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Hepatitis c treatment

Rogério M Pinto, Susan S Witte, Prema L Filippone, C Jean Choi, Melanie Wall
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions project has disseminated HIV behavioral interventions (EBIs) across the United States since the 1990s. In 2011, the CDC launched the High-Impact HIV Prevention (HIP) project, providing EBIs plus high-impact services (HIV testing, primary care, and support services). Providers (nurses, social workers, educators) are unable to consistently make linkages; thus, numerous at-risk individuals are not benefitting from HIP...
March 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Adel Abdel-Moneim, Alaa Aboud, Mohamed Abdel-Gabbar, Mohamed Zanaty, Mohamed Ramadan
BACKGROUND: The current standard of care for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a combination of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). However, rare clinical trials have been reported on the combination regimen of sofosbuvir (SOF) with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir (OBV/PTV/r) plus ribavirin (RBV) for treated patients with HCV genotype 4 (GT4) infection. AIMS: To clarify the retreatment efficacy and safety of the recent regimen, SOF with OBV/PTV/r + RBV, for chronic HCV GT4-experienced patients who failed treatment with DAA-based regimens...
March 15, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Young-A Heo, Emma D Deeks
A fixed-dose combination of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir, the HCV NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir and the HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor voxilaprevir (sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir; Vosevi® ) is approved in the EU for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 infection in adults. In the phase III POLARIS trials, in patients who had HCV genotype 1-6 infection with or without compensated cirrhosis, overall rates of sustained virological response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12 ) with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir were high after 8 weeks of treatment in direct-acting antiviral (DAA)-naïve patients and 12 weeks of treatment in DAA-experienced patients...
March 15, 2018: Drugs
Tatsuo Kanda, Shin Yasui, Masato Nakamura, Shingo Nakamoto, Koji Takahashi, Shuang Wu, Reina Sasaki, Yuki Haga, Sadahisa Ogasawara, Tomoko Saito, Kazufumi Kobayashi, Soichiro Kiyono, Yoshihiko Ooka, Eiichiro Suzuki, Tetsuhiro Chiba, Hitoshi Maruyama, Fumio Imazeki, Mitsuhiko Moriyama, Naoya Kato
Background: Interferon-free treatment can achieve higher sustained virological response (SVR) rates, even in patients in whom hepatitis C virus (HCV) could not be eradicated in the interferon treatment era. Immune restoration in the liver is occasionally associated with HCV infection. We examined the safety and effects of interferon-free regimens on HCV patients with autoimmune liver diseases. Results: All 7 HCV patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) completed treatment and achieved SVR...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Zhen Bao, Weijun Chen, Fan Pan, Bo Peng, Jin Gong
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of breviscapine injection on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. To explore the relevance and discuss the underlying mechanism of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) in hepatic I/R injury, 40 Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly and equally divided into five groups (n=8 per group) as follows: Sham, I/R + normal saline 1 (NS1), I/R + breviscapine 1 (Bre1), I/R + NS2 and I/R + Bre2 groups. Groups 1 and 2 represented ischemia for 20 and 60 min, respectively...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Andrea Galli, Helene Mens, Judith M Gottwein, Jan Gerstoft, Jens Bukh
Ribavirin (RBV) is a broad-spectrum antiviral active against a wide range of RNA viruses. Despite having been used for decades in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the precise mechanism of action of RBV is unknown. In other viruses, it inhibits propagation by increasing the rate of G-to-A and C-to-U transitions. Here, we utilized the J6/JFH1 HCV cell-culture system to investigate whether RBV inhibits HCV through the same mechanism. Infected Huh7.5 cells were treated with increasing concentrations of RBV or its phosphorylated forms...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexandre Karras
Cryoglobulins are immunoglobulins that undergo reversible precipitation at low temperatures. They can induce systemic vasculitis, characterized by purpuric cutaneous lesions, arthritis, peripheral neuropathy, hypocomplementemia and glomerular disease. Renal pathology reveals membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, with particularly intense mesangial cell proliferation and infiltration by macrophages, associated with intracapillary thrombi. This renal disease presents as a nephritic syndrome, with heavy proteinuria, haematuria severe hypertension and rapidly progressive kidney failure that can lead to end-stage renal disease...
