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Stroke, epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719803/elevated-sterol-regulatory-elementary-binding-protein-1-and-glua2-levels-in-the-hippocampal-nuclear-fraction-of-genetic-absence-epilepsy-rats-from-strasbourg
#1
Sathiya Sekar, Entesar Omran, Venkat Gopalakrishnan, John G Howland, Terrance P Snutch, Changiz Taghibiglou
Studies in animal models and human tissues show that nuclear translocation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and glutamate A2 subunit (GluA2) of cell-surface AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trigger neuronal excitotoxicity-induced apoptosis in stroke. However, it is not known whether a similar type of underlying pathophysiology occurs in absence epilepsy. To explore this issue, we examined the levels of mature SREBP1, GluA2, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), p53, and activated to total caspase 3 ratio in nuclear fractions (NF) of hippocampal homogenate from 8 to 10 week old male Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) and non-epileptic control (NEC) strains...
July 12, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716274/head-ct-findings-at-a-public-hospital-in-rural-haiti
#2
Yannis K Valtis, Maggie F Cochran, Louine Martineau, Bregenet Lamour, Jeffrey B Mendel, Aaron L Berkowitz
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging is often unavailable in low-income countries, creating challenges for precise diagnosis of neurologic disease in individual patients, and impeding acquisition of precise neuroepidemiologic data for program and policy development. METHODS: We analyzed reports from 3614 head CTs performed between July 2013 and January 2016 at Hôpital Universitaire de Mirebalais, a public academic hospital in rural Haiti, extracting patients' age, study indication, and radiologic findings...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699523/altered-homeostatic-functions-in-reactive-astrocytes-and-their-potential-as-a-therapeutic-target-after-brain-ischemic-injury
#3
Helena Pivonkova, Miroslava Anderova
Brain ischemic injury represents one of the greatest medical challenges for the aging population in developed countries, yet despite strong efforts, possibilities to treat ischemic injury still remain poor. Stroke, the most common type of brain ischemic injury in humans, is caused by brain artery occlusion, and represents a focal form of ischemia, which leads to neuronal loss in the ischemic core, and glial scar formation in the penumbral region around the core. Such glial scar mainly comprises reactive astrocytes, reactive NG2 glia and activated microglia...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681724/the-association-between-bullous-pemphigoid-and-neurological-disorders-a-systematic-review
#4
Nima Milani-Nejad, Myron Zhang, Jessica Kaffenberger
Studies suggest an association between neurological disorders and bullous pemphigoid. The goal of this systematic review was to characterize the occurrence of neurological disorders in patients with bullous pemphigoid. We performed a systematic review of the current English literature from 1984 to June 1(st), 2015 for documented cases of coexistent BP and neurological disorders. The literature search resulted in 53 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Patients with bullous pemphigoid had an increased risk of stroke (OR: 4...
July 5, 2017: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675560/neuroinflammation-imaging-markers-for-epileptogenesis
#5
Matthias J Koepp, Eric Årstad, Jens P Bankstahl, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere, Alon Friedman, Heidrun Potschka, Teresa Ravizza, William H Theodore, Tallie Z Baram
Epilepsy can be a devastating disorder. In addition to debilitating seizures, epilepsy can cause cognitive and emotional problems with reduced quality of life. Therefore, the major aim is to prevent the disorder in the first place: identify, detect, and reverse the processes responsible for its onset, and monitor and treat its progression. Epilepsy often occurs following a latent period of months to years (epileptogenesis) as a consequence of a brain insult, such as head trauma, stroke, or status epilepticus...
July 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663005/music-based-interventions-in-neurological-rehabilitation
#6
REVIEW
Aleksi J Sihvonen, Teppo Särkämö, Vera Leo, Mari Tervaniemi, Eckart Altenmüller, Seppo Soinila
During the past ten years, an increasing number of controlled studies have assessed the potential rehabilitative effects of music-based interventions, such as music listening, singing, or playing an instrument, in several neurological diseases. Although the number of studies and extent of available evidence is greatest in stroke and dementia, there is also evidence for the effects of music-based interventions on supporting cognition, motor function, or emotional wellbeing in people with Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, or multiple sclerosis...
