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Rekha Gangadhar Damle, Vasudha Sankararaman, Vandana Sunil Bhide, Vinayak Kashinath Jadhav, Atul Madhukar Walimbe, Mangesh Damodar Gokhale
The spread and establishment of Chandipura virus (CHPV) infection in India has raised serious epidemiological concerns. Virus interface with the vertebrate hosts, humans and vector competence are the important parameters of disease prevalence. Interestingly, in the present study a highly zoophilic species of sandfly Sergentomyia is emerging as a potential vector of CHPV in Gujarat. It is probably the first report from India that male sandflies have been found to be positive for CHPV by RT-PCR. These finding signifies the vertical transmission of the virus among sandflies and has epidemiological significance...
April 27, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Prasenjit Chakraborty
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Chandipura virus (CHPV) is an emerging pathogenic rhabdovirus with a high case fatality rate. There are no reports of a minigenome system for CHPV, which could help its study without having to use the infectious agent. This study was, therefore, undertaken for the establishment of T7 polymerase-driven minigenome system for CHPV. METHODS: The minigenome rescue system for CHPV consists of three helper plasmids expressing the nucleocapsid protein (N), phosphoprotein (P) and large protein (L) based on a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing bacteriophage T7 polymerase (vTF7-3)...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
R G Damle, V Sankararaman, V S Bhide, S A Mahamuni, A M Walimbe, S S Cherian
Chandipura virus (CHPV) is found to be associated with sporadic encephalitis outbreaks in humans in India since 1965. We report here, the investigation of CHPV activity during the period of June-August 2015 in the state of Gujarat, which revealed 24.44% positivity among 45 referred encephalitis cases. Phylogenetic study of the G gene sequences of strains from Gujarat 2015 along with available sequences of additional strains from different geographical locations and isolation years (1965-2015), indicated the relatedness of the 2015 strain to a group of the CHPV prototype strain of 1965 and the earliest outbreak strains of 2003...
September 4, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Na Zhang, Hongjun Huang, Binghe Tan, Yinglei Wei, Qingqing Xiong, Yan Yan, Lili Hou, Nannan Wu, Stefan Siwko, Andrea Cimarelli, Jianrong Xu, Honghui Han, Min Qian, Mingyao Liu, Bing Du
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies and Chandipura viruses belong to the Rhabdovirus family. VSV is a common laboratory virus to study viral evolution and host immune responses to viral infection, and recombinant VSV-based vectors have been widely used for viral oncolysis, vaccination, and gene therapy. Although the tropism of VSV is broad, and its envelope glycoprotein G is often used for pseudotyping other viruses, the host cellular components involved in VSV infection remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the host protein leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (Lgr4) is essential for VSV and VSV-G pseudotyped lentivirus (VSVG-LV) to infect susceptible cells...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sourish Ghosh, Anirban Basu
Chandipura virus (CHPV) has been contributing to the rising number of premature deaths due to acute encephalitis syndrome for over a decade in India. CHPV belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae. Neuropathogenesis of CHPV has been well established but the exact route of entry into the central nervous system (CNS) and the triggering factor for neuronal death are still unknown. Rabies virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, which are related closely to CHPV, enter the CNS retrogradely from peripheral or olfactory neurons...
January 2017: National Medical Journal of India
Eduard Baquero, Aurélie A Albertini, Hélène Raux, Abbas Abou-Hamdan, Elisabetta Boeri-Erba, Malika Ouldali, Linda Buonocore, John K Rose, Jean Lepault, Stéphane Bressanelli, Yves Gaudin
Vesiculoviruses enter cells by membrane fusion, driven by a large, low-pH-induced, conformational change in the fusion glycoprotein G that involves transition from a trimeric pre-fusion toward a trimeric post-fusion state via monomeric intermediates. Here, we present the structure of the G fusion protein at intermediate pH for two vesiculoviruses, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Chandipura virus (CHAV), which is responsible for deadly encephalopathies. First, a CHAV G crystal structure shows two intermediate conformations forming a flat dimer of heterodimers...
March 1, 2017: EMBO Journal
R G Damle, A A Patil, V S Bhide, S D Pawar, G N Sapkal, V P Bondre
BACKGROUND: Chandipura virus (CHPV) is a leading cause of acute encephalitis with high mortality in paediatric population in India. A micro-neutralization ELISA (MN-ELISA) assay was developed for the detection of neutralizing antibodies (Nab) against CHPV. This novel method gives read-out in the form of ELISA optical density (OD) values and has a shorter turn-around time (TAT) as compared to the conventional cytopathic effect (CPE)-based neutralization assay (MN-CPE). The assay was developed using an Indian strain of CHPV...
