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Sex psychology physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914501/andrology-of-male-to-female-transsexuals-influence-of-cross-sex-hormone-therapy-on-testicular-function
#1
REVIEW
F Schneider, S Kliesch, S Schlatt, N Neuhaus
Patients with gender dysphoria are offered cross-sex hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery to achieve the transition between the sex assigned at birth and gender identity. According to international guidelines, cross-sex hormone therapy in trans-women should lead to a psychologically and physiologically healthy body with feminized serum hormone levels, resulting in suppression of spermatogenesis. However, in a recently published multi-center study, we discovered a high proportion of patients with male serum hormone levels and qualitatively intact spermatogenesis on the day of sex reassignment surgery...
September 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888327/vicarious-social-defeat-stress-induces-depression-related-outcomes-in-female-mice
#2
Sergio D Iñiguez, Francisco J Flores-Ramirez, Lace M Riggs, Jason B Alipio, Israel Garcia-Carachure, Mirella A Hernandez, David O Sanchez, Mary Kay Lobo, Peter A Serrano, Stephen H Braren, Samuel A Castillo
BACKGROUND: Stress is a prevailing risk factor for mood-related illnesses, wherein women represent the majority of those affected by major depression. Despite the growing literature suggesting that affective disorders can arise after a traumatic event is vicariously experienced, this relationship remains understudied in female subjects at the preclinical level. Thus, the objective of the current investigation was to examine whether exposure to emotional and/or psychological stress (ES) mediates depression-related outcomes in female mice...
July 29, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852231/cardiovascular-response-to-mental-stress-tests-and-the-prediction-of-blood-pressure
#3
Kornanong Yuenyongchaiwat
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that increased physiological responses (i.e., cardiovascular reactivity) to a stressor or stressors may increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) including increased blood pressure (BP) or hypertension. However, many prospective studies have examined the hemodynamic reactions to laboratory stress tests and CVD in Western countries and only a few studies have examined with varying durations of follow-up in the same sample studies. In addition, still relatively little is known about cardiovascular reactivity in Asian populations...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830740/how-do-psychological-risk-factors-predict-sexual-outcomes-a%C3%A2-comparison-of-four-models-of-young-women-s-sexual-outcomes
#4
Jessica S Tutino, Allison J Ouimet, Krystelle Shaughnessy
BACKGROUND: Recent research findings suggest that women who report high anxiety sensitivity (AS; the fear of physiologic sensations associated with anxiety) also report increased sexual dysfunction and decreased sexual satisfaction. Moreover, findings suggest that maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) can contribute to the relation between AS and psychological distress, thereby indirectly influencing sexual outcomes. Identifying relations among these variables and how they specifically relate to sexual outcomes could be vital for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807719/maternal-hypothyroidism-an-overview-of-current-experimental-models
#5
REVIEW
Mahboubeh Ghanbari, Asghar Ghasemi
Maternal hypothyroidism (MH) is the most common cause of transient congenital hypothyroidism. Different animal models are used for assessing developmental effects of MH in offspring. The severity and status of hypothyroidism in animal models must be a reflection of the actual conditions in humans. To obtain comparable results with different clinical conditions, which lead to MH in humans, several factors have been suggested for researchers to consider before designing the experimental models. Regarding development of fetal body systems during pregnancy, interference at different times provides different results and the appropriate time for induction of hypothyroidism should be selected based on accurate time of development of the system under assessment...
October 15, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690949/role-of-sex-hormone-levels-and-psychological-stress-in-the-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Salman Assad, Hamza H Khan, Haider Ghazanfar, Zarak H Khan, Salman Mansoor, Muhammad A Rahman, Ghulam H Khan, Bilal Zafar, Usman Tariq, Shuja A Malik
The aim of this review article is to assess the connection between psychological stress and sex hormones and their effect on the development of autoimmune diseases. Psychological stress describes what people feel when they are under mental, physical, or emotional pressure. We searched for online articles using MEDLINE®, Embase, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. Our research yielded a total of 165 articles out of which 30 articles were considered for further perusal. The articles were reviewed from February 2016 to February 2017...
June 5, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684938/sexual-dysfunction-and-intimacy-for-ostomates
#7
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Albaugh, Sandi Tenfelde, Dana M Hayden
Sex and intimacy presents special challenges for the ostomate. Since some colorectal surgery patients will require either temporary or permanent stomas, intimacy and sexuality is a common issue for ostomates. In addition to the stoma, nerve damage, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are often used in conjunction with stoma creation for cancer patients, thereby adding physiological dysfunction to the personal psychological impact of the stoma, leading to sexual dysfunction. The purpose of this paper is to describe the prevalence, etiology, and the most common types of sexual dysfunction in men and women after colorectal surgery and particularly those patients with stomas...
