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Benjamin Bush, Joseph D Tobias, Chen Lin, James Ruda, Kris R Jatana, Garth Essig, Jennifer Cooper, Dmitry Tumin, Charles A Elmaraghy
INTRODUCTION: Dexmedetomidine is a novel pharmacologic agent that has become a frequently used adjunct during care of pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) undergoing tonsillectomy. While generally safe and effective, dexmedetomidine is associated with adverse effects of hypotension and bradycardia from its central sympatholytic effects. Due to safety concerns, our institution routinely admits patients with OSA for overnight cardiorespiratory monitoring following tonsillectomy...
January 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
M Mavri, K Rellos, I Pantazopoulos, C Kampolis, I Floros, N Iacovidou, T Xanthos, C Pantazopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
M Mavri, K Rellos, I Pantazopoulos, C Kampolis, I Floros, N Iacovidou, T Xanthos, C Pantazopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Robert Stewart, Ricardo Perez, Bogdan Musial, Carrie Lukens, Yaw Amoateng Adjepong, Constantine A Manthous
RATIONALE: High doses of sedating drugs are often used to manage critically ill patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome. OBJECTIVES: To describe outcomes and risks for pneumonia and endotracheal intubation in patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome treated with high-dose intravenous sedatives and deferred endotracheal intubation. METHODS: Observational cohort study of consecutive patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a university-affiliated, community hospital for alcohol withdrawal syndrome, where patients were not routinely intubated to receive high-dose or continuously infused sedating medications...
February 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Peihua Li, Peng Zhou, Ping Shen
OBJECTIVE: To explore the application of the Dexmedetomidine utend drug induced sleep endoscopy. METHOD: Forty-four OSAHS patients diagnosed by PSG randomly were divided into group A (Dexmedetomidine group) and group B (Propofol group), each group of 22 cases. Group A: pump the Dexmedetomidine (1 microg/kg) over 15 minutes. Once the patient reached a satisfactory level of sedation, the electronic nasopharyngoscope was introduced into the nasal cavity group B: the propofol (2 mg/kg) was intravenous injected, use the same exmination after the object patients falling asleep...
August 2014: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Hye Won Shin, Hye Na Yoo, Dong Hwan Kim, Han Lee, Hyeon Ju Shin, Hye Won Lee
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine is an α2-adrenoreceptor agonist with sedative, analgesic and anxiolytic effects, and it has more selective α2-adrenergic effect than clonidine. We evaluate the effect of preansethetic dexmedetomidine 1 µg/kg single infusion on sedation, hemodynamics, anesthetic consumption, and recovery profiles during anesthesia. METHODS: Forty-two female patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II undergoing gynecologic surgery with anticipated operation time of 2 h, were randomly assigned to receive dexmedetomidine 1 µg/kg (Dex group) or saline (control group) iv over 10 min before anesthetic induction...
August 2013: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Kari Leino, Markku Hynynen, Jouko Jalonen, Markku Salmenperä, Harry Scheinin, Riku Aantaa
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine, an alpha₂-adrenoceptor agonist, has been evaluated as an adjunct to anesthesia and for the delivery of sedation and perioperative hemodynamic stability. It provokes dose-dependent and centrally-mediated sympatholysis. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with extracorporeal circulation is a stressful procedure increasing sympathetic nervous system activity which could attenuate renal function due the interrelation of sympathetic nervous system, hemodynamics and renal function...
May 23, 2011: BMC Anesthesiology
Alexander Valverde
Alpha-2 agonists, such as xylazine, clonidine, romifidine, detomidine, medetomidine, and dexmedetomidine, are potent analgesic drugs that also induce physiologic and behavioral changes, such as hypertension, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, excessive sedation and ataxia, all of which can potentially limit their systemic use as analgesics in some clinical cases. The use of medetomidine and dexmetomidine has been introduced for equine anesthesia/analgesia, and although not approved in this species, their increased specificity for alpha-2 receptors may offer some potential advantages over the traditional alpha-2 agonists...
December 2010: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
A Haymerle, A Fahlman, C Walzer
Cases of human exposure to veterinary injectable anaesthetics were reviewed following a literature search and completion of an online questionnaire in an attempt to provide an objective approach to the problem. The modified Glasgow Coma Scale was used to rank cases according to their severity. From the cases examined, results showed that intoxication with potent opioids, such as etorphine, carfentanil and thiafentanil, need to be treated with antagonists such as naloxone, nalmefene or naltrexone, and not with antagonists with agonistic properties, such as diprenorphine...
August 28, 2010: Veterinary Record
Nalini Vadivelu, Sukanya Mitra, Deepak Narayan
Good pain control after surgery is important to prevent negative outcomes such as tachycardia, hypertension, myocardial ischemia, decrease in alveolar ventilation, and poor wound healing. Exacerbations of acute pain can lead to neural sensitization and release of mediators both peripherally and centrally. Clinical wind up occurs from the processes of N-Methyl D-Aspartate (NMDA) activation, wind up central sensitization, long-term potentiation of pain (LTP), and transcription-dependent sensitization. Advances in the knowledge of molecular mechanisms have led to the development of multimodal analgesia and new pharmaceutical products to treat postoperative pain...
March 2010: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
M Aho, O Erkola, A Kallio, H Scheinin, K Korttila
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of dexmedetomidine, an alpha-2 agonist, as an intravenous sedative drug and the effects of atipamezole, an alpha-2 antagonist, on recovery. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind study with three parallel groups. An open dose-finding study preceded it to optimize the atipamezole dose. SETTING: Outpatient operating room at the gynecologic and obstetric university hospital in Helsinki, Finland. PATIENTS: Seventy-two healthy women scheduled for legal termination of pregnancy...
May 1993: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
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