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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215046/genome-resolved-metagenomics-of-a-bioremediation-system-for-degradation-of-thiocyanate-in-mine-water-containing-suspended-solid-tailings
#1
Sumayah F Rahman, Rose S Kantor, Robert Huddy, Brian C Thomas, Andries W van Zyl, Susan T L Harrison, Jillian F Banfield
Thiocyanate (SCN(-) ) is a toxic compound that forms when cyanide (CN(-) ), used to recover gold, reacts with sulfur species. SCN(-) -degrading microbial communities have been studied, using bioreactors fed synthetic wastewater. The inclusion of suspended solids in the form of mineral tailings, during the development of the acclimatized microbial consortium, led to the selection of an active planktonic microbial community. Preliminary analysis of the community composition revealed reduced microbial diversity relative to the laboratory-based reactors operated without suspended solids...
February 19, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215042/platelet-mediated-modulation-of-fibrinolysis
#2
Claire S Whyte, Joanne L Mitchell, Nicola J Mutch
Platelets are crucial to the hemostatic response. Their role in coagulation is well documented and they have been considered for some time to promote resistance of thrombi to fibrinolysis. Platelets confer resistance to lysis by promoting clot retraction of the immediate fibrin network and through release of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 from their α-granules. However, recent developments in the field indicate that the role of platelets in fibrinolysis is much more diverse. Indeed, novel studies suggest that platelets form different subpopulations upon activation that play varied roles in regulating hemostasis...
February 19, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215020/climate-change-and-national-crop-wild-relative-conservation-planning
#3
Jade Phillips, Joana Magos Brehm, Bob van Oort, Åsmund Asdal, Morten Rasmussen, Nigel Maxted
Climate change is likely to be one of the most important factors affecting our future food security. To mitigate negative impacts, we will require our crops to be more genetically diverse. Such diversity is available in crop wild relatives (CWRs), the wild taxa relatively closely related to crops and from which diverse traits can be transferred to the crop. Conservation of such genetic resources resides within the nation where they are found; therefore, national-level conservation recommendations are fundamental to global food security...
February 18, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215006/balancing-ecosystem-function-services-and-disservices-resulting-from-expanding-goose-populations
#4
Ralph Buij, Theodorus C P Melman, Maarten J J E Loonen, Anthony D Fox
As goose populations increase in abundance, their influence on ecological processes is increasing. We review the evidence for key ecological functions of wild goose populations in Eurasia and North America, including aquatic invertebrate and plant propagule transport, nutrient deposition in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, the influence of goose populations on vegetation biomass, carbon storage and methane emission, species diversity and disease transmission. To estimate the implications of their growing abundance for humans, we explore how these functions contribute to the provision of ecosystem services and disservices...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214993/scaleus-semantic-web-services-integration-for-biomedical-applications
#5
Pedro Sernadela, Lorena González-Castro, José Luís Oliveira
In recent years, we have witnessed an explosion of biological data resulting largely from the demands of life science research. The vast majority of these data are freely available via diverse bioinformatics platforms, including relational databases and conventional keyword search applications. This type of approach has achieved great results in the last few years, but proved to be unfeasible when information needs to be combined or shared among different and scattered sources. During recent years, many of these data distribution challenges have been solved with the adoption of semantic web...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214969/attached-and-suspended-denitrifier-communities-in-pristine-limestone-aquifers-harbor-high-fractions-of-potential-autotrophs-oxidizing-reduced-iron-and-sulfur-compounds
#6
M Herrmann, S Opitz, R Harzer, K U Totsche, K Küsel
Oxygen and nitrate availability as well as the presence of suitable organic or inorganic electron donors are strong drivers of denitrification; however, the factors influencing denitrifier abundance and community composition in pristine aquifers are not well understood. We explored the denitrifier community structure of suspended and attached groundwater microorganisms in two superimposed limestone aquifer assemblages with contrasting oxygen regime in the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (Germany). Attached communities were retrieved from freshly crushed parent rock material which had been exposed for colonization in two groundwater wells (12...
February 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214954/association-of-toll-like-receptor-4-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-asp299gly-and-thr399ile-with-the-risk-of-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#7
Jose Navarro-Partida, Abril Bernardette Martinez-Rizo, Pedro Ramirez-Barrera, Jesus Bernardino Velazquez-Fernandez, Veronica A Mondragon-Jaimes, Arturo Santos-Garcia, Veronica Benites-Godinez
PURPOSE: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a transmembrane receptor that mediates immune responses to exogenous and endogenous ligands. Previously, non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TLR4 gene were related to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). This study was undertaken to investigate whether coding TLR4 Asp299Gly (rs4986790 A/G) and Thr399Ile (rs4986791 C/T) are associated with POAG in a Mexican population. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-seven unrelated Mexican patients with POAG (94 men and 95 women; mean age 66...
