened for flaviviruses (Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Dengue, Kyasanur forest disease) and Alphavirus (Chikungunya) by RT-PCR and found to be negative. Further these they were screened for bunyaviruses using genus-specific primers...
October 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Bradley W M Cook, Aidan M Nikiforuk, Todd A Cutts, Darwyn Kobasa, Deborah A Court, Steven S Theriault
Emerging tropical viruses pose an increasing threat to public health because social, economic and environmental factors such as global trade and deforestation allow for their migration into previously unexposed populations and ecological niches. Among such viruses, Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) deserves particular recognition because it causes hemorrhagic fever. This work describes the completion of an antiviral testing platform (subgenomic system) for KFDV that could be used to quickly and safely screen compounds capable of inhibiting KFDV replication without the requirement for high containment, as the structural genes have been replaced with a luciferase reporter gene precluding the generation of infectious particles...
July 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Atanu Basu, Pragya Yadav, Sharda Prasad, Sachin Badole, Dilip Patil, Rajendra Motilal Kohlapure, Devendra T Mourya
BACKGROUND: Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) is a tick-borne Flavivirus that causes a severe illness in humans. Disease spectrum can vary from subclinical infection to fatal cases with hemorrhagic complications. The pathology of KFDV remains incompletely understood. METHODS: This study describes the histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings in experimentally infected infant CD-1 mice with an early passage human KFDV isolate. RESULTS: Acute histological changes were primarily seen in the brain...
July 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Michael K Lo, Pei-Yong Shi, Yen-Liang Chen, Mike Flint, Christina F Spiropoulou
There are currently no antiviral therapies available for the tick-borne flaviviruses associated with hemorrhagic fevers: Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV), both classical and the Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) subtype, and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV). In this brief study, we describe the in vitro antiviral activity of adenosine analog NITD008 against KFDV, AHFV, OHFV, as well as Tick-borne Encephalitis virus (TBEV). Alongside the well-established activity of NITD008 against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, our results have demonstrated the feasibility of identifying nucleoside analog inhibitors that have pan-flavivirus activity...
June 2016: Antiviral Research
Siti Fatimah Muhd Radzi, Claudia Rückert, Sing-Sin Sam, Boon-Teong Teoh, Pui-Fong Jee, Wai-Hong Phoon, Sazaly Abubakar, Keivan Zandi
Langat virus (LGTV), one of the members of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) complex, was firstly isolated from Ixodes granulatus ticks in Malaysia. However, the prevalence of LGTV in ticks in the region remains unknown. Surveillance for LGTV is therefore important and thus a tool for specific detection of LGTV is needed. In the present study, we developed a real-time quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for rapid detection of LGTV. Our findings showed that the developed qRT-PCR could detect LGTV at a titre as low as 0...
2015: Scientific Reports
Manoj V Murhekar, Gudadappa S Kasabi, Sanjay M Mehendale, Devendra T Mourya, Pragya D Yadav, Babasaheb V Tandale
Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD), a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever, is endemic in five districts of Karnataka state, India. Recent reports of the spread of disease to neighboring districts of the Western Ghats, namely Chamarajanagar district in Karnataka, Nilgiri district in Tamil Nadu, Wayanad and Malappuram districts in Kerala, and Pali village in Goa are a cause for concern. Besides vaccination of the affected population, establishing an event-based surveillance system for monkey deaths in the national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserve forests of the Western Ghats would help detect the disease early and thereby help implement appropriate control measures...
2015: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Ratnesh Ranjan, Shikha Ranjan
The role of viral infections in ocular pathology varies greatly, involving all the components of the eye. Some viruses like herpes simplex, herpes zoster, adenovirus, enterovirus 70, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and cytomegalovirus are well-known for their role in ocular pathology. In recent years, emerging and resurging viral infections represent an important public health problem. The Asia-Pacific region has witnessed a number of pandemic and epidemic outbreaks caused by these viruses during the last 2 decades...
