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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645921/the-east-asian-origin-of-the-giant-lobelias
#1
Eric B Knox, Chunjiao Li
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Rapid radiations are difficult to reconstruct when organismal diversification and biogeographic movement outpace the evolution of genes typically used in phylogenetic analyses. The 125 kb of unique sequence from complete plastid genomes (= plastomes) largely solves the molecular sampling problem, and taxon sampling that triangulates the base of each major subclade largely solves the long-branch attraction problem. This combination of molecular and phylogenetic sampling is used to reconstruct the cosmopolitan radiation of lobeliads, with special focus on the origin of the giant lobelias...
June 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642557/smokeless-tobacco-a-substantial-risk-for-oral-potentially-malignant-disorders-in-south-asia
#2
Phillip Seenan, David Conway
Data sourcesMedline, the Science Citation Index (SCI) via Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, Global Index Medicus, Google Scholar and SLT-related reports of the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Cancer Institute of the United States.Study selectionObservational studies on the use of SLT and the risk of developing OPMDs in South Asian Populations.Data extraction and synthesisDuplicate selection of studies was undertaken with two reviewers undertaking data abstraction and quality assessment independently...
June 23, 2017: Evidence-based Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642064/the-genetic-basis-of-deafness-in-populations-of-african-descent
#3
REVIEW
Jason R Rudman, Rosemary I Kabahuma, Sara E Bressler, Yong Feng, Susan H Blanton, Denise Yan, Xue-Zhong Liu
Hearing loss is the most common sensorineural disorder worldwide and is associated with more than 1000 mutations in more than 90 genes. While mutations in genes such as GJB2 (gap-junction protein β 2) and GJB6 (gap-junction protein β 6) are highly prevalent in Caucasian, Asian, and Middle Eastern populations, they are rare in both native African populations and those of African descent. The objective of this paper is to review the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology and genetics of hearing loss in African populations with a focus on native sub-Saharan African populations...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640854/maternal-bmi-and-diabetes-in-pregnancy-investigating-variations-between-ethnic-groups-using-routine-maternity-data-from-london-uk
#4
Erin Nishikawa, Laura Oakley, Paul T Seed, Pat Doyle, Eugene Oteng-Ntim
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ethnicity-specific association between body mass index (BMI) and diabetes in pregnancy, with a focus on the appropriateness of using BMI cut-offs to identify pregnant women at risk of diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Analysis of routinely-collected data from a maternity unit in London, UK. Data were available on 53 264 women delivering between 2004 and 2012. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between diabetes in pregnancy and BMI among women of different ethnicities, and adjusted probability estimates were used to derive risk equivalent cut-offs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640160/vasomotor-symptoms-in-women-in-asia-appear-comparable-with-women-in-western-countries-a-systematic-review
#5
Rakibul M Islam, Robin J Bell, Farwa Rizvi, Susan R Davis
OBJECTIVE: There is a belief that menopausal symptoms, particularly vasomotor symptoms (VMS), are a Western phenomena and less likely to be experienced in women in Asian countries. This systematic review of the literature was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of VMS in Asian countries. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and Google scholar were searched systematically for relevant population-based prevalence studies published between 1981 and 2016...
June 19, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637477/determinants-of-intra-household-food-allocation-between-adults-in-south-asia-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Helen Harris-Fry, Niva Shrestha, Anthony Costello, Naomi M Saville
BACKGROUND: Nutrition interventions, often delivered at the household level, could increase their efficiency by channelling resources towards pregnant or lactating women, instead of leaving resources to be disproportionately allocated to traditionally favoured men. However, understanding of how to design targeted nutrition programs is limited by a lack of understanding of the factors affecting the intra-household allocation of food. METHODS: We systematically reviewed literature on the factors affecting the allocation of food to adults in South Asian households (in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Islamic Republic of Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka) and developed a framework of food allocation determinants...
June 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637427/aging-and-obesity-are-associated-with-undiagnosed-hypertension-in-a-cohort-of-males-in-the-central-province-of-sri-lanka-a-cross-sectional-descriptive-study
#7
N W I A Jayawardana, W A T A Jayalath, W M T Madhujith, U Ralapanawa, R S Jayasekera, S A S B Alagiyawanna, A M K R Bandara, N S Kalupahana
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors associated with hypertension (HT) in South Asian populations are relatively unknown. The objective of the current study was to investigate the prevalence rates of undiagnosed HT and factors associated with it in a cohort of males from the Central Province of Sri Lanka. METHODS: The study group consisted of 2462 males (mean age 31 years, range: 16-72 years) who underwent a routine medical examination at the National Transport Medical Institute, Kandy, Sri Lanka...
