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Sex psychology physiology

Emanuele D'Artibale, Paul B Laursen, John B Cronin
Performance in motorcycle road racing is typically considered as the summation of interactions between rider, motorcycle, tires, and environment. Despite the substantial investments made towards the development of motorcycle technology and the business interests of manufacturers, published research focusing on the riders is relatively sparse, and a bike-centered mentality tends to dominate the sport. This manuscript reviews the known human performance aspects of motorcycle road racing and suggests directions for future research...
March 13, 2018: Sports Medicine
Paul M Macey, Natasha Haris, Rajesh Kumar, M Albert Thomas, Mary A Woo, Ronald M Harper
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately 10% of adults, and alters brain gray and white matter. Psychological and physiological symptoms of the disorder are sex-specific, perhaps related to greater injury occurs in female than male patients in white matter. Our objective was to identify influences of OSA separated by sex on cortical gray matter. METHODS: We assessed cortical thickness in 48 mild-severe OSA patients (mean age±std[range] = 46...
2018: PloS One
Catherine Anne Elliot, Michael John Hamlin
BACKGROUND: A dearth of knowledge exists regarding how multiple health behavior changes made within an exercise prescription programme can improve health parameters. This study aimed to analyse the impact of changing diet and increasing exercise on health improvements among exercise prescription patients. METHODS: In 2016, a representative sample of all enroled New Zealand exercise prescription programme (Green Prescription) patients were surveyed (N = 1488, 29% male, 46% ≥ 60 yr)...
February 8, 2018: BMC Public Health
Pietro Gambadauro, Vladimir Carli, Gergö Hadlaczky, Marco Sarchiapone, Alan Apter, Judit Balazs, Raphaela Banzer, Julio Bobes, Romuald Brunner, Doina Cosman, Luca Farkas, Christian Haring, Christina W Hoven, Michael Kaess, Jean Pierre Kahn, Elaine McMahon, Vita Postuvan, Merike Sisask, Airi Värnik, Nusa Zadravec Sedivy, Danuta Wasserman
BACKGROUND: Sexuality is a physiological component of adolescent development, though early initiation is associated with reproductive health risk. This study aimed at identifying correlates and predictors of sexual initiation in a large multinational cohort of European adolescents. METHODS: A questionnaire addressing socio-demographics, behaviours, mental health and sexual activity, was delivered to 11,110 adolescents recruited from 168 randomly selected schools in 10 European countries between 2009 and 2011...
2018: PloS One
Wesley T Kerr, Emily A Janio, Chelsea T Braesch, Justine M Le, Jessica M Hori, Akash B Patel, Norma L Gallardo, Janar Bauirjan, Andrea M Chau, Eric S Hwang, Emily C Davis, Albert Buchard, David Torres-Barba, Shannon D'Ambrosio, Mona Al Banna, Andrew Y Cho, Jerome Engel, Mark S Cohen, John M Stern
OBJECTIVE: Psychogenic nonepileptic seizure (PNES) is a common diagnosis after evaluation of medication resistant or atypical seizures with video-electroencephalographic monitoring (VEM), but usually follows a long delay after the development of seizures, during which patients are treated for epilepsy. Therefore, more readily available diagnostic tools are needed for earlier identification of patients at risk for PNES. A tool based on patient-reported psychosocial history would be especially beneficial because it could be implemented in the outpatient clinic...
February 1, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Abigail Matthews, Katrina R Lenz, James Peugh, Emily C Copps, Claire M Peterson
Caregiver burden is common in caregivers of youth with anorexia nervosa (AN) and could impede the successful implementation of family-based therapy (FBT). Thus, it is important to better understand mechanisms by which caregiver burden is developed and maintained. This study aimed to examine the relation between caregiver illness perceptions about AN, symptom severity indicators, and caregiver burden in a sample of medically hospitalized youth with AN. Fifty-one youth with AN (N = 34) or Atypical AN (AAN; N = 17; mean age = 14...
