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Sex psychology physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319531/examination-of-the-life-expectancy-of-patients-with-burns-over-20-of-their-total-body-surface-area-in-comparison-to-the-rest-of-the-population
#1
Weissman Oren, Wagman Yonathan, Givon Adi, Radomislensky Irina, Peleg Kobi, Stavrou Demetris, Haik Josef, Tessone Ariel
Patients with extensive burn injuries suffer from multisystem trauma, which affects their medical, psychological, and social well-being for many years. Monitoring those patients has revealed changes in the endocrine, cardiac, and respiratory systems years after the injury. Our study tries to examine whether changes manifest as a higher risk of death during their lifespan, compared with the general population. Data from the years 1998 to 2013 regarding two groups of patients was obtained from a national trauma registry: one group had suffered burns over 20% of their TBSA and survived the hospitalization period and the second group was a control group of patients admitted with minimal trauma (Injury Severity Score = 1-minor injury to a single body region)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265036/preclinical-models-in-the-study-of-sex-differences
#2
REVIEW
Maria Buoncervello, Matteo Marconi, Alessandra Carè, Paola Piscopo, Walter Malorni, Paola Matarrese
The biology of sex differences deals with the study of the disparities between females and males and the related biological mechanisms. Gender medicine focuses on the impact of gender and sex on human physiology, pathophysiology and clinical features of diseases that are common to women and men. The term gender refers to a complex interrelation and integration of sex-as a biological and functional determinant-and psychological and cultural behaviours (due to ethnical, social or religious background). The attention to the impact of gender differences on the pathophysiology and, therefore, on the clinical management of the most common diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), neurodegenerative disorders, immune and autoimmune diseases as well as several tumours, is in fact often neglected...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260454/obesity-and-loss-of-kidney-function-two-complications-to-face-for-older-living-kidney-donors
#3
Demet Firat Kaya, Burak Sayin, Hatice Saglam, Bahar Gurlek Demirci, Turan Colak
OBJECTIVES: Although living kidney donors have a minimal lifetime risk of developing end-stage renal disease, long-term complications and physiologic and psychologic sequelae resulting from donation remain unclear because of lack of optimum follow-up after transplant. Here, we evaluated renal function, complications, and physical and mental performance of living kidney donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 147 patients who donated living kidneys between 1981 and 2012 at Baskent University Hospital...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179812/stress-related-disorders-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-peptide-pacap-ergic-system-and-sex-differences
#4
Teniel S Ramikie, Kerry J Ressler
Trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are remarkably common and debilitating, and are often characterized by dysregulated threat responses. Across numerous epidemiological studies, females have been found to have an approximately twofold increased risk for PTSD and other stress-related disorders. Understanding the biological mechanisms of this differential risk is of critical importance. Recent data suggest that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) pathway is a critical regulator of the stress response across species...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039531/stress-and-psychopathology-and-its-impact-on-quality-of-life-in-chronic-anal-fissure-caf-patients
#5
Özden Arısoy, Neriman Şengül, Affan Çakir
BACKGROUND: Chronic anal fissure (CAF) onset, exacerbation, and impact on quality of life are influenced by a host of psychological, physiological, and social factors. We aimed to investigate the difference in psychopathology and stress between normal and CAF groups. METHODS: Thirty CAF patients and 20 age-sex matched healthy controls were evaluated for Axis I psychopathology, depression, anxiety, and stress with Hamilton and Hospital Depression-Anxiety Scales, Perceived Stress Scale, and SF-36...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003962/cortical-arousal-in-children-and-adolescents-with-functional-neurological-symptoms-during-the-auditory-oddball-task
#6
Kasia Kozlowska, Dmitriy Melkonian, Chris J Spooner, Stephen Scher, Russell Meares
OBJECTIVE: Stress, pain, injury, and psychological trauma all induce arousal-mediated changes in brain network organization. The associated, high level of arousal may disrupt motor-sensory processing and result in aberrant patterns of motor function, including functional neurological symptoms. We used the auditory oddball paradigm to assess cortical arousal in children and adolescents with functional neurological symptom disorder. METHOD: Electroencephalogram (EEG) data was collected in fifty-seven children and adolescents (41 girls; 16 boys, aged 8...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002684/effects-of-caffeine-on-endurance-capacity-and-psychological-state-in-young-females-and-males-exercising-in-the-heat
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Silva Suvi, Saima Timpmann, Maria Tamm, Martin Aedma, Kairi Kreegipuu, Vahur Ööpik
Acute caffeine ingestion is considered effective in improving endurance capacity and psychological state. However, current knowledge is based on the findings of studies that have been conducted on male subjects mainly in temperate environmental conditions, but some physiological and psychological effects of caffeine differ between the sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare the physical performance and psychological effects of caffeine in young women and men exercising in the heat. Thirteen male and 10 female students completed 2 constant-load walks (60% of thermoneutral peak oxygen consumption on a treadmill until volitional exhaustion) in a hot-dry environment (air temperature, 42 °C; relative humidity, 20%) after caffeine (6 mg·kg(-1)) and placebo (wheat flour) ingestion in a double-blind, randomly assigned, crossover manner...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000186/-value-of-anorectal-manometry-in-defecation-disorders-and-its-clinical-interpretation
#8
Shuqing Ding
Bowel dysfunction affected by functional factors, mechanical factors or surgical damage may lead to constipation, fecal incontinence and other overlapped symptoms, which is only the tip of the iceberg. Anorectal manometry can provide combined dysfunction information of four subtypes, including sphincter dysfunction, dyssynergic defecation, sensory disability and insufficient rectal expel force, which are underlying pathophysiology of defecation dysfunction. Anorectal manometry can be helpful in optimizing protocol or predicting success in pelvic floor dyssynergic syndrome of defecation, fecal incontinence or anorectal pain, stoma closure and pediatric intractable constipation...
