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Sex psychology physiology

Dragana Dragas Milovanovic, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Milica Scekic, Natasa Djordjevic
BACKGROUND: The number of adolescents who use caffeine is constantly increasing. As juvenile age is vulnerable, it is reasonable to expect that they will differently perceive reason and react to caffeine use than adults, and be more prone to unwanted physiological and psychological consequences of its consumption. AIM: Analysis of the scope and pattern of caffeine consumption among adolescents in Serbia. STUDY DESIGN: The cross-sectional survey was implemented in the study population of 191 Serbian adolescents during 2010...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Urszula M Marcinkowska, Julien Terraube, Gwenaël Kaminski
Faces are an important cue to multiple physiological and psychological traits. Human preferences for exaggerated sex typicality (masculinity or femininity) in faces depend on multiple factors and show high inter-subject variability. To gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying facial femininity preferences in men, we tested the interactive effect of family structure (birth order, sibling sex-ratio and number of siblings) and parenthood status on these preferences. Based on a group of 1304 heterosexual men, we have found that preference for feminine faces was not only influenced by sibling age and sex, but also that fatherhood modulated this preference...
2016: Scientific Reports
Michael von Wolff, Petra Stute, Christa Flück
: Transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue has been shown to successfully induce pregnancies. Furthermore, puberty may be induced by transplanted ovarian tissue in girls suffering from premature primary ovarian insufficiency (PPOI) due to gonadotoxic therapy. Therefore, the question arises if ovarian tissue cryopreservation should be recommended for puberty induction in prepubertal girls with cancer prior to gonadotoxic therapies. Although this strategy seems to be more natural than administering exogenous steroid sex hormones, there are some disadvantages from the endocrinological point of view...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Michael G Hutchison, Lynda Mainwaring, Arrani Senthinathan, Nathan Churchill, Scott Thomas, Doug Richards
BACKGROUND: Sport-related concussions are associated with a range of physical, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that are highly variable across individuals. Much remains unknown about the effects of sport concussion, and changes in markers of psychological and physiological stress over the recovery timeline. OBJECTIVE: To examine psychological (mood, stress, sleep quality, and symptoms) and physiological (heart rate variability and salivary cortisol) measures in concussed athletes over clinical recovery milestones...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Magnus Kentson, Kristina Tödt, Elisabeth Skargren, Per Jakobsson, Jan Ernerudh, Mitra Unosson, Kersti Theander
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of selected physiological, psychological and situational factors on experience of fatigue, and functional limitations due to fatigue in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: In total 101 patients with COPD and 34 control patients were assessed for experience of fatigue, functional limitation due to fatigue (Fatigue Impact Scale), physiological [lung function, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), body mass index (BMI), dyspnoea, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), surfactant protein D], psychological (anxiety, depression, insomnia), situational variables (age, sex, smoking, living alone, education), and quality of life...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
Emily C White, Bronwyn M Graham
Anxiety disorders are more prevalent in women than men. One contributing factor may be the sex hormone estradiol, which is known to impact the long term recall of conditioned fear extinction, a laboratory procedure that forms the basis of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. To date, the literature examining estradiol and fear extinction in humans has focused primarily on physiological measures of fear, such as skin conductance response (SCR) and fear potentiated startle. This is surprising, given that models of anxiety identify at least three important components: physiological symptoms, cognitive beliefs, and avoidance behavior...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Katarzyna Lindner-Cendrowska, Krzysztof Błażejczyk
Weather and climate are important natural resources for tourism and recreation, although sometimes they can make outdoor leisure activities less satisfying or even impossible. The aim of this work was to determine weather perception seasonal variability of people staying outdoors in urban environment for tourism and recreation, as well as to determine if personal factors influence estimation of recreationist actual biometeorological conditions and personal expectations towards weather elements. To investigate how human thermal sensations vary upon meteorological conditions typical for temperate climate, weather perception field researches were conducted in Warsaw (Poland) in all seasons...
August 8, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
Tiina Föhr, Julia Pietilä, Elina Helander, Tero Myllymäki, Harri Lindholm, Heikki Rusko, Urho M Kujala
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity, overweight, and work-related stress are major concerns today. Psychological stress causes physiological responses such as reduced heart rate variability (HRV), owing to attenuated parasympathetic and/or increased sympathetic activity in cardiac autonomic control. This study's purpose was to investigate the relationships between physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI), and HRV-based stress and recovery on workdays, among Finnish employees. METHODS: The participants in this cross-sectional study were 16 275 individuals (6863 men and 9412 women; age 18-65 years; BMI 18...
2016: BMC Public Health
Fang Yang, Danan Gu
BACKGROUND: Frailty represents an increased vulnerability to external stressors due to decreased physiological reserve and dysfunction in multiple bodily systems. The relationship between frailty and mortality has been well-documented in the literature. However, less is known about the predictive powers of frailty index and its components on mortality when they are simultaneously present. This study aimed to examine the predictive powers of frailty index and its multiple components on mortality in a nationally representative sample of older adults in China...
2016: BMC Geriatrics
Samantha G Farris, Jane Metrik
Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2...