June 21, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634580/tobacco-use-during-pregnancy-and-its-associated-factors-in-a-mountain-district-of-eastern-nepal-a-cross-sectional-questionnaire-survey
#8
Ramesh Barakoti, Anup Ghimire, Achyut Raj Pandey, Dharani Dhar Baral, Paras K Pokharel
BACKGROUND: Tobacco using among women is more prevalent in Nepal as compared to other South-East Asian countries. The effect of its use is seen not only on the pregnant women, but also health of the growing fetus is compromised. Currently, little is known about the tobacco use among women especially during pregnancy in Nepal. This study explored the tobacco use prevalence and its associated factors during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Sankhuwasabha, a mountain district of eastern Nepal...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628900/evaluation-of-the-innotyper-%C3%A2-21-genotyping-kit-in-multi-ethnic-populations
#9
Peter Gustav Ristow, Nicole Barnes, Gina Pineda Murphy, Hiromi Brown, Kevin Wesley Cloete, Maria Eugenia D'Amato
We report the findings of the evaluation of the InnoTyper(®) 21 genotyping kit for the use of human identification (HID) and paternity testing in South Africa. This novel forensic kit evaluates 20 retrotransposable elements (AC4027, MLS26, ALU79712, NBC216, NBC106, RG148, NBC13, AC2265, MLS09, AC1141, TARBP, AC2305, HS4.69, NBC51, ACA1766, NBC120, NBC10, NBC102, SB19.12 and NBC148) and the Amelogenin locus for sex determination. The evaluation of the genotyping performance showed no significant spectral pull-up for peak heights between 100 and 30,000 RFUs...
June 7, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625818/quantitative-assessment-of-lung-and-bladder-cancer-risk-and-oral-exposure-to-inorganic-arsenic-meta-regression-analyses-of-epidemiological-data
#10
Heather N Lynch, Ke Zu, Erin M Kennedy, Thuy Lam, Xiaobin Liu, Daniella M Pizzurro, Christine T Loftus, Lorenz R Rhomberg
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water varies geographically and is prevalent worldwide. While exposures in the US are generally low, there are some areas with higher levels of naturally occurring iAs (potentially >100μg/L) where residents rely on unregulated drinking water wells. Much of the evidence on the association between iAs and cancer comes from epidemiological studies conducted in South American and Asian populations. These populations have generally been exposed to much higher levels of iAs and have differing underlying characteristics, both of which make comparing them to Western populations difficult...
June 16, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624916/interethnic-variation-in-pelvic-floor-morphology-in-women-with-symptomatic-pelvic-organ-prolapse
#11
Zeelha Abdool, Hans Peter Dietz, Barend Gerhardus Lindeque
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: There is a lack of epidemiological studies evaluating female pelvic organ prolapse in developing countries. Current studies have largely focused on women of white ethnicity. This study was designed to determine interethnic variation in pelvic floor functional anatomy, namely, levator hiatal distensibility and pelvic organ descent, in women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse in a multi-ethnic South African population. METHODS: This prospective observational study included 258 consecutive women referred for pelvic organ prolapse assessment and management at a tertiary urogynaecological clinic...
June 17, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622887/genetic-etiology-of-oral-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Johar Ali, Bibi Sabiha, Hanif Ullah Jan, Syed Adnan Haider, Abid Ali Khan, Saima S Ali
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. It accounts for 2.5% of all new cancer cases and 1.9% of all cancer deaths annually. More than 90% of oral cancers (occurring in the mouth, lip, and tongue) are oral squamous cell carcinoma. The incidence rate of oral cancer varies widely throughout the world, with an evident prevalence in South Asian countries. This high incidence occurs in correlation with oral cancer-associated behaviors such as alcohol, tobacco use...
July 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622342/national-survey-of-outcomes-and-practices-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-singapore
#13
Shahla Siddiqui, Zudin Puthucheary, Jason Phua, Benjamin Ho, Jonathan Tan, Siau Chuin, Noelle Louise Lim, Chai Rick Soh, Chian Min Loo, Addy Y H Tan, Amartya Mukhopadhyay, Faheem Ahmed Khan, Azman Johan, Aik Hau Tan, Graeme MacLaren, Juvel Taculod, Blesilda Ramos, Tun Aung Han, Matthew E Cove
INTRODUCTION: In the past 20 years, our understanding of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) management has improved, but the worldwide incidence and current outcomes are unclear. The reported incidence is highly variable, and no studies specifically characterise ARDS epidemiology in Asia. This observation study aims to determine the incidence, mortality and management practices of ARDS in a high income South East Asian country. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, population based observational study in 6 public hospitals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622157/predictors-of-5-year-outcomes-in-malignant-phase-hypertension-the-west-birmingham-malignant-hypertension-registry
#14
Alena Shantsila, Eduard Shantsila, D Gareth Beevers, Gregory Y H Lip
OBJECTIVE: Malignant hypertension represents a high-risk condition and there are scarce data on current clinical patterns of this condition. The aim of the study is to identify the clinical and demographic factors associated with poor outcome. METHODS: The data collected from 1958 to May 2016 included a total of 351 patients whose 5-year survival status was known: 221 white Caucasians (63%, age 51 ± 13 years, 64% male), 83 African-Caribbeans (24%, 45 ± 11 years, 61% male), and 47 South Asians (13%, 42 ± 11 years, 74% male)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620991/potential-positive-association-between-cytochrome-p450-1a1-gene-polymorphisms-and-recurrent-pregnancy-loss-a-meta-analysis
#15
Jie Li, Yang Chen, Sien Mo, Donghong Nai
In order to discover the potential genetic risks associated with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), this meta-analysis was conducted to assess the association between CYP1A1 gene polymorphism and RPL. Studies were retrieved from the databases PubMed, Embase, HuGENet, and CNKI. Four models were then applied. Seven studies, including three datasets for the rs1048943 and five for the rs4646903 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), were included in this analysis, involving 613 cases and 398 controls for the rs1048943; and 864 cases and 842 controls for the rs4646903 SNP...
