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A B Sudeep, Y K Gurav, V P Bondre
Chandipura virus (CHPV) (Vesiculovirus: Rhabdoviridae) garnered global attention as an emerging neurotropic pathogen inflicting high mortality in children within 24 h of commencement of symptoms. The 2003-2004 outbreaks in Central India witnessed case fatality rates ranging from 56-75 per cent in Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat with typical encephalitic symptoms. Due to the acute sickness and rapid deterioration, the precise mechanism of action of the virus is still unknown. Recent studies have shown increased expression of CHPV phosphoprotein upto 6 h post infection (PI) demonstrating CHPV replication in neuronal cells and the rapid destruction of the cells by apoptosis shed light on the probable mechanism of rapid death in children...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Soumen Roy, Daya Pavitrakar, Rashmi Gunjikar, Vijay M Ayachit, Vijay P Bondre, Gajanan N Sapkal
BACKGROUND: Interaction between immune system and Chandipura virus (CHPV) during different stages of its life cycle remain poorly understood. The exact route of virus entry into the blood and CNS invasion has not been clearly defined. The present study was undertaken to assess the population in PBMC that supports the growth of virus and to detect active virus replication in PBMC as well as its subsets. METHODS: PBMC subsets viz.: CD3(+), CD14(+), CD19(+), CD56(+)cells were separated and infected with CHPV...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sourish Ghosh, Sriparna Mukherjee, Nabonita Sengupta, Arunava Roy, Dhritiman Dey, Surajit Chakraborty, Dhrubajyoti Chattopadhyay, Arpan Banerjee, Anirban Basu
Network analysis through graph theory provides a quantitative approach to characterize specific proteins and their constituent assemblies that underlie host-pathogen interactions. In the present study, graph theory was used to analyze the interactome designed out of 50 differentially expressing proteins from proteomic analysis of Chandipura Virus (CHPV, Family: Rhabdoviridae) infected mouse brain tissue to identify the primary candidates for intervention. Using the measure of degree centrality, that quantifies the connectedness of a single protein within a milieu of several other interacting proteins, DJ-1 was selected for further molecular validation...
2016: Scientific Reports
William Marciel de Souza, Gustavo Olszanski Acrani, Marilia Farignoli Romeiro, Osvaldo Reis Júnior, Aline Lavado Tolardo, Amanda Araújo Serrão de Andrade, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves Vianez Júnior, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida Medeiros, Márcio Roberto Teixeira Nunes, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo
Piry virus (PIRYV) is a rhabdovirus (genus Vesiculovirus) and is described as a possible human pathogen, originally isolated from a Philander opossum trapped in Para State, Northern Brazil. This study describes the complete full coding sequence and the genetic characterization of PIRYV. The genome sequence reveals that PIRYV has a typical vesiculovirus-like organization, encoding the five genes typical of the genus. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that PIRYV is most closely related to Perinet virus and clustered in the same clade as Chandipura and Isfahan vesiculoviruses...
August 2016: Archives of Virology
Bhagirathi Dwibedi, Jyotsnamayee Sabat, Rupenangshu K Hazra, Anu Kumar, Diwakar Singh Dinesh, Shantanu K Kar
BACKGROUND: The sudden death of 10 children in a tribal village of Kandhamal district, Odisha in eastern India led to this investigation. METHODS: We conducted a door-to-door survey to identify cases. Antibodies for Chandipura, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, chikungunya and West Nile viruses were tested by ELISA in probable cases. Chandipura virus RNA was tested from both human blood samples and sand flies by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We conducted vector surveys in domestic and peridomestic areas, and collected sand flies...
July 2015: National Medical Journal of India
Abhishek Kumar Verma, Sourish Ghosh, Sreeparna Pradhan, Anirban Basu
Neurotropic viruses induce neurodegeneration either directly by activating host death domains or indirectly through host immune response pathways. Chandipura Virus (CHPV) belonging to family Rhabdoviridae is ranked among the emerging pathogens of the Indian subcontinent. Previously we have reported that CHPV induces neurodegeneration albeit the root cause of this degeneration is still an open question. In this study we explored the role of microglia following CHPV infection. Phenotypic analysis of microglia through lectin and Iba-1 staining indicated cells were in an activated state post CHPV infection in cortical region of the infected mouse brain...
