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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161268/nucleic-acid-purification-from-plants-animals-and-microbes-in-under-30-seconds
#1
Yiping Zou, Michael Glenn Mason, Yuling Wang, Eugene Wee, Conny Turni, Patrick J Blackall, Matt Trau, Jose Ramon Botella
Nucleic acid amplification is a powerful molecular biology tool, although its use outside the modern laboratory environment is limited due to the relatively cumbersome methods required to extract nucleic acids from biological samples. To address this issue, we investigated a variety of materials for their suitability for nucleic acid capture and purification. We report here that untreated cellulose-based paper can rapidly capture nucleic acids within seconds and retain them during a single washing step, while contaminants present in complex biological samples are quickly removed...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154650/classifying-trajectories-of-social-emotional-difficulties-through-elementary-school-impacts-of-the-chicago-school-readiness-project
#2
Dana Charles McCoy, Stephanie Jones, Amanda Roy, C Cybele Raver
Although research has shown fade-out of the cognitive benefits of classroom-based preschool interventions, less is known regarding the durability of social-emotional impacts. This study examines the extent to which the multicomponent Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP) intervention lowered risk of internalizing, externalizing, attention, and social difficulties from Head Start through elementary school for 602 low-income children. Results suggest that most children in this sample showed few social-emotional difficulties over time...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154645/center-based-early-care-and-education-and-children-s-school-readiness-do-impacts-vary-by-neighborhood-poverty
#3
Taryn W Morrissey, Katie Vinopal
Neighborhoods provide resources that may affect children's achievement or moderate the influences of other developmental contexts, such as early care and education (ECE). Using a sample (N ≈ 12,430) from the 2010-2011 Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, merged with census tract-level poverty data from the 2008-2012 American Community Survey, this article examines associations between center-based ECE participation, neighborhood poverty, and children's academic skills and behavior at kindergarten entry...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144979/who-crosses-the-norms-predictors-of-the-readiness-for-non-normative-political-participation-among-adolescents
#4
Jan Šerek, Hana Machackova, Petr Macek
This study investigated whether adolescents' readiness for non-normative political participation (i.e., readiness to confront social rules for political reasons) was predicted by their interpersonal problems (with parents, teachers, and classmates), low optimism, and political beliefs (political self-efficacy and distrust in public institutions). A structural equation model using two-wave longitudinal data from Czech high school students (N = 768; 54% females; age range at T1 = 14-17, M = 15.97; T2 data collected 1...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127019/a-survey-on-recent-medical-school-graduate-comfort-with-the-level-1-milestones
#5
Michael E Petravick, J Lawrence Marsh, Matthew D Karam, Douglas R Dirschl
OBJECTIVE: The Next Accreditation System implemented 5 levels of milestones for orthopedic surgery residents in 2013. The Level 1 milestones were noted as those "expected of an incoming resident." While the milestones were intended for assessing resident progression and readiness for independent practice, this designation can also be used to assess how well prepared graduating medical students are for beginning an orthopedic surgery residency. The primary objective of this paper is to measure recent medical school graduate comfort with the Level 1 milestones...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121991/medical-students-as-health-coaches-implementation-of-a-student-initiated-lifestyle-medicine-curriculum
#6
Rani Polak, Adi Finkelstein, Tom Axelrod, Marie Dacey, Matan Cohen, Dennis Muscato, Avi Shariv, Naama W Constantini, Mayer Brezis
BACKGROUND: By 2020, the World Health Organization predicts that two-thirds of all diseases worldwide will be the result of lifestyle choices. Physicians often do not counsel patients about healthy behaviors, and lack of training has been identified as one of the barriers. Between 2010 and 2014, Hebrew University developed and implemented a 58-h Lifestyle Medicine curriculum spanning five of the 6 years of medical school. Content includes nutrition, exercise, smoking cessation, and behavior change, as well as health coaching practice with friends/relatives (preclinical years) and patients (clinical years)...
November 10, 2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116979/translating-theory-into-practice-implementing-a-program-of-assessment
#7
Karen E Hauer, Patricia S O'Sullivan, Kristen Fitzhenry, Christy Boscardin
PROBLEM: A program of assessment addresses challenges in learner assessment using a centrally planned, coordinated approach that emphasizes assessment for learning. This report describes the steps taken to implement a program of assessment framework within a medical school. APPROACH: A literature review on best practices in assessment highlighted six principles that guided implementation of the program of assessment in 2016-2017: (1) a centrally coordinated plan for assessment aligns with and supports a curricular vision; (2) multiple assessment tools used longitudinally generate multiple data points; (3) learners require ready access to information-rich feedback to promote reflection and informed self-assessment; (4) mentoring is essential to facilitate effective data use for reflection and learning planning; (5) the program of assessment fosters self-regulated learning behaviors; and (6) expert groups make summative decisions about grades and readiness for advancement...