February 18, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214944/the-vascular-plants-open-system-of-growth
#8
REVIEW
Alice Basile, Marco Fambrini, Claudio Pugliesi
What is fascinating in plants (true also in sessile animals such as corals and hydroids) is definitely their open and indeterminate growth, as a result of meristematic activity. Plants as well as animals are characterized by a multicellular organization, with which they share a common set of genes inherited from a common eukaryotic ancestor; nevertheless, circa 1.5 billion years of evolutionary history made the two kingdoms very different in their own developmental biology. Flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, arose during the Cretaceous Period (145-65 million years ago), and up to date, they count around 235,000 species, representing the largest and most diverse group within the plant kingdom...
February 18, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214933/findings-from-american-indian-needs-assessments
#9
Linda Burhansstipanov, Linda U Krebs, Lisa Harjo, Kathleen Ragan, Judith Salmon Kaur, Vickie Marsh, Dewey Painter
Because of decreased access and dismal survival rates, strategies need to be developed to increase cancer awareness and facilitate cancer prevention, early detection, and screening activities within American Indian (AI) populations. The purpose of this study was to develop a locally tailored needs assessment to collect cancer prevention, control, and risk factor information and knowledge, attitude, and perceived behavior (hereafter referred to as "needs assessment") data from 500 community members living in 3 geographically diverse settings: the Southeastern USA, the Rocky Mountain region, and the Northern Plains...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214862/differential-clonal-expansion-in-an-invading-cell-population-clonal-advantage-or-dumb-luck
#10
Donald F Newgreen, Dongcheng Zhang, Bevan L Cheeseman, Benjamin J Binder, Kerry A Landman
In neoplastic cell growth, clones and subclones are variable both in size and mutational spectrum. The largest of these clones are believed to represent those cells with mutations that make them the most "fit," in a Darwinian sense, for expansion in their microenvironment. Thus, the degree of quantitative clonal expansion is regarded as being determined by innate qualitative differences between the cells that originate each clone. Here, using a combination of mathematical modelling and clonal labelling experiments applied to the developmental model system of the forming enteric nervous system, we describe how cells which are qualitatively identical may consistently produce clones of dramatically different sizes: most clones are very small while a few clones we term "superstars" contribute most of the cells to the final population...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214758/comparative-analysis-of-viral-shedding-in-pediatric-and-adult-subjects-with-central-nervous-system-associated-enterovirus-infections-from-2013-to-2015-in-switzerland
#11
S Cordey, M Schibler, A G L'Huillier, N Wagner, A R Gonçalves, J Ambrosioni, S Asner, L Turin, K M Posfay-Barbe, L Kaiser
BACKGROUND: Several enterovirus (EV) genotypes can result in aseptic meningitis, but their routes of access to the central nervous system remain to be elucidated and may differ between the pediatric and adult populations. OBJECTIVE: To assess the pattern of viral shedding in pediatric and adult subjects with acute EV meningitis and to generate EV surveillance data for Switzerland. STUDY DESIGN: All pediatric and adult subjects admitted to the University Hospitals of Geneva with a diagnosis of EV meningitis between 2013 and 2015 were enrolled...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214736/breaking-the-population-barrier-by-single-cell-analysis-one-host-against-one-pathogen
#12
REVIEW
Erez Mills, Roi Avraham
Most of our understanding of the host-bacterium interaction has come from studies of bulk populations. In reality, highly adaptable and dynamic host cells and bacteria engage in complex, diverse interactions. This complexity necessarily limits the depth of understanding that can be gained with bulk population measurements. Here, we will review the merit of single cell analysis to characterize this diversity that can trigger heterogeneous outcomes. We will discuss heterogeneity of bacterial and host populations, differences in host microenvironments, technological advances that facilitate the analysis of rare subpopulations, and the potential relevance of these subpopulations to infection outcomes...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214731/jumping-species-a-mechanism-for-coronavirus-persistence-and-survival
#13
REVIEW
Vineet D Menachery, Rachel L Graham, Ralph S Baric
Zoonotic transmission of novel viruses represents a significant threat to global public health and is fueled by globalization, the loss of natural habitats, and exposure to new hosts. For coronaviruses (CoVs), broad diversity exists within bat populations and uniquely positions them to seed future emergence events. In this review, we explore the host and viral dynamics that shape these CoV populations for survival, amplification, and possible emergence in novel hosts.
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214696/unraveling-the-influence-of-the-cod-sulfate-ratio-on-organic-matter-removal-and-methane-production-from-the-biodigestion-of-sugarcane-vinasse
#14
Luma Sayuri Mazine Kiyuna, Lucas Tadeu Fuess, Marcelo Zaiat
Throughout the sugarcane harvest, it is common for sulfate to accumulate in the vinasse of sugar and ethanol plants. However, little is known regarding the influence of sulfate on the anaerobic digestion (AD) of vinasse, which may lead to severe performance losses. This study assessed the influence of various COD/sulfate ratios (12.0, 10.0 and 7.5) on both COD removal and methane (CH4) production from sugarcane vinasse AD. Batch assays were conducted in thermophilic conditions. At a COD/sulfate ratio of 7.5, CH4 production was 35% lower compared with a ratio of 12...