December 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936411/a-network-analysis-of-dsm-5-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-and-correlates-in-u-s-military-veterans
#9
Cherie Armour, Eiko I Fried, Marie K Deserno, Jack Tsai, Robert H Pietrzak
OBJECTIVE: Recent developments in psychometrics enable the application of network models to analyze psychological disorders, such as PTSD. Instead of understanding symptoms as indicators of an underlying common cause, this approach suggests symptoms co-occur in syndromes due to causal interactions. The current study has two goals: (1) examine the network structure among the 20 DSM-5 PTSD symptoms, and (2) incorporate clinically relevant variables to the network to investigate whether PTSD symptoms exhibit differential relationships with suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety, physical functioning/quality of life (QoL), mental functioning/QoL, age, and sex...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872000/is-testosterone-a-food-for-the-brain
#10
REVIEW
Giacomo Ciocca, Erika Limoncin, Eleonora Carosa, Stefania Di Sante, Giovanni L Gravina, Daniele Mollaioli, Daniele Gianfrilli, Andrea Lenzi, Emmanuele A Jannini
INTRODUCTION: Testosterone is fundamental for psychological, sexological, cognitive, and reproductive aspects, and its lack or reduction largely impacts the quality of life in males and females. AIM: Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the role of testosterone in the neurophysiology of the brain and related aspects regarding the quality of general and sexual life. METHODS: We listed and discussed the principal studies on the role of testosterone in the brain regarding sexual health, psychopathological conditions, and the elderly...
January 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870445/evaluating-social-defeat-as-a-model-for-psychopathology-in-adult-female-rodents
#11
REVIEW
Matia B Solomon
Social conflict is a predominant stressor in humans and is associated with increased risk for developing psychological illnesses including depression and anxiety. Overwhelmingly, more women suffer from these disorders, which may be due to increased stress sensitivity. Like humans, rodents experience a myriad of physiological and behavioral sequelae due to prolonged stress exposure. Although the motivation for social conflict may differ between humans and rodents, female rodents may provide an opportunity to explore the underlying mechanisms by which stress confers risk for psychopathology in women...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857786/incidence-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-children-with-nonmonosymptomatic-primary-nocturnal-enuresis
#12
Parsa Yousefichaijan, Ali Khosrobeigi, Bahman Salehi, Hassan Taherahmadi, Fakhreddin Shariatmadari, Yazdan Ghandi, Saeed Alinejad, Fateme Farhadiruzbahani
INTRODUCTION: Enuresis is defined as the repeated voiding of urine into clothes or bed at least twice a week for at least 3 consecutive months in a child who is at least 5 years of age. The behavior is not due exclusively to the direct physiologic effect of a substance or a general medical condition. Diurnal enuresis defines wetting, whereas awake and nocturnal enuresis refers to voiding during sleep. Primary enuresis occurs in children who have never been consistently dry through the night, whereas secondary enuresis refers the resumption of wetting after at least 6 months of dryness...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824643/clinical-psychological-and-physiological-correlates-of-patients-who-defecate-after-meal
#13
Michel Bouchoucha, Ghislain Devroede, Florence Mary, Cyriaque Bon, Gheorges Airinei, Bakhtiar Bejou, Robert Benamouzig
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Food is the most important synchronizer of gastrointestinal motility and secretion. Many patients with functional bowel or anorectal disorders complain of fecal urge and stool output after eating. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective observational study, 408 consecutive outpatients with functional bowel and/or anorectal disorders (74% female, 50.2±15.6 years, 24.8±5.0 kg/m²) filled Rome III questionnaires. Depression and anxiety scores, a physiological evaluation (total and segmental colonic transit time, colonic transit response to eating using a standard 1000 kcal test meal, and anorectal manometry), were measured...