2016: Scientific Reports
Shuang Hu, Dipu Mohan Kumar, Chelsea Sax, Clayton Schuler, Ramesh Akkina
While the envelope glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-G) is widely used for pseudotyping of lentiviral vectors, sub-optimal gene transfer into certain cell types and its sensitivity to inactivation by human complement hinders its broader applications. To find alternative candidates, here we evaluated two serologically distinct novel viral envelopes derived from Chandipura (CNV-G) and Piry (PRV-G) vesiculoviruses. Both permitted generation of high titer psuedotyped lentiviral vectors with a capacity for high efficiency gene transfer into various cell types from different species...
January 15, 2016: Virology
Rajesh Kumar Ganjhu, Piya Paul Mudgal, Hindol Maity, Deepu Dowarha, Santhosha Devadiga, Snehlata Nag, Govindakarnavar Arunkumar
Herbal plants, plant preparations and phytoconstituents have proved useful in attenuating infectious conditions and were the only remedies available, till the advent of antibiotics (many being of plant origin themselves). Among infectious diseases, viral diseases in particular, remain the leading cause of death in humans globally. A variety of phytoconstituents derived from medicinal herbs have been extensively studied for antiviral activity. Based on this rationale, an online search was performed, which helped to identify a large number of plant species harboring antiviral molecules...
December 2015: Virusdisease
Sourish Ghosh, G Vinodh Kumar, Anirban Basu, Arpan Banerjee
Complex protein networks underlie any cellular function. Certain proteins play a pivotal role in many network configurations, disruption of whose expression proves fatal to the cell. An efficient method to tease out such key proteins in a network is still unavailable. Here, we used graph-theoretic measures on protein-protein interaction data (interactome) to extract biophysically relevant information about individual protein regulation and network properties such as formation of function specific modules (sub-networks) of proteins...
2015: Scientific Reports
A B Sudeep, Y S Ghodke, R P George, V S Ingale, S D Dhaigude, M D Gokhale
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Culex gelidus, a widely prevalent mosquito in India and Southeast Asia region, is an important vector of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Experimental studies have shown its potential to transmit West Nile, Kunjin, Murray Valley encephalitis and Ross River viruses. An attempt was therefore made to study its susceptibility and vector competence to some of the arboviruses of public health importance in India. METHODS: Mosquitoes were infected with six viruses, viz...
June 2015: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Sourish Ghosh, Sriparna Mukherjee, Anirban Basu
Chandipura virus (CHPV; genus Vesiculovirus, family Rhabdoviridae) induces neuronal death through the Fas-mediated extrinsic apoptosis pathway. What propels this apoptosis remains unclear, although oxysterols have been reported to be key players in neurodegeneration. In our study of CHPV-infected brain samples, we observed over-expression of genes such as apolipoprotein E, Cyp46a1, Srebf-1 and Nsdhl. This backs up the hypothesis that CHPV replication demands cholesterol that is supplied by apolipoprotein E through low density lipid receptors, lipid metabolism being pivotal for viral replication...
October 2015: Journal of Neurochemistry
Sreejith Rajasekharan, Kapila Kumar, Jyoti Rana, Amita Gupta, Vijay K Chaudhary, Sanjay Gupta
The rhabdovirus matrix (M) protein is a multifunctional virion protein that plays major role in virus assembly and budding, virus-induced inhibition of host gene expression and cytopathic effects observed in infected cells. The myriad roles played by this protein in the virus biology make it a critical player in viral pathogenesis. Therefore, discerning the interactions of this protein with host can greatly facilitate our understanding of virus infections, ultimately leading to both improved therapeutics and insight into cellular processes...
September 2015: Acta Tropica
Eduard Baquero, Aurélie A Albertini, Hélène Raux, Linda Buonocore, John K Rose, Stéphane Bressanelli, Yves Gaudin
Chandipura virus (CHAV), a member of the vesiculovirus genus, is an emerging human pathogen. As for other rhabdoviruses, CHAV entry into susceptible cells is mediated by its single envelope glycoprotein G which is both involved in receptor recognition and fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Here, we have characterized the fusion properties of CHAV-G. As for vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, the prototype of the genus) G, fusion is triggered at low pH below 6.5. We have also analyzed the biochemical properties of a soluble form of CHAV-G ectodomain (CHAV-Gth, generated by thermolysin limited-proteolysis of recombinant VSV particles in which the G gene was replaced by that of CHAV)...
