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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931094/ethnicity-and-skin-autofluorescence-based-risk-engines-for-cardiovascular-disease-and-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Muhammad Saeed Ahmad, Torben Kimhofer, Sultan Ahmad, Mohammed Nabil AlAma, Hala Hisham Mosli, Salwa Ibrahim Hindawi, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Katarína Šebeková, Zoheir Abdullah Damanhouri, Elaine Holmes
Skin auto fluorescence (SAF) is used as a proxy for the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and has been proposed to stratify patients into cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) risk groups. This study evaluates the effects of seven different ethnicities (Arab, Central-East African, Eastern Mediterranean, European, North African, South Asian and Southeast Asian) and gender on SAF as well as validating SAF assessment as a risk estimation tool for CVD and DM in an Arabian cohort...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928699/cross-cultural-comparison-of-self-construal-and-well-being-between-japan-and-south-korea-the-role-of-self-focused-and-other-focused-relational-selves
#2
Joonha Park, Vinai Norasakkunkit, Yoshi Kashima
Relational self, along with individual and collective selves, is a fundamental aspect that makes up self-concept. Proposing its two aspects: self-focused relational self (i.e., perceiving the self as the object of other people's referential awareness or intentionality) and other-focused relational self (i.e., perceiving the self as being attuned and empathetically connected to close others), the current study explored the way the four selves affect well-being in Japan and South Korea, the East Asian cultures that have been assumed to be homogeneously collectivistic in previous psychological literature...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928317/tobacco-industry-interference-a-review-of-three-south-east-asian-countries
#3
Mary Assunta, Bungon Ritthiphakdee, Widyastuti Soerojo, May Myat Cho, Worrawan Jirathanapiwat
BACKGROUND: The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 5.3 requires governments to protect tobacco control policies from the commercial interest of the tobacco industry (TI). TI interference is the biggest barrier to implementing comprehensive tobacco control measures. OBJECTIVE: This paper reviews the extent of the TI's interference in tobacco control policy development in three countries, Thailand, Myanmar, and Indonesia, and the governments' efforts to protect these policies...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924296/applied-carbohydrate-counting
#4
Lovely Gupta, Deepak Khandelwal, Sanjay Kalra
Carbohydrate counting or "carb counting" is a meal planning technique for persons with diabetes for managing blood glucose levels by tracking the grams of carbohydrate consumed at meals. With better patient education and awareness, carb counting has become an important step in diabetes management. People with all types of diabetes can be benefited with this approach via improved glycaemic control and quality of life. In the first part of this review basic principles of carbohydrate counting, its application in clinical practice and exchange lists pertaining primarily to South Asian populations have been discussed...
September 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923605/microbial-pathogenicity-and-virulence-mediated-by-integrons-on-gram-positive-microorganisms
#5
REVIEW
Yanmei Li, Ling Yang, Jie Fu, Muxia Yan, Dingqiang Chen, Li Zhang
Gram-positive microorganisms are one of leading pathogenic microorganisms in public health, including several typical "Super Bugs" as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, which caused a increasement of infections, clinical failures and expenses. Regarded as a common genetic element responsible for horizontal gene transfer, integrons are widely distributed in various pathogens considered as a determinant in the acquisition and evolution of antibiotic resistance...
September 15, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922011/south-asian-immigrant-women-s-suggestions-for-culturally-tailored-hiv-education-and-prevention-programs
#6
Roula N Hawa, Angela Underhill, Carmen H Logie, Shazia Islam, Mona Loutfy
Using a community-based, socialist feminist qualitative study, and an emergent research design, we explored the unique individual experiences of South Asian immigrant women living with HIV in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) of Ontario, Canada. We assessed both the HIV risk context and the strategies for HIV education and prevention as expressed by study participants. Grounded in Connell's social theory of gender, a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with 12 women yielded six themes related to the power and impact of stigmatization, community's denial of HIV, infidelity, manifested in resistance to discussing sex and condom use, non-disclosure, and lack of HIV knowledge...
September 18, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920568/pregnant-women-of-south-asian-ethnicity-in-canada-have-substantially-lower-vitamin-b12-status-compared-with-pregnant-women-of-european-ethnicity
#7
Theresa H Schroder, Graham Sinclair, Andre Mattman, Benjamin Jung, Susan I Barr, Hilary D Vallance, Yvonne Lamers
Maternal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been inversely associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and positively with fetal growth and infant development. South Asians, Canada's largest ethnic minority, are prone to B12 deficiency. Yet, data are lacking on B12 status in South Asian pregnant women in North America. We sought to determine B12 status, using multiple biomarkers, in 1st and 2nd trimester pregnant women of South Asian and, for comparison, European ethnicity living in Vancouver, Canada. In this retrospective cohort study, total B12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine concentrations were quantified in two routinely collected (mean gestational week: 11·5 (range 8·3-13·9) and 16·5 (range 14·9-20·9)), banked serum samples of 748 healthy pregnant South Asian (n 371) and European (n 377) women...