August 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Robert E Sorge, Stacie K Totsch
Females greatly outnumber males as sufferers of chronic pain. Although social and psychological factors certainly play a role in the differences in prevalence and incidence, biological differences in the functioning of the immune system likely underlie these observed effects. This Review examines the current literature on biological sex differences in the functioning of the innate and adaptive immune systems as they relate to pain experience. With rodent models, we and others have observed that male mice utilize microglia in the spinal cord to mediate pain, whereas females preferentially use T cells in a similar manner...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Colette S Kabrita, Theresa A Hajjar-Muça
Good sleep quality and quantity are fundamental to the maintenance of normal physiological processes. Changes in sleep patterns are commonly observed among young adults and are shown to impact neurocognitive, academic, and psychological well-being. Given the scarcity of sleep information about Lebanon and acknowledging the sex differences in various sleep dimensions, we conducted a study that aimed at assessing sex differences in sleep habits among university students in Lebanon in relation to psychoacademic status...
2016: Nature and Science of Sleep
Olivia K Faull, Pete J Cox, Kyle T S Pattinson
PURPOSE: Breathlessness is a complex set of symptoms that are comprised of both sensory and affective (emotional) dimensions. While ventilation is now understood to be a potential limiter to performance in highly-trained individuals, the contribution of breathlessness-anxiety in those nearing maximal ventilation during intense exercise has not yet been considered as a limiter to performance. METHODS: In this study, we compared the physiology and psychology of breathlessness in 20 endurance athletes with 20 untrained age- and sex-matched sedentary controls...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Stefano Pieretti, Amalia Di Giannuario, Rita Di Giovannandrea, Francesca Marzoli, Giovanni Piccaro, Paola Minosi, Anna Maria Aloisi
There is much evidence to suggest that gender is an important factor in the modulation of pain. Literature data strongly suggest that men and women differ in their responses to pain: they are more variable in women than men, with increased pain sensitivity and many more painful diseases commonly reported among women. Gender differences in pharmacological therapy and non-pharmacological pain interventions have also been reported, but these effects appear to depend on the treatment type and characteristics. It is becoming very evident that gender differences in pain and its relief arise from an interaction of genetic, anatomical, physiological, neuronal, hormonal, psychological and social factors which modulate pain differently in the sexes...
April 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Tarun Narang, Garima, Shubh M Singh
Sexual problems that are psychological in origin, rather than physiological, are called psychosexual disorders. Multiple factors, such as general health of the patient, chronic illnesses, psychiatric/psychological disorders, and socio-cultural factors, alone or in combination can be attributed to the development of psychosexual dysfunctions. The symptoms of these disorders vary for each individual and differ with gender. These disorders may be categorized as sexual dysfunction, paraphilias, and gender identity disorders...
May 2016: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
Liat Sorski, Rivka Melamed, Pini Matzner, Hagar Lavon, Lee Shaashua, Ella Rosenne, Shamgar Ben-Eliyahu
Liver metastases are a major cause of colorectal cancer death, and the perioperative period is believed to critically affect the metastatic process. Here we tested whether blocking excess release of catecholamines and prostaglandins during surgical procedures of different extent can reduce experimental liver metastasis of the syngeneic CT26 colon cancer in female and male BALB/c mice. Animals were either treated with the beta-blocker, propranolol, the COX-2 inhibitor, etodolac, both drugs, or vehicle. The role of NK cells in controlling CT26 hepatic metastasis and in mediating the effect of the drugs was assessed by in vivo depletion or stimulation of NK cells, using anti-asialo GM1 or CpG-C, respectively...
May 25, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Russell D Romeo, Ravenna Patel, Laurie Pham, Veronica M So
Adolescent development is marked by many changes in neuroendocrine function, resulting in both immediate and long-term influences on an individual's physiology and behavior. Stress-induced hormonal responses are one such change, with adolescent animals often showing different patterns of hormonal reactivity following a stressor compared with adults. This review will describe the unique ways in which adolescent animals respond to a variety of stressors and how these adolescent-related changes in hormonal responsiveness can be further modified by the sex and previous experience of the individual...
May 24, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Kristen R Weaver, LeeAnne B Sherwin, Brian Walitt, Gail D'Eramo Melkus, Wendy A Henderson
AIM: To summarize and synthesize current literature on neuroimaging the brain-gut axis in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: A database search for relevant literature was conducted using PubMed, Scopus and Embase in February 2015. Date filters were applied from the year 2009 and onward, and studies were limited to those written in the English language and those performed upon human subjects. The initial search yielded 797 articles, out of which 38 were pulled for full text review and 27 were included for study analysis...
May 6, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Michelle Spence, Violeta Stancu, Moira Dean, M Barbara E Livingstone, Eileen R Gibney, Liisa Lähteenmäki
The purpose of this study was to test a comprehensive model of meal portion size determinants consisting of sociodemographic, psychological and food-related variables, whilst controlling for hunger and thirst. Using cross-sectional nationally representative data collected in 2075 participants from the Island of Ireland (IoI) and Denmark (DK), eight separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between food-related variables and meal portion size (i.e. pizza, vegetable soup, chicken salad and a pork meal) within each country...
August 1, 2016: Appetite
Allison J Carroll, Shirley R Baron, Richard A Carroll
PURPOSE: Although there are many physical and psychological impacts on women's sexuality following breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, sexual problems often remain unaddressed in these cancer survivors. Given the crucial role of the partner in sexual issues, couple-based sex therapy would appear to be a logical first-line treatment for this population, but there is scant research on the efficacy of couple-based treatments and/or sex therapy in breast cancer survivors. METHODS: A review of the literature was conducted using the PMC, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases...
August 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
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