August 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659788/oscillatory-activities-in-neurological-disorders-of-elderly-biomarkers-to-target-for-neuromodulation
#7
REVIEW
Assenza Giovanni, Fioravante Capone, Lazzaro di Biase, Florinda Ferreri, Lucia Florio, Andrea Guerra, Massimo Marano, Matteo Paolucci, Federico Ranieri, Gaetano Salomone, Mario Tombini, Gregor Thut, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been under investigation as adjunct treatment of various neurological disorders with variable success. One challenge is the limited knowledge on what would be effective neuronal targets for an intervention, combined with limited knowledge on the neuronal mechanisms of NIBS. Motivated on the one hand by recent evidence that oscillatory activities in neural systems play a role in orchestrating brain functions and dysfunctions, in particular those of neurological disorders specific of elderly patients, and on the other hand that NIBS techniques may be used to interact with these brain oscillations in a controlled way, we here explore the potential of modulating brain oscillations as an effective strategy for clinical NIBS interventions...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647723/a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-high-impact-users-among-patients-with-cerebrovascular-conditions
#8
Ahsan Rao, Alice Jones, Alex Bottle, Ara Darzi, Paul Aylin
OBJECTIVE: To apply group-based trajectory modelling (GBTM) to the hospital administrative data to evaluate, model and visualise trends and changes in the frequency of long-term hospital care use of the subgroups of patients with cerebrovascular conditions. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of patients with cerebrovascular conditions. SETTINGS: Secondary care of all patients with cerebrovascular conditions admitted to English National Hospital Service hospitals...
June 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647441/prevention-of-epilepsy-should-we-be-avoiding-clinical-trials
#9
REVIEW
Pavel Klein, Ivana Tyrlikova
Epilepsy prevention is one of the great unmet needs in epilepsy. Approximately 15% of all epilepsy is caused by an acute acquired CNS insult such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke or encephalitis. There is a latent period between the insult and epilepsy onset that presents an opportunity to intervene with preventive treatment that is unique in neurology. Yet no phase 3 epilepsy prevention studies, and only 2 phase 2 studies have been initiated in the last 16years. Current prevailing opinion is that the research community is not ready for clinical preventive epilepsy studies, and that animal models should first be refined and biomarkers of epileptogenesis and of epilepsy discovered before clinical studies are embarked upon...
June 21, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638240/perioperative-management-of-neurological-conditions
#10
REVIEW
Manjeet Singh Dhallu, Ahmed Baiomi, Madhavi Biyyam, Sridhar Chilimuri
Perioperative care of the patients with neurological diseases can be challenging. Most important consideration is the management and understanding of pathophysiology of these disorders and evaluation of new neurological changes that occur perioperatively. Perioperative generally refers to 3 phases of surgery: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative. We have tried to address few commonly encountered neurological conditions in clinical practice, such as delirium, stroke, epilepsy, myasthenia gravis, and Parkinson disease...
2017: Health Services Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635873/-a-role-of-p-glycoprotein-in-neurology
#11
I V Chernykh, A V Shchulkin, E N Yakusheva, N M Popova
On the basis of the analysis of literature data, the authors show a role of P-glycoprotein in the pathogenesis, pharmacotherapy and a prophylaxis of neurologic diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, stroke).
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632329/postictal-hypoperfusion-hypoxia-provides-the-foundation-for-a-unified-theory-of-seizure-induced-brain-abnormalities-and-behavioral-dysfunction
#12
REVIEW
Jordan S Farrell, Roberto Colangeli, Marshal D Wolff, Alexandra K Wall, Thomas J Phillips, Antis George, Paolo Federico, G Campbell Teskey
A recent article by Farrell et al. characterizes the phenomenon, mechanisms, and treatment of a local and severe hypoperfusion/hypoxia event that occurs in brain regions following a focal seizure. Given the well-established role of cerebral ischemia/hypoxia in brain damage and behavioral dysfunction in other clinical settings (e.g., stroke, cerebral vasospasm), we put forward a new theory: postictal hypoperfusion/hypoxia is responsible for the negative consequences associated with seizures. Fortunately, inhibition of two separate molecular targets, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and l-type calcium channels, can prevent the expression of postictal hypoperfusion/hypoxia...
June 20, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631057/diabetes-mellitus-a-risk-factor-for-seizures-in-the-elderly-a-population-based-study
#13
Marta Baviera, Maria Carla Roncaglioni, Mauro Tettamanti, Tommaso Vannini, Ida Fortino, Angela Bortolotti, Luca Merlino, Ettore Beghi
AIMS: To evaluate the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and risk of seizures in a well-defined elderly population. METHODS: The administrative databases of the Lombardy region (a 10 million population area in Northern Italy) were used to identify persons aged 65 years or older with DM (defined by prescription of antidiabetic drugs and/or through ICD-9 CM code and/or exemption code for diabetes) during the year 2002. Seizure-free DM subjects were followed until 2012 in search of individuals with incident seizures (identified through ICD-9 CM codes for epilepsy/seizures or ATC codes for antiepileptic drugs associated with the prescription of an electroencephalogram)...