September 18, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920146/cardiovascular-and-mortality-risks-in-migrant-south-asians-with-type-2-diabetes-are-we-winning-the-battle
#8
REVIEW
Emma Johns, Naveed Sattar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We seek to describe the relationship between diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk in migrant South Asians compared to native white Europeans, and to determine the temporal change in this relationship over recent years. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence suggests that the excess mortality risk associated with diabetes is lower in the migrant South Asian population compared with white Europeans. By contrast, South Asians continue to demonstrate elevated cardiovascular morbidity compared to white Europeans, although to a lesser extent than was observed in previous decades...
September 18, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919836/increase-in-density-of-genetically-diverse-invasive-asian-shore-crab-hemigrapsus-sanguineus-populations-in-the-gulf-of-maine
#9
Joshua P Lord, Larissa M Williams
Hemigrapsus sanguineus, the Asian shore crab, has rapidly replaced Carcinus maenas, the green crab, as the most abundant crab on rocky shores in the northwest Atlantic since its introduction to the United States (USA) in 1988. The northern edge of this progressing invasion is the Gulf of Maine, where Asian shore crabs are only abundant in the south. We compared H. sanguineus population densities to those from published 2005 surveys and quantified genetic variation using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene...
April 2017: Biological Invasions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919548/reconsidering-the-classification-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-within-the-siberian-subtype-gives-new-insights-into-its-evolutionary-history
#10
S Y Kovalev, T A Mukhacheva
Tick-borne encephalitis is widespread in Eurasia and transmitted by Ixodes ticks. Classification of its causative agent, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), includes three subtypes, namely Far-Eastern, European, and Siberian (TBEV-Sib), as well as a group of 886-84-like strains with uncertain taxonomic status. TBEV-Sib is subdivided into three phylogenetic lineages: Baltic, Asian, and South-Siberian. A reason to reconsider TBEV-Sib classification was the analysis of 186 nucleotide sequences of an E gene fragment submitted to GenBank during the last two years...
September 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919135/are-experiences-of-discrimination-related-to-poorer-dietary-intakes-among-south-asians-in-the-masala-study
#11
Sarah Nadimpalli, Akilah Keita, Jeremy Wang, Alka Kanaya, Namratha Kandula, Kimberly Gans, Sameera Talegawkar
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between self-reported discrimination and dietary intakes among South Asian (SA) people. METHODS: Data from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study were used to analyze the relationship between self-reported discrimination and dietary behaviors (n = 866). Self-reported discrimination was measured with the 9-item continuous Everyday Discrimination Scale. Diet was measured with a culturally tailored, validated, 163-item food frequency questionnaire for SA individuals...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917239/screening-for-inadequate-dietary-vitamin-b-12-intake-in-south-asian-women-using-a-nutrient-specific-semi-quantitative-food-frequency-questionnaire
#12
Gael Janine Mearns, Elaine Carolyn Rush
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A high prevalence of vitamin B-12 (B-12) deficiency among young women of South Asian origin predisposes to significant health risks for these women and their future offspring. Vegetarian or low-meat based dietary practices contribute to B-12 deficiency. This study validated a nutrient-specific, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (B12FFQ), developed to estimate dietary B-12 intake in South Asian women. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The B12FFQ was developed, then tested in 60 apparently healthy South Asian women aged 18-50 years, living in Auckland, New Zealand...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914196/ethnic-disparity-and-increased-prevalence-of-type-2-diabetes-among-south-asians-aetiology-and-future-implications-for-diabetes-prevention-and-management
#13
Venugopal Vijayakumar, Ramesh Mavathur, Manjunath Nk Sharma
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is turning out to be a global health crisis. Current available literature clearly indicates an increased risk of type 2 diabetes amongst South Asian population. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this narrative review is to explore the non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors of T2DM in South Asian population, including their beliefs, attitudes, socio economic and cultural barriers and also to explore the possible implications in designing culture specific diabetes prevention and management programs...