July 2017: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602941/hormonal-correlates-of-energetic-condition-in-mantled-howler-monkeys
#8
Pedro Américo D Dias, Alejandro Coyohua-Fuentes, Domingo Canales-Espinosa, Roberto Chavira-Ramírez, Ariadna Rangel-Negrín
Hormones have a key role in energy allocation, so their study allows understanding individual metabolic strategies. Because different hormones convey different information on the responses of individuals to energetic demands, a simultaneous analysis of variation in multiple hormones may offer a more reliable picture of metabolic strategies than single hormone assessments. In this study we focused on determining which factors were related to variation in fecal glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone metabolites in wild mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata)...
June 21, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546084/-sex-differences-in-a-real-academic-stressor-cognitive-appraisal-and-the-cortisol-response
#9
Susanne Helbig, Jutta Backhaus
Women and men differ in their physiological and psychological stress response but only a few studies have analyzed this sex difference in a naturalistic setting and focused on cognitive stress appraisal. In the present study, the salivary cortisol concentration of 24 female and 22 male subjects was measured before and several times after an oral academic presentation given by themselves (stress condition) or given by a fellow student (control condition). Feelings of subjective stress and nervousness were assessed simultaneously to the saliva samples and a questionnaire for cognitive stress appraisal was conducted right before the oral presentation...
May 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456610/sexual-function-obesity-and-weight-loss-in-men-and-women
#10
REVIEW
David L Rowland, Sean M McNabney, Alexx R Mann
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a major health concern in the United States and many developed countries. Among its many deleterious effects are those that can affect the sexual response. AIM: To update and evaluate the state of knowledge on the possible link between obesity and sexual dysfunction. METHODS: A comprehensive search and review of biomedical, physiologic, and psychological databases were used to integrate findings on obesity, weight loss, and sexual function...
April 26, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454896/-did-you-climax-or-are-you-just-laughing-at-me-rare-phenomena-associated-with-orgasm
#11
REVIEW
Anna E Reinert, James A Simon
INTRODUCTION: The study of the human orgasm has shown a core set of physiologic and psychological symptoms experienced by most individuals. The study of normal sheds light on the abnormal and has spotlighted rare physical and psychological symptoms experienced by some individuals in association with orgasm. These phenomena are rare and, as is typical of rare phenomena, their documentation in the medical literature is largely confined to case studies. AIM: To identify peri-orgasmic phenomena, defined as unusual physical or psychological symptoms subjectively experienced by some individuals as part of the orgasm response, distinct from the usual or normal orgasm response...
April 25, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412282/physiological-reactivity-to-spontaneously-occurring-seizure-activity-in-dogs-with-epilepsy-and-their-carers
#12
R M A Packer, H A Volk, R C Fowkes
There is a complex bidirectional relationship between stress and epilepsy. Stressful stimuli and subsequent cortisol release act as a trigger for seizure activity in some individuals with epilepsy, and seizure activity itself may act as a stressor to the affected individual. Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological condition in domestic dogs and requires chronic management by their human carers, impacting upon the quality of life of both dog and carer. Seizures occur unpredictably and may be stressful for carers to witness and manage...
April 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390864/an-acute-social-defeat-stressor-in-early-puberty-increases-susceptibility-to-social-defeat-in-adulthood
#13
Anna M Rosenhauer, Katharine E McCann, Alisa Norvelle, Kim L Huhman
Syrian hamsters readily display territorial aggression. If they lose even a single agonistic encounter, however, hamsters show striking reductions in aggressive behavior and increases in submissive behavior, a distinct behavioral change that we have previously termed conditioned defeat. This acute social defeat stressor is primarily psychological and is effective in both males and females. Therefore, we maintain that this procedure presents an ideal model for studying behavioral and physiological responses to social stress...
April 25, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376786/psychological-predictors-of-change-in-the-number-of-musculoskeletal-pain-sites-among-norwegian-employees-a-prospective-study
#14
Jan Olav Christensen, Sissel Johansen, Stein Knardahl
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of syndromes of widespread musculoskeletal pain remains an enigma. The present study sought to determine if psychological states, job satisfaction, pain intensity, and sleep problems contributed to the spread and decline of the number of musculoskeletal pains. METHODS: A sample of 2989 Norwegian employees completed a questionnaire at baseline and follow-up 2 years later. Data were analyzed with multinomial and ordinal logistic regression analyses to determine effects on direction and degree of change of number of pain sites (NPS)...
