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Sex psychology physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872000/is-testosterone-a-food-for-the-brain
#1
REVIEW
Giacomo Ciocca, Erika Limoncin, Eleonora Carosa, Stefania Di Sante, Giovanni L Gravina, Daniele Mollaioli, Daniele Gianfrilli, Andrea Lenzi, Emmanuele A Jannini
INTRODUCTION: Testosterone is fundamental for psychological, sexological, cognitive, and reproductive aspects, and its lack or reduction largely impacts the quality of life in males and females. AIM: Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the role of testosterone in the neurophysiology of the brain and related aspects regarding the quality of general and sexual life. METHODS: We listed and discussed the principal studies on the role of testosterone in the brain regarding sexual health, psychopathological conditions, and the elderly...
January 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870445/evaluating-social-defeat-as-a-model-for-psychopathology-in-adult-female-rodents
#2
REVIEW
Matia B Solomon
Social conflict is a predominant stressor in humans and is associated with increased risk for developing psychological illnesses including depression and anxiety. Overwhelmingly, more women suffer from these disorders, which may be due to increased stress sensitivity. Like humans, rodents experience a myriad of physiological and behavioral sequelae due to prolonged stress exposure. Although the motivation for social conflict may differ between humans and rodents, female rodents may provide an opportunity to explore the underlying mechanisms by which stress confers risk for psychopathology in women...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857786/incidence-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-children-with-nonmonosymptomatic-primary-nocturnal-enuresis
#3
Parsa Yousefichaijan, Ali Khosrobeigi, Bahman Salehi, Hassan Taherahmadi, Fakhreddin Shariatmadari, Yazdan Ghandi, Saeed Alinejad, Fateme Farhadiruzbahani
INTRODUCTION: Enuresis is defined as the repeated voiding of urine into clothes or bed at least twice a week for at least 3 consecutive months in a child who is at least 5 years of age. The behavior is not due exclusively to the direct physiologic effect of a substance or a general medical condition. Diurnal enuresis defines wetting, whereas awake and nocturnal enuresis refers to voiding during sleep. Primary enuresis occurs in children who have never been consistently dry through the night, whereas secondary enuresis refers the resumption of wetting after at least 6 months of dryness...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824643/clinical-psychological-and-physiological-correlates-of-patients-who-defecate-after-meal
#4
Michel Bouchoucha, Ghislain Devroede, Florence Mary, Cyriaque Bon, Gheorges Airinei, Bakhtiar Bejou, Robert Benamouzig
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Food is the most important synchronizer of gastrointestinal motility and secretion. Many patients with functional bowel or anorectal disorders complain of fecal urge and stool output after eating. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective observational study, 408 consecutive outpatients with functional bowel and/or anorectal disorders (74% female, 50.2±15.6 years, 24.8±5.0 kg/m²) filled Rome III questionnaires. Depression and anxiety scores, a physiological evaluation (total and segmental colonic transit time, colonic transit response to eating using a standard 1000 kcal test meal, and anorectal manometry), were measured...
November 7, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816476/sex-specific-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-behavior-in-siberian-hamsters
#5
Kristyn E Sylvia, Cathleen P Jewell, Nikki M Rendon, Emma A St John, Gregory E Demas
The gut microbiome is a diverse, host-specific, and symbiotic bacterial environment that is critical for mammalian survival and exerts a surprising yet powerful influence on brain and behavior. Gut dysbiosis has been linked to a wide range of physical and psychological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders and anxiety, as well as autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. A wealth of information on the effects of dysbiosis on anxiety and depression has been reported in laboratory model systems (e.g., germ-free mice); however, the effects of microbiome disruption on social behaviors (e...