July 2017: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620422/special-considerations-for-vitamin-d-in-the-south-asian-population-in-the-uk
#16
REVIEW
Nicola M Lowe, Issak Bhojani
The human requirement for vitamin D is achieved primarily through the synthesis of this prehormone in the skin during exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, with only a minor contribution from the diet, year round. Achieving optimal vitamin D status is therefore largely dependent upon adequate exposure of the skin to sunlight, however, the length of exposure required varies with latitude and season, and is also dependent upon skin pigmentation, with darker skin requiring greater exposure than fair skin due to the protective effects of melanin against UVB radiation...
June 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619099/differentiated-demographic-histories-and-local-adaptations-between-sherpas-and-tibetans
#17
Chao Zhang, Yan Lu, Qidi Feng, Xiaoji Wang, Haiyi Lou, Jiaojiao Liu, Zhilin Ning, Kai Yuan, Yuchen Wang, Ying Zhou, Lian Deng, Lijun Liu, Yajun Yang, Shilin Li, Lifeng Ma, Zhiying Zhang, Li Jin, Bing Su, Longli Kang, Shuhua Xu
BACKGROUND: The genetic relationships reported by recent studies between Sherpas and Tibetans are controversial. To gain insights into the population history and the genetic basis of high-altitude adaptation of the two groups, we analyzed genome-wide data in 111 Sherpas (Tibet and Nepal) and 177 Tibetans (Tibet and Qinghai), together with available data from present-day human populations. RESULTS: Sherpas and Tibetans show considerable genetic differences and can be distinguished as two distinct groups, even though the divergence between them (~3200-11,300 years ago) is much later than that between Han Chinese and either of the two groups (~6200-16,000 years ago)...
June 15, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616221/time-timing-talking-and-training-findings-from-an-exploratory-action-research-study-to-improve-quality-of-end-of-life-care-for-minority-ethnic-kidney-patients
#18
Emma Wilkinson, Gurch Randhawa, Edwina Brown, Maria Da Silva Gane, John Stoves, Graham Warwick, Tahira Mir, Regina Magee, Sue Sharman, Ken Farrington
Background. With an ageing and increasingly diverse population at risk from rising levels of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, including kidney complications, there is a need to provide quality care at all stages in the care pathway including at the end of life and to all patients. Aim. This study purposively explored South Asian patients' experiences of kidney end of life care to understand how services can be delivered in a way that meets diverse patient needs. Methods. Within an action research design 14 focus groups (45 care providers) of kidney care providers discussed the recruitment and analysis of individual interviews with 16 South Asian kidney patients (eight men, eight women)...
June 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615269/how-sustainable-household-environment-and-knowledge-of-healthy-practices-relate-to-childhood-morbidity-in-south-asia-analysis-of-survey-data-from-bangladesh-nepal-and-pakistan
#19
Md Masud Hasan, Alice Richardson
OBJECTIVES: Prevalence of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection (ARI) is considerably high among South Asian children. The objective of this study is to compare the associations of sustainable household environment and knowledge of healthy practices with episodes of these diseases among the children in the region. DESIGN: The study analysed the latest, nationally representative and cross-sectional Demographic and Health Survey data. SETTING: Data from three countries were analysed: Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan...
June 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615222/exploring-the-global-landscape-of-genetic-variation-in-coagulation-factor-xi-deficiency
#20
Rosanna Asselta, Elvezia Maria Paraboschi, Valeria Rimoldi, Marzia Menegatti, Flora Peyvandi, Ophira Salomon, Stefano Duga
Factor XI (FXI) deficiency is an autosomal bleeding disorder, usually post trauma or surgery, characterized by reduced levels of coagulation FXI in plasma. The disease is highly prevalent in Ashkenazi Jews (heterozygote frequency ~9%), whereas it is considered a rare condition in most populations (prevalence of the severe deficiency: 1:10(6) in Caucasians). So far, >190 causative mutations have been identified throughout the F11 gene. To have a global landscape of genetic variation of F11, we explored publicly-available exome-based data obtained from >60,000 individuals belonging to different ethnicities (Exome Aggregation Consortium resource)...
June 14, 2017: Blood
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