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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756097/evaluation-of-stressors-in-intensive-care-units
#1
Yücel Gültekin, Zerrin Özçelik, Seda Banu Akıncı, Halil Kaya Yorgancı
Objective: Physical and psychological stressors adversely affect the treatment and length of stay of patients in intensive care units. In this study, we aimed to describe environmental and psychological stressors affecting intensive care unit patients and to determine their priorities. Material and Methods: In this study, the 40-item Intensive Care Unit Environmental Stressor Scale was administered to patients in the General Surgery Intensive Care Unit and the Anesthesiology and Reanimation Intensive Care Unit...
2018: Turkish Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751056/sex-and-trait-anxiety-differences-in-psychological-stress-are-modified-by-environment
#2
James Liu, John Scira, Simone Donaldson, Nina Kajiji, Gordon H Dash, S Tiffany Donaldson
Evidence-based research has revealed how physiological and emotional responses to acute stress are adaptive. However, under conditions of unpredictable or protracted stress, health and drug vulnerability can be compromised. In this study, we examined anxiety-like behavioral responses of 4th generation adolescent male and female Long Evans rats selectively bred for high (HAn) and low (LAn) anxiety-like behavior when housed in an isolated environment (IE) versus a social environment (SE). After 35 days in IE or SE, animals were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM), injected with amphetamine (AMPH: 0...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738416/design-and-protocol-of-estrogenic-regulation-of-muscle-apoptosis-erma-study-with-47-to-55-year-old-women-s-cohort-novel-results-show-menopause-related-differences-in-blood-count
#3
Vuokko Kovanen, Pauliina Aukee, Katja Kokko, Taija Finni, Ina M Tarkka, Tuija Tammelin, Urho M Kujala, Sarianna Sipilä, Eija K Laakkonen
OBJECTIVE: The multidisciplinary Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study was designed to reveal how hormonal differences over the menopausal stages affect the physiological and psychological functioning of middle-aged women. This paper describes the protocol and nonrespondent analysis of ERMA and novel findings on menopausal differences in blood count variables and their association with female sex hormones. METHODS: Women aged 47 to 55 years were assigned to pre, early peri, late peri, and postmenopausal groups based on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and bleeding diary...
May 7, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717270/biological-and-psychological-mediators-of-the-relationships-between-fat-mass-fat-free-mass-and-energy-intake
#4
Mark Hopkins, Graham Finlayson, Cristiana Duarte, Catherine Gibbons, Alexandra M Johnstone, Stephen Whybrow, Graham W Horgan, John E Blundell, R James Stubbs
BACKGROUND: While recent studies in humans indicate that fat-free mass (FFM) is closely associated with energy intake (EI) when in energy balance, associations between fat mass (FM) and EI are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the indirect and direct effects of FFM, FM and resting metabolic rate (RMR) on EI in individuals at or close to energy balance. METHODS: Data for 242 individuals (114 males; 128 females; BMI = 25...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716551/sociodemographic-and-physical-predictors-of-non-participation-in-community-based-physical-checkup-among-older-neighbors-a-case-control-study-from-the-kyoto-kameoka-longitudinal-study-japan
#5
Miwa Yamaguchi, Tsukasa Yoshida, Yosuke Yamada, Yuya Watanabe, Hinako Nanri, Keiichi Yokoyama, Heiwa Date, Motoko Miyake, Aya Itoi, Emi Yamagata, Taeko Masumoto, Yasuko Okayama, Yasuko Yoshinaka, Misaka Kimura
BACKGROUND: It is difficult to obtain detailed information on non-participants in physical and health examination checkups in community-based epidemiological studies. We investigated the characteristics of non-participants in a physical and health examination checkup for older adults in a nested study from the Japanese Kyoto-Kameoka Longitudinal Study. METHODS: We approached a total of 4831 people aged ≥65 years in 10 randomly selected intervention regions. Participants responded to a mail-based population survey on needs in the sphere of daily life to encourage participation in a free face-to-face physical checkup examination; 1463 participants (706 men, 757 women) participated in the physical checkup...
May 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694652/impact-of-pregnancy-on-sexuality-a-cross-sectional-study-of-100-tunisian-women
#6
Talel Badri, Amira Maamri, Yousri El Kissi
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a period during which anatomical, physiological and psychological changes may affect couple sexuality. AIM: To determine the knowledge and practices in sexuality, and identify the particularities of the sexual function during pregnancy. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study of pregnant women who responded to a questionnaire sent by Internet through a social network. RESULTS: Ninety-one percent of the 100 enrolled women were aged 25 to 34 years; 97% had a university education, and 66% were in the third quarter...