February 1, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Kristen R Weaver, Gail D'Eramo Melkus, Jason Fletcher, Wendy A Henderson
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract associated with high psychological comorbidity and diminished quality of life. Patients with IBS display a heightened sensitivity to stress, although the literature is inconsistent as to whether they have a dysregulated stress response. The purpose of the present investigation, a substudy of a larger research effort, was to examine physiological correlates of perceived stress in patients with IBS (cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone) and to explore associations between perceived stress and quality of life...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Troy Sukhu, Sherry Ross, R Matthew Coward
BACKGROUND: Urological survivorship issues encompass an area that may potentially be overlooked after treatment of childhood cancer in adolescent boys and young men. Side effects of cancer therapy may include subsequent development of erectile dysfunction (ED), hypogonadism, and infertility in adulthood. AIM: The purpose of this review is to focus on the etiology and prevalence of the range of sexual and gonadal dysfunction in adolescent boys and young men who are cancer survivors, while discussing current recommendations for evaluation and treatment...
January 27, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Ennio Giulio Favalli, Martina Biggioggero, Chiara Crotti, Andrea Becciolini, Maria Gabriella Raimondo, Pier Luigi Meroni
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and progressive autoimmune disease more common in women than men (3:1). Although sex-based differences may play a complex role in promoting an autoimmune dysfunction, to date the comprehensive knowledge of the link between sex and RA is still partially lacking. Furthermore, males and females have been demonstrated to differently deal with their chronic pathologies, modifying the perceived sex-based burden of disease. Gender medicine is a newly approach focusing on the impact of gender differences on human physiology, pathophysiology, and clinical features of diseases, analyzing the complex interrelation and integration of sex and psychological and cultural behavior...
January 26, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Maria José Rosa, Alison G Lee, Rosalind J Wright
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to provide an update on our evolving understanding of the effects of stress in pregnancy and during early development on the onset of asthma-related phenotypes across childhood, adolescence, and into early adulthood. RECENT FINDINGS: Accumulating evidence over the past 2 decades has established that prenatal and early-life psychological stress and stress correlates (e.g., maternal anxiety or depression) increase the risk for childhood respiratory disorders...
January 23, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Andrew L Koons, Marna Rayl Greenberg, Robert D Cannon, Gillian A Beauchamp
It is generally understood that pain experience and opioid abuse have relied on male-dominated models. However, sex and gender play a role in both pain experience and opioid use disorder. Using the previously validated Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center Sex and Gender Specific Health PubMed Advanced Search Tool, the authors used pertinent literature to develop this literature-based commentary on sex and gender differences in pain experience and opioid use disorder. Women report their experience of pain more frequently, have increased rates of diagnoses related to pain, have increased pain sensitivity, and have a variable response to pain and analgesia...
February 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Tao Xu, Guang-Jin Zhu, Shao-Mei Han
Objective Sub-health status has progressively gained more attention from both medical professionals and the publics. Treating the number of sub-health symptoms as count data rather than dichotomous data helps to completely and accurately analyze findings in sub-healthy population. This study aims to compare the goodness of fit for count outcome models to identify the optimum model for sub-health study. Methods The sample of the study derived from a large-scale population survey on physiological and psychological constants from 2007 to 2011 in 4 provinces and 2 autonomous regions in China...
December 30, 2017: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
Victoria L Banyard, Jennifer M Demers, Ellen S Cohn, Katie M Edwards, Mary M Moynihan, Wendy A Walsh, Sally K Ward
Sexual assault, partner abuse, and stalking are major problems on college campuses. Past research has demonstrated a host of physiological and psychological outcomes associated with victimization; however, there has been little research conducted on the potential academic outcomes associated with victimization. The purpose of this study was to measure the relation between academic outcomes and experiences of sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and stalking victimization among college students. A sample of 6,482 undergraduate students currently enrolled at one of eight universities in New England was surveyed using items from the subscales of the College Persistence Questionnaire (Academic Efficacy, Collegiate Stress, Institutional Commitment, and Scholastic Conscientiousness)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Samuel S Urlacher, Melissa A Liebert, Martina Konečná
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis represents an important and evolutionarily ancient biological pathway linking physical and psychological stressors with human health. Despite considerable research exploring the physiological stress response among developed populations, few studies have examined HPA activity in non-industrialized contexts, restricting understanding of variation in human stress reactivity across global socio-ecological diversity. The present study addresses this shortcoming by investigating diurnal cortisol rhythms among Garisakang forager-horticulturalists of remote, lowland Papua New Guinea...