March 2015: PLoS Pathogens
A B Sudeep
Culex gelidus Theobald has emerged as a major vector of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in India, Southeast Asian countries and Australia. The species has expanded its geographic distribution from the Indian subcontinent to Japan, China, other Southeast Asian countries, Island nations in Australasian region and Australia. In recent years, a sudden increase in its population especially in the urban and sub-urban areas has been observed in several countries, thus, becoming a dominant mosquito species. The virus has been repeatedly isolated from from different geographical locations making it one of the most important vectors of JEV...
December 2014: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Philip N Britton, Gulam Khandaker, Robert Booy, Cheryl A Jones
Encephalitis is caused by inflammation and/or infection of the brain. It is a important condition in Asian children in whom it is most frequently caused by Japanese encephalitis virus, associated with a considerable burden of disease. Other common causes in Asia include: enteroviruses (especially enterovirus 71), dengue, influenza, the herpesviruses, measles, mumps and rubella viruses. Rabies continues to result in high mortality mostly in Asian children, which represents missed opportunities for prevention...
2014: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
A B Sudeep, V P Bondre, Y K Gurav, M D Gokhale, G N Sapkal, M S Mavale, R P George, A C Mishra
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: An outbreak of acute encephalitis syndrome was reported from Vidarbha region of Maharashtra s0 tate, India, during July 2012. Anti-IgM antibodies against Chandipura virus (CHPV) were detected in clinical samples. Sandfly collections were done to determine their role in CHPV transmission. METHODS: Twenty nine pools of Sergentomyia spp. comprising 625 specimens were processed for virus isolation in Vero E6 cell line. Diagnostic RT-PCR targeting N-gene was carried out with the sample that showed cytopathic effects (CPE)...
May 2014: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Sreejith Rajasekharan, Jyoti Rana, Sahil Gulati, Vandana Gupta, Sanjay Gupta
Chandipura virus (CHPV) is an arthropod borne rhabdovirus associated with acute encephalitis in children below the age of 15 years in the tropical states of India. Although the entry of the virus into the nervous system is among the crucial events in the pathogenesis of CHPV, the exact mechanism allowing CHPV to invade the central nervous system (CNS) is currently poorly understood. In the present review, based on the knowledge of host interactors previously predicted for CHPV, along with the support from experimental data available for other encephalitic viruses, the authors have speculated the various plausible modes by which CHPV could surpass the blood-brain barrier and invade the CNS to cause encephalitis whilst evading the host immune surveillance...
July 2014: Acta Tropica
Kapila Kumar, Sreejith Rajasekharan, Sahil Gulati, Jyoti Rana, Reema Gabrani, Chakresh K Jain, Amita Gupta, Vijay K Chaudhary, Sanjay Gupta
The nucleocapsid (N) protein of Chandipura virus (CHPV) plays a crucial role in viral life cycle, besides being an important structural component of the virion through proper organization of its interactions with other viral proteins. In a recent study, the authors had mapped the associations among CHPV proteins and shown that N protein interacts with four of the viral proteins: N, phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), and glycoprotein (G). The present study aimed to distinguish the regions of CHPV N protein responsible for its interactions with other viral proteins...
2013: Advances in Virology
Emily L Stock, Anthony C Marriott, Andrew J Easton
The emerging arbovirus Chandipura virus (CV) has been implicated in epidemics of acute encephalitis in India with high mortality rates. The isolation of temperature-dependent host-range (tdCE) mutants, which are impaired in growth at 39 °C in chick embryo (CE) cells but not in monkey cells, highlights a dependence on undetermined host factors. We have characterized three tdCE mutants, each containing one or more coding mutations in the RNA polymerase gene and two containing additional mutations in the attachment protein gene...
January 2014: Journal of General Virology
Devendra T Mourya, Rajen J Lakra, Pragya D Yadav, Preeti Tyagi, Chandrashekhar G Raut, Anita M Shete, Dinesh K Singh
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Pipistrellus ceylonicus bat species is widely distributed in South Asia, with additional populations recorded in China and Southeast Asia. Bats are the natural reservoir hosts for a number of emerging zoonotic diseases. Attempts to isolate bat-borne viruses in various terrestrial mammalian cell lines have sometimes been unsuccessful. The bat cell lines are useful in isolation and propagation of many of the viruses harboured by bats. New stable bat cell lines are needed to help such investigations and to assist in the study of bat immunology and virus-host interactions...
2013: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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