September 2014: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Sachin L Badole, Pragya D Yadav, Dilip R Patil, Devendra T Mourya
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are major public health problems in the South-East Asia Regional (SEAR) countries. VHFs are a group of illnesses; that are caused by four families of viruses, viz. Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae and Flaviviridae. All VHFs have common features: they affect several organs and damage the blood vessels. These symptoms are often accompanied by hemorrhage. To understand pathogenesis, genetic and environmental influence that increase the risk of VHFs, efficacy and safety studies on candidate vaccines and testing of various therapeutic agents, appropriate animal models are essential tools in public and animals health...
March 2015: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Babasaheb V Tandale, Anukumar Balakrishnan, Pragya D Yadav, Noona Marja, Devendra T Mourya
BACKGROUND: Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) is a febrile illness characterized by hemorrhages, and is reported endemic in the Shimoga district in Karnataka state, India. It is caused by the KFD virus (KFDV) of the family Flaviviridae, and is transmitted to monkeys and humans by Haemaphysalis ticks. FINDINGS: We investigated a new focus of KFD among tribals in a reserve forest in Kerala state, India. A suspected case was defined as a person presenting with acute fever, headache, or myalgia...
2015: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Srikant Ghosh, Gaurav Nagar
Ticks, as vectors of several zoonotic diseases, are ranked second only to mosquitoes as vectors. The diseases spread by ticks are a major constraint to animal productivity while causing morbidity and mortality in both animals and humans. A number of tick species have been recognised since long as vectors of lethal pathogens, viz. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV), Babesia spp, Theileria, Rickettsia conorii, Anaplasma marginale, etc. and the damages caused by them are well-recognised...
December 2014: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
S K Kiran, Achhelal Pasi, Satish Kumar, Gudadappa S Kasabi, Prabhakara Gujjarappa, Aakash Shrivastava, Sanjay Mehendale, L S Chauhan, Kayla F Laserson, Manoj Murhekar
We investigated a Kyasanur Forest disease outbreak in Karnataka, India during December 2013-April 2014. Surveillance and retrospective study indicated low vaccine coverage, low vaccine effectiveness, and spread of disease to areas beyond those selected for vaccination and to age groups not targeted for vaccination. To control disease, vaccination strategies need to be reviewed.
January 2015: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Tariq A Madani, Esam I Azhar, El-Tayeb M E Abuelzein, Moujahed Kao, Hussein M S Al-Bar, Suha A Farraj, Badr E Masri, Noora A Al-Kaiedi, Shazi Shakil, Sayed S Sohrab, John SantaLucia, Thomas G Ksiazek
BACKGROUND: Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) is a newly described flavivirus first isolated in 1994-1995 from the Alkhumra district south of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Subsequently, the virus was also isolated from Makkah (2001-2003) and Najran (2008-2009), Saudi Arabia. METHODS: The full-length genome of an AHFV strain isolated from patients in Najran (referred to as AHFV/997/NJ/09/SA) was PCR amplified and sequenced, and compared with the sequences of 18 other AHFV strains previously isolated from Jeddah and Makkah, dengue virus (DENV), Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV), Langat virus, Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV)...
2014: Intervirology
Pragya D Yadav, Anita M Shete, Deepak Y Patil, V K Sandhya, K S Prakash, Rajesh Surgihalli, Devendra T Mourya
Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) was first identified in 1957, when it was isolated from a sick monkey from the Kyasanur Forest in Karnataka State, India. Since then it has been reported to be enzootic in five districts of Karnataka State, India. Recent reports of human infections have reached an alarming level, in spite of the availability of a vaccine. This disease has also been reported from new areas, such as Tamil Nadu and Kerala State. During January-March 2014, KFDV-positive cases were detected in Thirthahalli taluk, Shimoga District, Karnataka State, India...
September 2014: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Richard Stone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 11, 2014: Science
B B Singh, A A Gajadhar
Evolving land use practices have led to an increase in interactions at the human/wildlife interface. The presence and poor knowledge of zoonotic pathogens in India's wildlife and the occurrence of enormous human populations interfacing with, and critically linked to, forest ecosystems warrant attention. Factors such as diverse migratory bird populations, climate change, expanding human population and shrinking wildlife habitats play a significant role in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens from India's wildlife...
October 2014: Acta Tropica
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