November 2, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803678/psychological-and-physiological-processes-in-figure-tracing-abilities-measured-using-a-tablet-computer-a-study-with-7-and-9-years-old-children
#6
Enrico Giammarco, Sergio Di Sano, Tiziana Aureli, Paola Cerratti, Giorgio Fanò-Illic, Tiziana Pietrangelo
The present study investigated the use of a tablet computer to assess figure-tracing skills and their relationships with psychological (visual-perceptual processes, cognitive processes, handwriting skills) and physiological (body mass index, isometric strength of arms) parameters with school-children of second (7-8-year-olds) and fourth (9-10-year-olds) grades. We were also interested in gender differences. The task required tracing of geometric figures on a template, shown on a tablet screen in light gray, for the segments that make up the target figure, one at a time...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803623/psycho-physiological-responses-of-obese-adolescents-to-an-intermittent-run-test-compared-with-a-20-m-shuttle-run
#7
Olivier Rey, Christophe Maïano, Caroline Nicol, Charles-Symphorien Mercier, Jean-Marc Vallier
Among the running field tests that measure aerobic fitness indirectly, the 20-m shuttle run test is the one most commonly used among obese youth. However, this back and forth running test induces premature cessation of exercise in this population. The present study aimed to examine the psycho-physiological responses of obese adolescents to an intermittent (15-15) progressive and maximal run test as compared with a continuous shuttle run test. Eleven obese adolescents (age: 14-15 years; BMI = 34.01 ± 5.30 kg·m(-2)) performed both tests...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740924/caffeine-consumption-patterns-and-determinants-among-adolescents-in-serbia
#8
Dragana Dragas Milovanovic, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Milica Scekic, Natasa Djordjevic
BACKGROUND: The number of adolescents who use caffeine is constantly increasing. As juvenile age is vulnerable, it is reasonable to expect that they will differently perceive reason and react to caffeine use than adults, and be more prone to unwanted physiological and psychological consequences of its consumption. AIM: Analysis of the scope and pattern of caffeine consumption among adolescents in Serbia. STUDY DESIGN: The cross-sectional survey was implemented in the study population of 191 Serbian adolescents during 2010...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680495/imprinting-and-flexibility-in-human-face-cognition
#9
Urszula M Marcinkowska, Julien Terraube, Gwenaël Kaminski
Faces are an important cue to multiple physiological and psychological traits. Human preferences for exaggerated sex typicality (masculinity or femininity) in faces depend on multiple factors and show high inter-subject variability. To gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying facial femininity preferences in men, we tested the interactive effect of family structure (birth order, sibling sex-ratio and number of siblings) and parenthood status on these preferences. Based on a group of 1304 heterosexual men, we have found that preference for feminine faces was not only influenced by sibling age and sex, but also that fatherhood modulated this preference...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631591/autologous-transplantation-of-cryopreserved-ovarian-tissue-to-induce-puberty-the-endocrinologists-view
#10
Michael von Wolff, Petra Stute, Christa Flück
: Transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue has been shown to successfully induce pregnancies. Furthermore, puberty may be induced by transplanted ovarian tissue in girls suffering from premature primary ovarian insufficiency (PPOI) due to gonadotoxic therapy. Therefore, the question arises if ovarian tissue cryopreservation should be recommended for puberty induction in prepubertal girls with cancer prior to gonadotoxic therapies. Although this strategy seems to be more natural than administering exogenous steroid sex hormones, there are some disadvantages from the endocrinological point of view...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603761/psychological-and-physiological-markers-of-stress-in-concussed-athletes-across-recovery-milestones
#11
Michael G Hutchison, Lynda Mainwaring, Arrani Senthinathan, Nathan Churchill, Scott Thomas, Doug Richards
BACKGROUND: Sport-related concussions are associated with a range of physical, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that are highly variable across individuals. Much remains unknown about the effects of sport concussion, and changes in markers of psychological and physiological stress over the recovery timeline. OBJECTIVE: To examine psychological (mood, stress, sleep quality, and symptoms) and physiological (heart rate variability and salivary cortisol) measures in concussed athletes over clinical recovery milestones...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591046/factors-associated-with-experience-of-fatigue-and-functional-limitations-due-to-fatigue-in-patients-with-stable-copd
#12
Magnus Kentson, Kristina Tödt, Elisabeth Skargren, Per Jakobsson, Jan Ernerudh, Mitra Unosson, Kersti Theander
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of selected physiological, psychological and situational factors on experience of fatigue, and functional limitations due to fatigue in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: In total 101 patients with COPD and 34 control patients were assessed for experience of fatigue, functional limitation due to fatigue (Fatigue Impact Scale), physiological [lung function, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), body mass index (BMI), dyspnoea, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), surfactant protein D], psychological (anxiety, depression, insomnia), situational variables (age, sex, smoking, living alone, education), and quality of life...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544848/estradiol-levels-in-women-predict-skin-conductance-response-but-not-valence-and-expectancy-ratings-in-conditioned-fear-extinction
#13
Emily C White, Bronwyn M Graham
Anxiety disorders are more prevalent in women than men. One contributing factor may be the sex hormone estradiol, which is known to impact the long term recall of conditioned fear extinction, a laboratory procedure that forms the basis of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. To date, the literature examining estradiol and fear extinction in humans has focused primarily on physiological measures of fear, such as skin conductance response (SCR) and fear potentiated startle. This is surprising, given that models of anxiety identify at least three important components: physiological symptoms, cognitive beliefs, and avoidance behavior...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498882/impact-of-selected-personal-factors-on-seasonal-variability-of-recreationist-weather-perceptions-and-preferences-in-warsaw-poland
#14
Katarzyna Lindner-Cendrowska, Krzysztof Błażejczyk
Weather and climate are important natural resources for tourism and recreation, although sometimes they can make outdoor leisure activities less satisfying or even impossible. The aim of this work was to determine weather perception seasonal variability of people staying outdoors in urban environment for tourism and recreation, as well as to determine if personal factors influence estimation of recreationist actual biometeorological conditions and personal expectations towards weather elements. To investigate how human thermal sensations vary upon meteorological conditions typical for temperate climate, weather perception field researches were conducted in Warsaw (Poland) in all seasons...