April 4, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374085/sex-related-differences-in-clinical-symptoms-quality-of-life-and-biochemical-factors-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#15
Razieh Choghakhori, Amir Abbasnezhad, Reza Amani, Meysam Alipour
BACKGROUND: Due to the sex differences in physiological and psychological factors, it can be speculated that clinical presentation of symptoms in male and female patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) might be different. AIM: To evaluate sex-related differences in clinical symptoms, quality of life, and biochemical factors in IBS. METHODS: Ninety IBS patients (29 men, 61 women (45 premenopausal, 16 postmenopausal)) were recruited from the outpatient clinic of the University Hospital...
June 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319531/examination-of-the-life-expectancy-of-patients-with-burns-over-20-of-their-total-body-surface-area-in-comparison-to-the-rest-of-the-population
#16
Oren Weissman, Yonathan Wagman, Adi Givon, Irina Radomislensky, Kobi Peleg, Demetris Stavrou, Josef Haik, Ariel Tessone
Patients with extensive burn injuries suffer from multisystem trauma, which affects their medical, psychological, and social well-being for many years. Monitoring those patients has revealed changes in the endocrine, cardiac, and respiratory systems years after the injury. Our study tries to examine whether changes manifest as a higher risk of death during their lifespan, compared with the general population. Data from the years 1998 to 2013 regarding two groups of patients was obtained from a national trauma registry: one group had suffered burns over 20% of their TBSA and survived the hospitalization period and the second group was a control group of patients admitted with minimal trauma (Injury Severity Score = 1-minor injury to a single body region)...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265036/preclinical-models-in-the-study-of-sex-differences
#17
REVIEW
Maria Buoncervello, Matteo Marconi, Alessandra Carè, Paola Piscopo, Walter Malorni, Paola Matarrese
The biology of sex differences deals with the study of the disparities between females and males and the related biological mechanisms. Gender medicine focuses on the impact of gender and sex on human physiology, pathophysiology and clinical features of diseases that are common to women and men. The term gender refers to a complex interrelation and integration of sex-as a biological and functional determinant-and psychological and cultural behaviours (due to ethnical, social or religious background). The attention to the impact of gender differences on the pathophysiology and, therefore, on the clinical management of the most common diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), neurodegenerative disorders, immune and autoimmune diseases as well as several tumours, is in fact often neglected...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260454/obesity-and-loss-of-kidney-function-two-complications-to-face-for-older-living-kidney-donors
#18
Demet Firat Kaya, Burak Sayin, Hatice Saglam, Bahar Gurlek Demirci, Turan Colak
OBJECTIVES: Although living kidney donors have a minimal lifetime risk of developing end-stage renal disease, long-term complications and physiologic and psychologic sequelae resulting from donation remain unclear because of lack of optimum follow-up after transplant. Here, we evaluated renal function, complications, and physical and mental performance of living kidney donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 147 patients who donated living kidneys between 1981 and 2012 at Baskent University Hospital...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179812/stress-related-disorders-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-peptide-pacap-ergic-system-and-sex-differences
#19
Teniel S Ramikie, Kerry J Ressler
Trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are remarkably common and debilitating, and are often characterized by dysregulated threat responses. Across numerous epidemiological studies, females have been found to have an approximately twofold increased risk for PTSD and other stress-related disorders. Understanding the biological mechanisms of this differential risk is of critical importance. Recent data suggest that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) pathway is a critical regulator of the stress response across species...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039531/stress-and-psychopathology-and-its-impact-on-quality-of-life-in-chronic-anal-fissure-caf-patients
#20
Özden Arısoy, Neriman Şengül, Affan Çakir
BACKGROUND: Chronic anal fissure (CAF) onset, exacerbation, and impact on quality of life are influenced by a host of psychological, physiological, and social factors. We aimed to investigate the difference in psychopathology and stress between normal and CAF groups. METHODS: Thirty CAF patients and 20 age-sex matched healthy controls were evaluated for Axis I psychopathology, depression, anxiety, and stress with Hamilton and Hospital Depression-Anxiety Scales, Perceived Stress Scale, and SF-36...
June 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
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