February 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816476/sex-specific-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-behavior-in-siberian-hamsters
#14
Kristyn E Sylvia, Cathleen P Jewell, Nikki M Rendon, Emma A St John, Gregory E Demas
The gut microbiome is a diverse, host-specific, and symbiotic bacterial environment that is critical for mammalian survival and exerts a surprising yet powerful influence on brain and behavior. Gut dysbiosis has been linked to a wide range of physical and psychological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders and anxiety, as well as autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. A wealth of information on the effects of dysbiosis on anxiety and depression has been reported in laboratory model systems (e.g., germ-free mice); however, the effects of microbiome disruption on social behaviors (e...
February 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803678/psychological-and-physiological-processes-in-figure-tracing-abilities-measured-using-a-tablet-computer-a-study-with-7-and-9-years-old-children
#15
Enrico Giammarco, Sergio Di Sano, Tiziana Aureli, Paola Cerratti, Giorgio Fanò-Illic, Tiziana Pietrangelo
The present study investigated the use of a tablet computer to assess figure-tracing skills and their relationships with psychological (visual-perceptual processes, cognitive processes, handwriting skills) and physiological (body mass index, isometric strength of arms) parameters with school-children of second (7-8-year-olds) and fourth (9-10-year-olds) grades. We were also interested in gender differences. The task required tracing of geometric figures on a template, shown on a tablet screen in light gray, for the segments that make up the target figure, one at a time...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803623/psycho-physiological-responses-of-obese-adolescents-to-an-intermittent-run-test-compared-with-a-20-m-shuttle-run
#16
Olivier Rey, Christophe Maïano, Caroline Nicol, Charles-Symphorien Mercier, Jean-Marc Vallier
Among the running field tests that measure aerobic fitness indirectly, the 20-m shuttle run test is the one most commonly used among obese youth. However, this back and forth running test induces premature cessation of exercise in this population. The present study aimed to examine the psycho-physiological responses of obese adolescents to an intermittent (15-15) progressive and maximal run test as compared with a continuous shuttle run test. Eleven obese adolescents (age: 14-15 years; BMI = 34.01 ± 5.30 kg·m(-2)) performed both tests...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740924/caffeine-consumption-patterns-and-determinants-among-adolescents-in-serbia
#17
Dragana Dragas Milovanovic, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Milica Scekic, Natasa Djordjevic
BACKGROUND: The number of adolescents who use caffeine is constantly increasing. As juvenile age is vulnerable, it is reasonable to expect that they will differently perceive reason and react to caffeine use than adults, and be more prone to unwanted physiological and psychological consequences of its consumption. AIM: Analysis of the scope and pattern of caffeine consumption among adolescents in Serbia. STUDY DESIGN: The cross-sectional survey was implemented in the study population of 191 Serbian adolescents during 2010...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680495/imprinting-and-flexibility-in-human-face-cognition
#18
Urszula M Marcinkowska, Julien Terraube, Gwenaël Kaminski
Faces are an important cue to multiple physiological and psychological traits. Human preferences for exaggerated sex typicality (masculinity or femininity) in faces depend on multiple factors and show high inter-subject variability. To gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying facial femininity preferences in men, we tested the interactive effect of family structure (birth order, sibling sex-ratio and number of siblings) and parenthood status on these preferences. Based on a group of 1304 heterosexual men, we have found that preference for feminine faces was not only influenced by sibling age and sex, but also that fatherhood modulated this preference...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631591/autologous-transplantation-of-cryopreserved-ovarian-tissue-to-induce-puberty-the-endocrinologists-view
#19
Michael von Wolff, Petra Stute, Christa Flück
Transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue has been shown to successfully induce pregnancies. Furthermore, puberty may be induced by transplanted ovarian tissue in girls suffering from premature primary ovarian insufficiency (PPOI) due to gonadotoxic therapy. Therefore, the question arises if ovarian tissue cryopreservation should be recommended for puberty induction in prepubertal girls with cancer prior to gonadotoxic therapies. Although this strategy seems to be more natural than administering exogenous steroid sex hormones, there are some disadvantages from the endocrinological point of view...
December 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603761/psychological-and-physiological-markers-of-stress-in-concussed-athletes-across-recovery-milestones
#20
Michael G Hutchison, Lynda Mainwaring, Arrani Senthinathan, Nathan Churchill, Scott Thomas, Doug Richards
BACKGROUND: Sport-related concussions are associated with a range of physical, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that are highly variable across individuals. Much remains unknown about the effects of sport concussion, and changes in markers of psychological and physiological stress over the recovery timeline. OBJECTIVE: To examine psychological (mood, stress, sleep quality, and symptoms) and physiological (heart rate variability and salivary cortisol) measures in concussed athletes over clinical recovery milestones...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
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