December 13, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Ahmed Elhakeem, Kimberly Hannam, Kevin C Deere, April Hartley, Emma M Clark, Charlotte Moss, Mark H Edwards, Elaine Dennison, Tim Gaysin, Diana Kuh, Andrew Wong, Kenneth R Fox, Cyrus Cooper, Rachel Cooper, Jon H Tobias
Background: Exposure to higher magnitude vertical impacts is thought to benefit bone health. The correlates of this high-impact physical activity (PA) in later life are unknown. Methods: Participants were from the Cohort for Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon, Hertfordshire Cohort Study and MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Associations of demographic, behavioural, physiological and psychological factors with vertical acceleration peaks ≥1.5 g (i...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Public Health
Jiajia Chen, Jie Wu, Shaorui Hao, Meifang Yang, Xiaoqing Lu, Xiaoxiao Chen, Lanjuan Li
Patients who survive influenza A (H7N9) virus infection are at risk of physical and psychological complications of lung injury and multi-organ dysfunction. However, there were no prospectively individualized assessments of physiological, functional and quality-of-life measures after hospital discharge. The current study aims to assess the main determinants of functional disability of these patients during the follow-up. Fifty-six influenza A (H7N9) survivors were investigated during the 2-year after discharge from the hospital...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
V B Voynov, S N Kulba, Yu Yu Arapova
The purposes of the current study were: (1) to describe growth and physical development and establish norms for schoolchildren from Rostov region in Russia; (2) to compare major characteristics of development between urban and rural children by sex and age. Nearly 200,000 children (198,712) aged between 7 and 17 years from 232 urban and rural schools of Rostov region (Southern Federal District of Russia) participated in the study. School age is a period of intensive growth and physiological and psychological development...
December 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
Gregory W Poorman, Peter G Passias, Samantha R Horn, Nicholas J Frangella, Alan H Daniels, D Kojo Hamilton, Hanjo Kim, Daniel Sciubba, Bassel G Diebo, Cole A Bortz, Frank A Segreto, Michael P Kelly, Justin S Smith, Brian J Neuman, Christopher I Shaffrey, Virginie LaFage, Renaud LaFage, Christopher P Ames, Robert Hart, Gregory M Mundis, Robert Eastlack
OBJECTIVE Depression and anxiety have been demonstrated to have negative impacts on outcomes after spine surgery. In patients with cervical deformity (CD), the psychological and physiological burdens of the disease may overlap without clear boundaries. While surgery has a proven record of bringing about significant pain relief and decreased disability, the impact of depression and anxiety on recovery from cervical deformity corrective surgery has not been previously reported on in the literature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of depression and anxiety on patients' recovery from and improvement after CD surgery...
December 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
Masood Ali Shaikh, Syed Muhammand Mubeen, Muhammad Furqan
Puberty heralds the onset of adulthood, and is fraught with complex physiological and psychological changes and emotions. In this study, we looked at the sources of information about puberty and sex education among males and females, age at which they learned about them, and the opinions on the role of schools and parents in imparting this education among medical students.A cross-sectional pilot study, using convenience sampling was conducted among 153 medical students of the Hamdard College of Medicine and Dentistry (HCM&D) in Karachi...
November 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Anna Maria Aloisi
In the world of pain, we must always consider the presence of gender. In nociception, as well as in pain, women are different from men in many, if not all, aspects of the system. Nociception is the sum of several events that occur from the periphery to the CNS, and there is much evidence that female nociception differs from male nociception. Moreover, it has to be considered that pain results from a male or a female cortex. Genetic, anatomical, physiological, hormonal, psychological, and social factors have been considered to explain the differences present at both levels...
December 2017: Pain and Therapy
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