March 12, 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Muhammad Shoaib Siddique, Alvia Saad, Sana Shoaib
OBJECTIVE: To determine the change in rapid virological response for chronic hepatitis C by qualitative PCR testing after treatment with sofosbuvir. STUDY DESIGN: A descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Memon Medical Institute Hospital, Karachi, from January to September 2016. METHODOLOGY: The study population consisted of patients above 18 years, till 80 years of age, of both genders, having chronic infection with HCV...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Soon Young Ko, Won Hyeok Choe
The advent of novel, direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens for hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection has revolutionized its treatment by producing a sustained virologic response of more than 95% with few side effects and no comorbidities in the general population. Until recently, ideal DAA regimens have not been available to patients with severe renal impairment and end-stage renal disease because there are limited data on the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of treatment in this unique population. In a hemodialysis context, identifying patients in need of treatment and preventing HCV transmission may also be a matter of concern...
March 16, 2018: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
Taylor McLinden, Erica E M Moodie, Anne-Marie Hamelin, Sam Harper, Carmine Rossi, Sharon L Walmsley, Sean B Rourke, Curtis Cooper, Marina B Klein, Joseph Cox
BACKGROUND: Severe food insecurity (FI) is common among individuals living with HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection. We hypothesize that the injection of opioids is partly responsible for the association between injection drug use and severe FI. Therefore, this analysis examines whether methadone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence is associated with a lower risk of severe FI. METHODS: We used biannual data from the Canadian Co-infection Cohort (N = 608, 2012-2015)...
February 20, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Myung Han Hyun, Young-Sun Lee, Ji Hoon Kim, Chan Uk Lee, Young Kul Jung, Yeon Seok Seo, Hyung Joon Yim, Jong Eun Yeon, Kwan Soo Byun
According to the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease treatment guidelines for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the role of surgery has been expanded beyond the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) algorithm. We compared primary hepatectomy (PH) with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with intermediate to advanced (BCLC stage-B/C) stage HCC to determine the current evidence. Through database search, we included 18 high-quality studies (1 randomized controlled trial [RCT], 5 propensity-score matching non-randomized comparative trials [NRCT], and 12 NRCTs) that compared survival outcomes of 5,986 patients after PH and TACE...
March 15, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Franck Maunoury, Aurore Clément, Chizoba Nwankwo, Laurie Levy-Bachelot, Armand Abergel, Vincent Di Martino, Eric Thervet, Isabelle Durand-Zaleski
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of the elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBR/GZR) regimen in patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with severe and end-stage renal disease compared to no treatment. DESIGN: This study uses a health economic model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of treating previously untreated and treatment experienced chronic hepatitis C patients who have severe and end stage renal disease with the elbasvir-grazoprevir regimen versus no treatment in the French context...
2018: PloS One
Baek Gyu Jun, Woong Cheul Lee, Jae Young Jang, Soung Won Jeong, Young Don Kim, Gab Jin Cheon, Yun Nah Lee, Sang Gyune Kim, Young Seok Kim, Young Sin Cho, Sae Hwan Lee, Hong Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is one of the severe complications of liver cirrhosis. Early detection of high-risk patients is essential for prognostic improvement. The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive factors related to in-hospital mortality in patients with SBP. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 233 SBP patients (181 males, 52 females) who were admitted to four tertiary referral hospitals between August 2002 and February 2013...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
C G Hart, B E Voelz, K E Brockus, C O Lemley
Production from the corpus luteum (CL) and/or hepatic steroid inactivation impacts peripheral concentrations of P4, which can alter reproductive performance. Our primary objective was to examine hepatic steroid inactivating enzymes, portal blood flow, and luteal blood perfusion at 10 days post-insemination in pregnant versus non-pregnant beef and dairy cows. Twenty early lactation Holstein cows and 20 lactating commercial beef cows were utilized for this study. At day 10 post-insemination, hepatic portal blood flow and CL blood perfusion were measured via Doppler ultrasonography...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Qian Chen, Mengyang Liu, Haiyang Yu, Jian Li, Sijian Wang, Yi Zhang, Feng Qiu, Tao Wang