August 8, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484470/physical-activity-body-mass-index-and-heart-rate-variability-based-stress-and-recovery-in-16-275-finnish-employees-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Tiina Föhr, Julia Pietilä, Elina Helander, Tero Myllymäki, Harri Lindholm, Heikki Rusko, Urho M Kujala
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity, overweight, and work-related stress are major concerns today. Psychological stress causes physiological responses such as reduced heart rate variability (HRV), owing to attenuated parasympathetic and/or increased sympathetic activity in cardiac autonomic control. This study's purpose was to investigate the relationships between physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI), and HRV-based stress and recovery on workdays, among Finnish employees. METHODS: The participants in this cross-sectional study were 16 275 individuals (6863 men and 9412 women; age 18-65 years; BMI 18...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455962/predictability-of-frailty-index-and-its-components-on-mortality-in-older-adults-in-china
#16
Fang Yang, Danan Gu
BACKGROUND: Frailty represents an increased vulnerability to external stressors due to decreased physiological reserve and dysfunction in multiple bodily systems. The relationship between frailty and mortality has been well-documented in the literature. However, less is known about the predictive powers of frailty index and its components on mortality when they are simultaneously present. This study aimed to examine the predictive powers of frailty index and its multiple components on mortality in a nationally representative sample of older adults in China...
2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454678/acute-effects-of-cannabis-on-breath-holding-duration
#17
Samantha G Farris, Jane Metrik
Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2...
August 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452349/sex-differences-in-pain
#18
Robert E Sorge, Stacie K Totsch
Females greatly outnumber males as sufferers of chronic pain. Although social and psychological factors certainly play a role in the differences in prevalence and incidence, biological differences in the functioning of the immune system likely underlie these observed effects. This Review examines the current literature on biological sex differences in the functioning of the innate and adaptive immune systems as they relate to pain experience. With rodent models, we and others have observed that male mice utilize microglia in the spinal cord to mediate pain, whereas females preferentially use T cells in a similar manner...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382345/sex-specific-sleep-patterns-among-university-students-in-lebanon-impact-on-depression-and-academic-performance
#19
Colette S Kabrita, Theresa A Hajjar-Muça
Good sleep quality and quantity are fundamental to the maintenance of normal physiological processes. Changes in sleep patterns are commonly observed among young adults and are shown to impact neurocognitive, academic, and psychological well-being. Given the scarcity of sleep information about Lebanon and acknowledging the sex differences in various sleep dimensions, we conducted a study that aimed at assessing sex differences in sleep habits among university students in Lebanon in relation to psychoacademic status...
2016: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378940/psychophysical-differences-in-ventilatory-awareness-and-breathlessness-between-athletes-and-sedentary-individuals
#20
Olivia K Faull, Pete J Cox, Kyle T S Pattinson
PURPOSE: Breathlessness is a complex set of symptoms that are comprised of both sensory and affective (emotional) dimensions. While ventilation is now understood to be a potential limiter to performance in highly-trained individuals, the contribution of breathlessness-anxiety in those nearing maximal ventilation during intense exercise has not yet been considered as a limiter to performance. METHODS: In this study, we compared the physiology and psychology of breathlessness in 20 endurance athletes with 20 untrained age- and sex-matched sedentary controls...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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