September 15, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912747/decreasing-risk-of-fatal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-and-other-epidemiological-trends-in-the-era-of-coiling-implementation-in-australia
#14
John Mark Worthington, Chris Goumas, Bin Jalaludin, Melina Gattellari
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with a high risk of mortality and disability in survivors. We examined the epidemiology and burden of SAH in our population during a time services were re-organized to facilitate access to evidence-based endovascular coiling and neurosurgical care. METHODS: SAH hospitalizations from 2001 to 2009, in New South Wales, Australia, were linked to death registrations to June 30, 2010. We assessed the variability of admission rates, fatal SAH rates and case fatality over time and according to patient demographic characteristics...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910803/consanguinity-rates-predict-long-runs-of-homozygosity-in-jewish-populations
#15
Jonathan T L Kang, Amy Goldberg, Michael D Edge, Doron M Behar, Noah A Rosenberg
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have highlighted the potential of analyses of genomic sharing to produce insight into the demographic processes affecting human populations. We study runs of homozygosity (ROH) in 18 Jewish populations, examining these groups in relation to 123 non-Jewish populations sampled worldwide. METHODS: By sorting ROH into 3 length classes (short, intermediate, and long), we evaluate the impact of demographic processes on genomic patterns in Jewish populations...
September 15, 2017: Human Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910195/elevated-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-in-metabolic-syndrome-is-associated-with-increased-risk-of-colorectal-adenoma
#16
Jae Hyun Kim, Kyoung Im Cho, Young A Kim, Seun Ja Park
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important cardiovascular risk factor for insulin resistance and has been linked to colorectal adenoma via inflammation. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been suggested as an important inflammatory marker. We initiated this investigation to determine the relationship between colorectal adenoma and NLR in patients with MetS. METHODS: We examined participants who visited the Health Promotion Center at Kosin University Gospel Hospital, Busan, Korea...
September 14, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905437/the-use-of-traditional-herbal-medicines-amongst-south-asian-diasporic-communities-in-the-uk
#17
Sukvinder K Bhamra, Adrian Slater, Caroline Howard, Mark Johnson, Michael Heinrich
Migrant South Asian communities in the UK have brought with them their own traditional forms of medicine, yet little is known about their current use of herbal medicines (HMs) in the UK. The aim of the study was to explore the origins, use and transmission of knowledge of traditional HMs used by diasporic South Asian communities in the UK. A researcher-administered questionnaire was used for data collection (n = 192). An opportunity sampling technique was used to recruit participants across several locations in Birmingham and Leicester...
September 14, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903860/a-review-of-synthetic-phosphodiesterase-type-5-inhibitors-pde-5i-found-as-adulterants-in-dietary-supplements
#18
REVIEW
Chee-Leong Kee, Xiaowei Ge, Véronique Gilard, Myriam Malet-Martino, Min-Yong Low
To date, there are 80 synthetic PDE-5i found as adulterants in dietary supplements. Analogues of sildenafil remain as the top list with 50 (62%) and are followed by analogues of tadalafil, 21 (26%), analogues of vardenafil, 7 (9%) and others, 2 (3%). The sildenafil group can be sub-categorized into sulphonamide-bonded (24, 48%), acetyl-bonded (11, 22%), carbonyl or thiocarbonyl-bonded (8, 16%) and other types (7, 14%) based on the functional group linked to pyrazolopyrimidine-one moieties. Meanwhile, analogues of tadalafil have become popularly found as adulterants in dietary supplements like beverages and herbal extracts from 2015 to 2016...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902892/neanderthal-and-denisova-tooth-protein-variants-in-present-day-humans
#19
Clément Zanolli, Mathilde Hourset, Rémi Esclassan, Catherine Mollereau
Environment parameters, diet and genetic factors interact to shape tooth morphostructure. In the human lineage, archaic and modern hominins show differences in dental traits, including enamel thickness, but variability also exists among living populations. Several polymorphisms, in particular in the non-collagenous extracellular matrix proteins of the tooth hard tissues, like enamelin, are involved in dental structure variation and defects and may be associated with dental disorders or susceptibility to caries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899946/secondary-prevention-treatment-after-acute-stroke-in-older-south-asian-chinese-and-other-canadians-a-retrospective-data-analysis
#20
Nadia A Khan, Finlay A McAlister, Louise Pilote, Anita Palepu, Hude Quan, Michael D Hill, Jiming Fang, Moira K Kapral
BACKGROUND: Little is known about whether there are differences in medication use between older patients of Chinese descent, those of South Asian descent and other Canadian patients after acute ischemic or primary intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke. The aim of this population-based study was to evaluate potential ethnic differences in secondary prevention pharmacotherapy after acute stroke. METHODS: Using health administrative data, we conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients aged 66 years or more admitted to hospital with acute stroke in Ontario (1997-2011) and British Columbia (1997-2009)...
September 11, 2017: CMAJ Open
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