Scutellaria baicalensis has been reported to improve the lipid metabolism of high-fat diet-induced liver dysfunction, but direct evidence is rare. This study aimed to explore the effects and mechanisms of S. baicalensis and its major constituent baicalin on hepatic lipotoxicity. KK-Ay mice and orotic acid (OA)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rats were used to evaluate lipid metabolism regulatory effects. Sodium oleate-induced triglyceride-accumulated HepG2 cells were used for the mechanism study, pretreated with or without compound C or STO-609 or transfected with liver kinase B1 (LKB1) siRNA...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
Wen-Han Yu, Cormac Cosgrove, Christoph T Berger, Patrick C Cheney, Marina Krykbaeva, Arthur Y Kim, Lia Lewis-Ximenez, Georg M Lauer, Galit Alter
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects up to 400 million people worldwide and accounts for approximately one million deaths per year from liver pathologies. Current treatment regimens are effective in suppressing viremia but usually have to be taken indefinitely, warranting research into new therapeutic approaches. Acute HBV infection in adults almost universally results in resolution of viremia, with the exception of immunocompromised persons, suggesting that the immune response can functionally cure or even eradicate HBV infection...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
Amy Chia-Ching Kao, Sonia Spitzer, Daniel C Anthony, Belinda Lennox, Philip W J Burnet
Olanzapine is an effective antipsychotic drug but since it causes significant weight gain, it is not well tolerated by psychosis patients. The prebiotic, B-GOS® , attenuates metabolic dysfunction in obese subjects, and in rodents, alters central NMDA receptors and may affect serotonin receptors that are relevant in psychosis. We have determined whether B-GOS® influenced olanzapine-associated weight gain and central NMDA and serotonin receptors. Circulating acetate, IL-1β, IL-8 and TNFα, liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), white adipose tissue (WAT) acetate receptor GPR43, and specific faecal bacteria genera were also measured to provide mechanistic information...
March 15, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Mary Courtney Moore, David E Kelley, Raul C Camacho, Peter Zafian, Tian Ye, Songnian Lin, Niels C Kaarsholm, Ravi Nargund, Terri M Kelly, Margaret Van Heek, Stephen F Previs, Christopher Moyes, Marta S Smith, Ben Farmer, Phil Williams, Alan D Cherrington
We evaluated the hepatic and nonhepatic responses to glucose-responsive insulin (GRI). Eight dogs received GRI or regular human insulin (HI) in random order. A primed, continuous intravenous infusion of [3-3 H]glucose began at -120 min. Basal sampling (-30 to 0 min) was followed by 2 study periods (150 min each), P1 and P2. At 0 min, somatostatin and GRI (36±3 pmol/kg/min) or HI (1.8 pmol/kg/min) were infused IV; basal glucagon was replaced intraportally. Glucose was infused intravenously to clamp plasma glucose at 80 mg/dL (P1) and 240 mg/dL (P2)...
March 14, 2018: Diabetes
Rachana Patel, Janis Fleming, Ernest Mui, Carolyn Loveridge, Peter Repiscak, Arnaud Blomme, Victoria Harle, Mark Salji, Imran Ahmad, Katy Teo, Freddie C Hamdy, Ann Hedley, Niels van den Broek, Gillian Mackay, Joanne Edwards, Owen J Sansom, Hing Y Leung
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is a lethal form of treatment-resistant prostate cancer and poses significant therapeutic challenges. Deregulated receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling mediated by loss of tumour suppressor Sprouty2 (SPRY2) is associated with treatment resistance. Using pre-clinical human and murine mCRPC models, we show that SPRY2 deficiency leads to an androgen self-sufficient form of CRPC Mechanistically, HER2-IL6 signalling axis enhances the expression of androgen biosynthetic enzyme HSD3B1 and increases SRB1-mediated cholesterol uptake in SPRY2-deficient tumours...
March 14, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Sofia R Bartlett, Penny Fox, Harris Cabatingan, Anissa Jaros, Carla Gorton, Rhondda Lewis, Eugene Priscott, Gregory J Dore, Darren B Russell
Micro-elimination of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection through rapid uptake of government-funded direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy within an Australian prison setting is demonstrated. During a 22 month period, 119 patients initiated treatment for chronic HCV infection, with HCV in-prison viremic prevalence declining from 12% to 1%.
March 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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