July 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686381/the-association-of-air-pollution-with-body-mass-index-evidence-from-hong-kong-s-children-of-1997-birth-cohort
#7
Jian V Huang, Gabriel M Leung, C Mary Schooling
BACKGROUND: Child overweight and obesity have increased substantially in many countries. Physical and psychological effects of childhood obesity endure throughout adulthood. Much attention has been paid to energy intake and expenditure in childhood adiposity, but less to environmental factors, such as outdoor air quality. Here we assessed prospectively the association of exposure to air pollution with body mass index (BMI) in late childhood and early adolescence. METHODS: We assessed the association of air pollutants (particulate matter with a diameter of 10 µm or less (PM10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 )) at different growth phases (in utero, in infancy, and in childhood) with BMI at ~9, ~11, ~13, and ~15 years in a population-representative birth cohort from Hong Kong, "Children of 1997...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666136/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-diabetes-mellitus-cardiovascular-and-respiratory-condition-epidemiology-in-sexual-minority-women
#8
Catherine Meads, Adam Martin, Jeffrey Grierson, Justin Varney
OBJECTIVE: Sexual minority women (SMW) experience higher chronic disease risk factors than heterosexual counterparts. However, it was unclear if these risks translate into higher physical condition rates. This systematic review evaluates cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, respiratory disease and diabetes mellitus in SMW. METHODS: A protocol was registered with the Prospero database (CRD42016050299). Included were studies reporting mortality, incidence or prevalence of the above-listed conditions in SMW compared with heterosexual women...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642757/associations-between-chronotype-morbidity-and-mortality-in-the-uk-biobank-cohort
#9
Kristen L Knutson, Malcolm von Schantz
Later chronotype (i.e. evening preference) and later timing of sleep have been associated with greater morbidity, including higher rates of metabolic dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, no one has examined whether chronotype is associated with mortality risk to date. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that being an evening type is associated with increased mortality in a large cohort study, the UK Biobank. Our analysis included 433 268 adults aged 38-73 at the time of enrolment and an average 6...
April 11, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606554/the-effects-of-exercise-on-sexual-function-in-women
#10
REVIEW
Amelia M Stanton, Ariel B Handy, Cindy M Meston
BACKGROUND: Acute exercise is associated with transient changes in metabolic rate, muscle activation, and blood flow, whereas chronic exercise facilitates long-lasting adaptations that ultimately improve physical performance. Exercise in general is known to improve both physical and psychological health, but the differential effects of brief bouts of exercise vs long-term exercise regimens on sexual function are less clear. AIM: The purpose of this review was to assess the direct and indirect effects of both acute and chronic exercise on multiple domains of sexual function in women...
March 29, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592639/sexual-and-emotional-infidelity-evolved-gender-differences-in-jealousy-prove-robust-and-replicable
#11
David M Buss
Infidelity poses threats to high-investment mating relationships. Because of gender differences in some aspects of reproductive biology, such as internal female fertilization, the nature of these threats differs for men and women. Men, but not women, for example, have recurrently faced the problem of uncertainty in their genetic parenthood. Jealousy is an emotion hypothesized to have evolved to combat these threats. The 1992 article Sex Differences in Jealousy: Evolution, Physiology, and Psychology reported three empirical studies using two different methods, forced-choice and physiological experiments...
March 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574801/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-hair-plucking-in-captive-bonobos-pan-paniscus-in-north-american-zoos
#12
Colin M Brand, Linda F Marchant
When primates exhibit hair loss and are observed to engage in self or social hair plucking (a rapid jerking away of the hair shaft and follicle by the hand or mouth, often accompanied by inspection, and consumption) the altered appearance, and behavior patterns are thought to reflect individual physiological, and psychological well-being. Hair loss and hair plucking occur in many captive primate species, including all of the great apes. We present the first survey of this behavior among captive bonobos (N = 88; 50 females and 38 males) in seven zoos in the United States...
March 25, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561529/anxiety-like-behaviour-assessments-of-adolescent-rats-after-repeated-maternal-separation-during-early-life
#13
Shengtao Jin, Yanan Zhao, Yinghong Jiang, Yanyu Wang, Changjiang Li, Deli Zhang, Bo Lian, Zhongde Du, Hongwei Sun, Lin Sun
Maternal separation (MS) plays a central role in developing physiology and psychology during the individual ontogeny process. MS is used to research the neurobiological mechanisms of mental disorders and early life stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of repeated MS and early handling (EH) on locomotor activity in an open-field test, a light-dark box test and an elevated plus-maze test of adolescent rats. The results showed that MS reduced locomotor activities in the open-field test, and increased anxiety-like behaviours in the light-dark box test and the elevated plus-maze test in adolescent rats...