February 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214669/correlates-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-5529-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-the-t1d-exchange-clinic-registry
#15
Karl E Minges, Robin Whittemore, Stuart A Weinzimer, Melinda L Irwin, Nancy S Redeker, Margaret Grey
AIMS: To describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to examine the associations among socio-demographic, clinical, and self-management factors by weight status. METHODS: We analyzed baseline data obtained from 5529 adolescents with T1D (mean age=15.4±1.4years, 51.8% male, 77.9% white, mean HbA1c=8.7±1.8%; 72mmol/mol) from the T1D Exchange Clinic Registry. We examined correlates of weight status using multinomial logistic regression analyses...
February 4, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214557/quadruple-first-line-drug-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-vietnam-what-can-we-learn-from-genes
#16
Huy Quang Nguyen, Nhung Viet Nguyen, Lucie Contamin, Thanh Hoa Thi Tran, Thuong Thi Vu, Hung Van Nguyen, Ngoc Lan Thi Nguyen, Son Thai Nguyen, Anh Duc Dang, Anne-Laure Bañuls, Van Anh Thi Nguyen
In Vietnam, a country with high tuberculosis (137/100.000 population) and multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB burdens (7.8/100.000 population), little is known about the molecular signatures of drug resistance in general and more particularly of second line drug (SLD) resistance. This study is specifically focused on Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates resistant to four first-line drugs (FLDs) that make TB much more difficult to treat. The aim is to determine the proportion of SLD resistance in these quadruple drug resistant isolates and the genetic determinants linked to drug resistance to better understand the genetic processes leading to quadruple and extremely drug resistance (XDR)...
February 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214520/impact-of-copper-ligand-mutations-on-a-cupredoxin-with-a-green-copper-center
#17
Magali Roger, Giuliano Sciara, Frédéric Biaso, Elisabeth Lojou, Xie Wang, Marielle Bauzan, Marie-Thérèse Giudici-Orticoni, Alejandro Vila, Marianne Ilbert
Mononuclear cupredoxins contain a type 1 copper center with a trigonal or tetragonal geometry usually maintained by four ligands, a cystein, two histidines and a methionine. The recent discovery of new members of this family with unusual properties demonstrates, however, the versatility of this class of proteins. Changes in their ligand set lead to drastic variation in their metal site geometry and in the resulting spectroscopic and redox features. In our work, we report the identification of the copper ligands in the recently discovered cupredoxin AcoP...
February 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214511/identification-of-a-degradation-signal-sequence-within-substrates-of-the-mitochondrial-i-aaa-protease
#18
Anthony J Rampello, Steven E Glynn
The i-AAA protease is a component of the mitochondrial quality control machinery that regulates respiration, mitochondrial dynamics, and protein import. The protease is required to select specific substrates for degradation from among the diverse complement of proteins present in mitochondria, yet the rules that govern this selection are unclear. Here, we reconstruct the yeast i-AAA protease, Yme1p, to examine the in vitro degradation of two intermembrane space chaperone subunits, Tim9 and Tim10. Yme1p degrades Tim10 more rapidly than Tim9 despite high sequence and structural similarity, and loss of Tim10 is accelerated by disruption of conserved disulfide bonds within the substrate...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214472/bmp-12-activates-tenogenic-pathway-in-human-adipose-stem-cells-and-affects-their-immunomodulatory-and-secretory-properties
#19
Weronika Zarychta-Wiśniewska, Anna Burdzinska, Agnieszka Kulesza, Kamila Gala, Beata Kaleta, Katarzyna Zielniok, Katarzyna Siennicka, Marek Sabat, Leszek Paczek
BACKGROUND: Cell-based therapy is a treatment method in tendon injuries. Bone morphogenic protein 12 (BMP-12) possesses tenogenic activity and was proposed as a differentiating factor for stem cells directed to transplantation. However, BMPs belong to pleiotropic TGF-β superfamily and have diverse effect on cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if BMP-12 induces tenogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) and how it affects other features of this population...
February 18, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214377/reciprocal-translocation-of-small-numbers-of-inbred-individuals-rescues-immunogenetic-diversity
#20
Catherine E Grueber, Jolene T Sutton, Sol Heber, James V Briskie, Ian G Jamieson, Bruce C Robertson
Genetic rescue can reduce inbreeding depression and increase fitness of small populations, even when the donor populations are highly inbred. In a recent experiment involving two inbred island populations of the South Island robin, Petroica australis, reciprocal translocations improved microsatellite diversity and individual fitness. While microsatellite loci may reflect patterns of genome-wide diversity, they generally do not indicate the specific genetic regions responsible for increased fitness. We tested the effectiveness of this reciprocal translocation for rescuing diversity of two immunogenetic regions: toll-like receptor (TLR) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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