June 19, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622547/co-morbidity-and-clinically-significant-interactions-between-antiepileptic-drugs-and-other-drugs-in-elderly-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-epilepsy
#14
Emmi Bruun, Lauri J Virta, Reetta Kälviäinen, Tapani Keränen
PURPOSE: A study was conducted to investigate the frequency of potential pharmacokinetic drug-to-drug interactions in elderly patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We also investigated co-morbid conditions associated with epilepsy. METHOD: From the register of Kuopio University Hospital (KUH) we identified community-dwelling patients aged 65 or above with newly diagnosed epilepsy and in whom use of the first individual antiepileptic drug (AED) began in 2000-2013 (n=529)...
June 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619364/outcome-of-arterial-ischemic-stroke-in-children-with-heart-disease
#15
María Vázquez López, Pedro de Castro de Castro, Estibaliz Barredo Valderrama, Ma Concepción Miranda Herrero, Nuria Gil Villanueva, Andrés J Alcaraz Romero, Samuel I Pascual Pascual
Arterial ischemic strokes (AIS) are rare in childhood. Congenital and acquired heart diseases are one of the most important risk factors of AIS in children. OBJECTIVE: Study the outcome of children with heart disease that have suffered AIS and the factors that influence on prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated all children with heart disease who had suffered AIS between 2000 and 2014 in our hospital. RESULTS: Seventy-four children with heart disease suffered an arterial ischemic stroke...
June 1, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618390/thirty-day-non-seizure-outcomes-following-temporal-lobectomy-for-adult-epilepsy
#16
Brandon A Sherrod, Matthew C Davis, Kristen O Riley
OBJECTIVE: Multi-institutional rates of acute adverse outcomes other than seizures after temporal lobectomy (TL) are not well understood. Here we analyzed short-term morbidity and mortality following TL using a validated national database. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The multi-institutional American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was queried by Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code for TL procedures performed for adult patients with diagnoses related to epilepsy from 2008 to 2014...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616696/-epileptic-seizures-and-epilepsy-after-a-stroke-incidence-prevention-and-treatment
#17
F Benninger, M Holtkamp
Following stroke, 3-6% of patients develop acute symptomatic seizures within the first 7 days. The rate is higher after cerebral haemorrhage compared to ischaemia. In 10-12% of patients, after more than 7 days unprovoked seizures occur. Due to these low incidence rates, primary prophylaxis with antiepileptic drugs is generally not necessary. Following one acute symptomatic seizure, recurrence risk within the first 7 days post-stroke is 10-20%, generally arguing against secondary prophylaxis with an antiepileptic drug...
June 14, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615436/hospital-safety-among-neurologic-patients-a-population-based-cohort-study-of-adverse-events
#18
Khara M Sauro, Hude Quan, Khokan C Sikdar, Peter Faris, Nathalie Jette
OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency and type of adverse events (AEs) experienced by neurologic patients in hospital. METHODS: This population-based, retrospective cohort study used hospital discharge abstract data for children and adults admitted to hospital from 2009 to 2015 with 1 of 9 neurologic conditions (Alzheimer disease and related dementia, brain tumor, epilepsy, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, parkinsonism/Parkinson disease, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and stroke)...
July 18, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614793/a-single-dose-of-cannabidiol-reduces-blood-pressure-in-healthy-volunteers-in-a-randomized-crossover-study
#19
Khalid A Jadoon, Garry D Tan, Saoirse E O'Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid used in multiple sclerosis and intractable epilepsies. Preclinical studies show CBD has numerous cardiovascular benefits, including a reduced blood pressure (BP) response to stress. The aim of this study was to investigate if CBD reduces BP in humans. METHODS: Nine healthy male volunteers were given 600 mg of CBD or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Cardiovascular parameters were monitored using a finometer and laser Doppler...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612259/apoptosis-following-cortical-spreading-depression-in-juvenile-rats
#20
Ali Jahanbazi Jahan-Abad, Leila Alizadeh, Sajad Sahab Negah, Parastoo Barati, Maryam Khaleghi Ghadiri, Sven G Meuth, Stjepana Kovac, Ali Gorji
Repetitive cortical spreading depression (CSD) can lead to cell death in immature brain tissue. Caspases are involved in neuronal cell death in several CSD-related neurological disorders, such as stroke and epilepsy. Yet, whether repetitive CSD itself can induce caspase activation in adult or juvenile tissue remains unknown. Inducing repetitive CSD in somatosensory cortices of juvenile and adult rats in vivo, we thus aimed to investigate the effect of repetitive CSD on the expression caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-12 in different brain regions using immunohistochemistry and western blotting techniques...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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