February 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
A B Sudeep, Y K Gurav, V P Bondre
Chandipura virus (CHPV) (Vesiculovirus: Rhabdoviridae) garnered global attention as an emerging neurotropic pathogen inflicting high mortality in children within 24 h of commencement of symptoms. The 2003-2004 outbreaks in Central India witnessed case fatality rates ranging from 56-75 per cent in Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat with typical encephalitic symptoms. Due to the acute sickness and rapid deterioration, the precise mechanism of action of the virus is still unknown. Recent studies have shown increased expression of CHPV phosphoprotein upto 6 h post infection (PI) demonstrating CHPV replication in neuronal cells and the rapid destruction of the cells by apoptosis shed light on the probable mechanism of rapid death in children...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Soumen Roy, Daya Pavitrakar, Rashmi Gunjikar, Vijay M Ayachit, Vijay P Bondre, Gajanan N Sapkal
BACKGROUND: Interaction between immune system and Chandipura virus (CHPV) during different stages of its life cycle remain poorly understood. The exact route of virus entry into the blood and CNS invasion has not been clearly defined. The present study was undertaken to assess the population in PBMC that supports the growth of virus and to detect active virus replication in PBMC as well as its subsets. METHODS: PBMC subsets viz.: CD3(+), CD14(+), CD19(+), CD56(+)cells were separated and infected with CHPV...
September 14, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sourish Ghosh, Sriparna Mukherjee, Nabonita Sengupta, Arunava Roy, Dhritiman Dey, Surajit Chakraborty, Dhrubajyoti Chattopadhyay, Arpan Banerjee, Anirban Basu
Network analysis through graph theory provides a quantitative approach to characterize specific proteins and their constituent assemblies that underlie host-pathogen interactions. In the present study, graph theory was used to analyze the interactome designed out of 50 differentially expressing proteins from proteomic analysis of Chandipura Virus (CHPV, Family: Rhabdoviridae) infected mouse brain tissue to identify the primary candidates for intervention. Using the measure of degree centrality, that quantifies the connectedness of a single protein within a milieu of several other interacting proteins, DJ-1 was selected for further molecular validation...
2016: Scientific Reports
William Marciel de Souza, Gustavo Olszanski Acrani, Marilia Farignoli Romeiro, Osvaldo Reis Júnior, Aline Lavado Tolardo, Amanda Araújo Serrão de Andrade, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves Vianez Júnior, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida Medeiros, Márcio Roberto Teixeira Nunes, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo
Piry virus (PIRYV) is a rhabdovirus (genus Vesiculovirus) and is described as a possible human pathogen, originally isolated from a Philander opossum trapped in Para State, Northern Brazil. This study describes the complete full coding sequence and the genetic characterization of PIRYV. The genome sequence reveals that PIRYV has a typical vesiculovirus-like organization, encoding the five genes typical of the genus. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that PIRYV is most closely related to Perinet virus and clustered in the same clade as Chandipura and Isfahan vesiculoviruses...
August 2016: Archives of Virology
Bhagirathi Dwibedi, Jyotsnamayee Sabat, Rupenangshu K Hazra, Anu Kumar, Diwakar Singh Dinesh, Shantanu K Kar
BACKGROUND: The sudden death of 10 children in a tribal village of Kandhamal district, Odisha in eastern India led to this investigation. METHODS: We conducted a door-to-door survey to identify cases. Antibodies for Chandipura, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, chikungunya and West Nile viruses were tested by ELISA in probable cases. Chandipura virus RNA was tested from both human blood samples and sand flies by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We conducted vector surveys in domestic and peridomestic areas, and collected sand flies...
July 2015: National Medical Journal of India
Abhishek Kumar Verma, Sourish Ghosh, Sreeparna Pradhan, Anirban Basu
Neurotropic viruses induce neurodegeneration either directly by activating host death domains or indirectly through host immune response pathways. Chandipura Virus (CHPV) belonging to family Rhabdoviridae is ranked among the emerging pathogens of the Indian subcontinent. Previously we have reported that CHPV induces neurodegeneration albeit the root cause of this degeneration is still an open question. In this study we explored the role of microglia following CHPV infection. Phenotypic analysis of microglia through lectin and Iba-1 staining indicated cells were in an activated state post CHPV infection in cortical region of the infected mouse brain...