March 21, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559788/the-relationship-between-hydration-status-male-sexual-dysfunction-and-depression-in-hemodialysis-patients
#14
Kamal Hassan, Yotam Elimeleh, Mona Shehadeh, Hassan Fadi, Irina Rubinchik
Background: Disturbances in sexual function are common among dialysis patients. Normal erections require a complex balance of physiological, psychological, emotional, hormonal, neurological and vascular factors. This study examined a possible association of overhydration (OH) with male sexual dysfunction and depression in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study assessed hydration status by whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy in patients on maintenance HD for more than 12 months...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536263/human-performance-in-motorcycle-road-racing-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Emanuele D'Artibale, Paul B Laursen, John B Cronin
Performance in motorcycle road racing is typically considered as the summation of interactions between rider, motorcycle, tires, and environment. Despite the substantial investments made towards the development of motorcycle technology and the business interests of manufacturers, published research focusing on the riders is relatively sparse, and a bike-centered mentality tends to dominate the sport. This manuscript reviews the known human performance aspects of motorcycle road racing and suggests directions for future research...
June 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509806/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-cortical-thickness-in-females-and-males
#16
Paul M Macey, Natasha Haris, Rajesh Kumar, M Albert Thomas, Mary A Woo, Ronald M Harper
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately 10% of adults, and alters brain gray and white matter. Psychological and physiological symptoms of the disorder are sex-specific, perhaps related to greater injury occurs in female than male patients in white matter. Our objective was to identify influences of OSA separated by sex on cortical gray matter. METHODS: We assessed cortical thickness in 48 mild-severe OSA patients (mean age±std[range] = 46...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422040/combined-diet-and-physical-activity-is-better-than-diet-or-physical-activity-alone-at-improving-health-outcomes-for-patients-in-new-zealand-s-primary-care-intervention
#17
Catherine Anne Elliot, Michael John Hamlin
BACKGROUND: A dearth of knowledge exists regarding how multiple health behavior changes made within an exercise prescription programme can improve health parameters. This study aimed to analyse the impact of changing diet and increasing exercise on health improvements among exercise prescription patients. METHODS: In 2016, a representative sample of all enroled New Zealand exercise prescription programme (Green Prescription) patients were surveyed (N = 1488, 29% male, 46% ≥ 60 yr)...
February 8, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420612/correlates-of-sexual-initiation-among-european-adolescents
#18
Pietro Gambadauro, Vladimir Carli, Gergö Hadlaczky, Marco Sarchiapone, Alan Apter, Judit Balazs, Raphaela Banzer, Julio Bobes, Romuald Brunner, Doina Cosman, Luca Farkas, Christian Haring, Christina W Hoven, Michael Kaess, Jean Pierre Kahn, Elaine McMahon, Vita Postuvan, Merike Sisask, Airi Värnik, Nusa Zadravec Sedivy, Danuta Wasserman
BACKGROUND: Sexuality is a physiological component of adolescent development, though early initiation is associated with reproductive health risk. This study aimed at identifying correlates and predictors of sexual initiation in a large multinational cohort of European adolescents. METHODS: A questionnaire addressing socio-demographics, behaviours, mental health and sexual activity, was delivered to 11,110 adolescents recruited from 168 randomly selected schools in 10 European countries between 2009 and 2011...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414562/an-objective-score-to-identify-psychogenic-seizures-based-on-age-of-onset-and-history
#19
Wesley T Kerr, Emily A Janio, Chelsea T Braesch, Justine M Le, Jessica M Hori, Akash B Patel, Norma L Gallardo, Janar Bauirjan, Andrea M Chau, Eric S Hwang, Emily C Davis, Albert Buchard, David Torres-Barba, Shannon D'Ambrosio, Mona Al Banna, Andrew Y Cho, Jerome Engel, Mark S Cohen, John M Stern
OBJECTIVE: Psychogenic nonepileptic seizure (PNES) is a common diagnosis after evaluation of medication resistant or atypical seizures with video-electroencephalographic monitoring (VEM), but usually follows a long delay after the development of seizures, during which patients are treated for epilepsy. Therefore, more readily available diagnostic tools are needed for earlier identification of patients at risk for PNES. A tool based on patient-reported psychosocial history would be especially beneficial because it could be implemented in the outpatient clinic...
March 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413819/caregiver-burden-and-illness-perceptions-in-caregivers-of-medically-hospitalized-youth-with-anorexia-nervosa
#20
Abigail Matthews, Katrina R Lenz, James Peugh, Emily C Copps, Claire M Peterson
Caregiver burden is common in caregivers of youth with anorexia nervosa (AN) and could impede the successful implementation of family-based therapy (FBT). Thus, it is important to better understand mechanisms by which caregiver burden is developed and maintained. This study aimed to examine the relation between caregiver illness perceptions about AN, symptom severity indicators, and caregiver burden in a sample of medically hospitalized youth with AN. Fifty-one youth with AN (N = 34) or Atypical AN (AAN; N = 17; mean age = 14...
February 1, 2018: Eating Behaviors
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