March 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shuang Hu, Dipu Mohan Kumar, Chelsea Sax, Clayton Schuler, Ramesh Akkina
While the envelope glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-G) is widely used for pseudotyping of lentiviral vectors, sub-optimal gene transfer into certain cell types and its sensitivity to inactivation by human complement hinders its broader applications. To find alternative candidates, here we evaluated two serologically distinct novel viral envelopes derived from Chandipura (CNV-G) and Piry (PRV-G) vesiculoviruses. Both permitted generation of high titer psuedotyped lentiviral vectors with a capacity for high efficiency gene transfer into various cell types from different species...
January 15, 2016: Virology
Rajesh Kumar Ganjhu, Piya Paul Mudgal, Hindol Maity, Deepu Dowarha, Santhosha Devadiga, Snehlata Nag, Govindakarnavar Arunkumar
Herbal plants, plant preparations and phytoconstituents have proved useful in attenuating infectious conditions and were the only remedies available, till the advent of antibiotics (many being of plant origin themselves). Among infectious diseases, viral diseases in particular, remain the leading cause of death in humans globally. A variety of phytoconstituents derived from medicinal herbs have been extensively studied for antiviral activity. Based on this rationale, an online search was performed, which helped to identify a large number of plant species harboring antiviral molecules...
December 2015: Virusdisease
Sourish Ghosh, G Vinodh Kumar, Anirban Basu, Arpan Banerjee
Complex protein networks underlie any cellular function. Certain proteins play a pivotal role in many network configurations, disruption of whose expression proves fatal to the cell. An efficient method to tease out such key proteins in a network is still unavailable. Here, we used graph-theoretic measures on protein-protein interaction data (interactome) to extract biophysically relevant information about individual protein regulation and network properties such as formation of function specific modules (sub-networks) of proteins...
2015: Scientific Reports
A B Sudeep, Y S Ghodke, R P George, V S Ingale, S D Dhaigude, M D Gokhale
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Culex gelidus, a widely prevalent mosquito in India and Southeast Asia region, is an important vector of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Experimental studies have shown its potential to transmit West Nile, Kunjin, Murray Valley encephalitis and Ross River viruses. An attempt was therefore made to study its susceptibility and vector competence to some of the arboviruses of public health importance in India. METHODS: Mosquitoes were infected with six viruses, viz...
June 2015: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Sourish Ghosh, Sriparna Mukherjee, Anirban Basu
Chandipura virus (CHPV; genus Vesiculovirus, family Rhabdoviridae) induces neuronal death through the Fas-mediated extrinsic apoptosis pathway. What propels this apoptosis remains unclear, although oxysterols have been reported to be key players in neurodegeneration. In our study of CHPV-infected brain samples, we observed over-expression of genes such as apolipoprotein E, Cyp46a1, Srebf-1 and Nsdhl. This backs up the hypothesis that CHPV replication demands cholesterol that is supplied by apolipoprotein E through low density lipid receptors, lipid metabolism being pivotal for viral replication...
October 2015: Journal of Neurochemistry
Sreejith Rajasekharan, Kapila Kumar, Jyoti Rana, Amita Gupta, Vijay K Chaudhary, Sanjay Gupta
The rhabdovirus matrix (M) protein is a multifunctional virion protein that plays major role in virus assembly and budding, virus-induced inhibition of host gene expression and cytopathic effects observed in infected cells. The myriad roles played by this protein in the virus biology make it a critical player in viral pathogenesis. Therefore, discerning the interactions of this protein with host can greatly facilitate our understanding of virus infections, ultimately leading to both improved therapeutics and insight into cellular processes...
September 2015: Acta Tropica
Eduard Baquero, Aurélie A Albertini, Hélène Raux, Linda Buonocore, John K Rose, Stéphane Bressanelli, Yves Gaudin
Chandipura virus (CHAV), a member of the vesiculovirus genus, is an emerging human pathogen. As for other rhabdoviruses, CHAV entry into susceptible cells is mediated by its single envelope glycoprotein G which is both involved in receptor recognition and fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Here, we have characterized the fusion properties of CHAV-G. As for vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, the prototype of the genus) G, fusion is triggered at low pH below 6.5. We have also analyzed the biochemical properties of a soluble form of CHAV-G ectodomain (CHAV-Gth, generated by thermolysin limited-proteolysis of recombinant VSV particles in which the G gene was replaced by that of CHAV)...
March 2015: PLoS Pathogens
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