November 7, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116424/summer-treatment-program-for-preschoolers-with-externalizing-behavior-problems-a-preliminary-examination-of-parenting-outcomes
#8
Paulo A Graziano, Rosmary Ros, Katie C Hart, Janine Slavec
Within an at-risk sample of preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP), the current study examined the initial promise of a multimodal intervention, the Summer Treatment Program for Pre-Kindergarteners (STP-PreK), in improving parenting outcomes. Using an open trial design, 154 parents and their preschool children (73% male; M age = 5.06 years; 82% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP (57% of which were referred by schools or mental health/medical professionals) completed a baseline and post-treatment assessment...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072589/the-combined-influence-of-air-pollution-and-home-learning-environment-on-early-cognitive-skills-in-children
#9
Lanair A Lett, Jeanette A Stingone, Luz Claudio
Cognitive skills are one component of school readiness that reflect a child's neurodevelopment and are influenced by environmental and social factors. Most studies assess the impact of these factors individually, without taking into consideration the complex interactions of multiple factors. The objective of this study was to examine the joint association of markers of environmental pollution and of social factors on early cognitive skills in an urban cohort of children. For this, we chose isophorone in ambient air as a marker of industrial air pollution...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070925/use-of-ready-made-spectacles-in-school-eye-health-programmes
#10
Priya Morjaria
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Community Eye Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065030/using-the-readiness-for-clerkship-and-residency-surveys-to-evaluate-the-effectiveness-of-four-md-programs-a-cross-institutional-generalizability-study
#11
Linda N Peterson, Shayna A Rusticus, Kevin W Eva, Derek A Wilson, Richard J Pittini, Martin Schreiber, Sheila E Pinchin, Susan L Moffatt, Joan M Sargeant, Andrew E Warren, Peggy Alexiadis-Brown
PURPOSE: The importance of confidence for learning and performance makes learners' perceptions of readiness for the next level of training valuable indicators of curricular success. The "Readiness for Clerkship" (RfC) and "Readiness for Residency" (RfR) surveys have been shown to provide reliable ratings of the relative effectiveness of various aspects of training. This study examines the generalizability of those results. METHOD: Surveys were administered at four medical schools approximately four months after the start of clerkship and eight months after the start of residency during 2013-2015...
November 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058928/a-brief-parent-focused-intervention-to-improve-preschoolers-conversational-skills-and-school-readiness
#12
Kathryn Leech, Ran Wei, Jeffrey R Harring, Meredith L Rowe
Preschool children's use of decontextualized language, or talk about abstract topics beyond the here-and-now, is predictive of their kindergarten readiness and is associated with the frequency of parents' own use of decontextualized language. Does a brief, parent-focused intervention conveying the importance of decontextualized language cause parents to increase their use of these conversations, and as a result, their children's? We examined this question by randomly assigning 36 parents of 4-year-old children into a decontextualized language training condition or a no-treatment control condition and used mixed effects modeling to measure change (from baseline) in parent and child decontextualized language at 4 subsequent home mealtimes during the following month (N = 174 interactions including the baseline)...
October 23, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051774/effectiveness-of-the-boost-a%C3%A2-online-transition-planning-program-for-adolescents-on-the-autism-spectrum-a-quasi-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Megan Hatfield, Marita Falkmer, Torbjorn Falkmer, Marina Ciccarelli
BACKGROUND: The majority of existing transition planning programs are focused on people with a disability in general and may not meet the specific need of adolescents on the autism spectrum. In addition, these interventions focus on specific skills (e.g. job readiness or self-determination) rather than the overall transition planning process and there are methodological limitations to many of the studies determining their effectiveness. The Better OutcOmes & Successful Transitions for Autism (BOOST-A™) is an online program that supports adolescents on the autism spectrum to prepare for leaving school...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043919/beyond-survival-5-year-neurodevelopmental-follow-up-of-a-cohort-of-preterm-infants-in-colombo-sri-lanka
#14
S P Sumanasena, D V Vipulaguna, M M Mendis, N S Gunawardena
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of information on long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm neonates in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To describe the developmental attainments of preterm neonates followed up for 5 years and to identify the risk factors for impairment. METHOD: A prospective descriptive cohort study was undertaken in neonates of 34 weeks gestation born within a period of 12 months at a single tertiary maternity and neonatal unit in Colombo, Sri Lanka...
October 18, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043156/transition-to-school-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review
#15
Annabel Marsh, Vanessa Spagnol, Rachel Grove, Valsamma Eapen
AIM: To identify factors that promote a positive start to school for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Web of Science, MEDLINE, Scopus, and PsychINFO searches were conducted to identify literature published after 1991 and relevant to school transition processes in children with ASD. Twenty studies were deemed eligible for inclusion. These studies evaluated a range of factors including school readiness, parent and teacher perspectives on transition practices, characteristics of children with ASD that are associated with successful transition to school and the impact of school based intervention programs...
September 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037119/a-qualitative-study-of-new-graduates-readiness-to-use-nursing-informatics-in-acute-care-settings-clinical-nurse-educators-perspectives
#16
Eun Hee Shin, Elizabeth Cummings, Karen Ford
BACKGROUND: There is an increase in demand for newly graduated nurses who are ready to use nursing informatics efficiently in technology-rich healthcare environments. However, the progress of embedding nursing informatics into curricula has been slow worldwide and literature reports graduates are not ready to use nursing informatics tools effectively in the workplace, posing potential threats to patient safety. In the absence of National Standards for nursing informatics competencies, graduates' nursing informatics needs on entering the workplace need to be explored...
October 17, 2017: Contemporary Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991845/a-purpose-driven-fourth-year-of-medical-school
#17
Mantosh Dewan, John Norcini
The fourth year of medical school has been repeatedly found to be ineffective, and concerns exist about its purpose and academic quality, as well as grade inflation. Since Flexner, the purpose of undergraduate medical training has moved from readiness for independent practice to readiness for postgraduate training. However, training directors report that medical graduates are inadequately prepared to enter residency. The authors propose a fourth year with two components: first, a yearlong, longitudinal ambulatory experience of at least three days each week on an interprofessional team with consistent faculty supervision and mentoring, increasing independence, and a focus on education; and second, rigorous clinical-scales-based assessment of meaningful outcomes...
October 3, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983854/a-pilot-study-examining-factors-influencing-readiness-to-progress-to-indirect-supervision-among-first-year-residents-in-a-general-psychiatry-training-program
#18
Bryan Touchet, Ashley Walker, Sarah Flanders, Heather McIntosh
OBJECTIVE: In the first year of training, psychiatry residents progress from direct supervision to indirect supervision but factors predicting time to transition between these levels of supervision are unknown. This study aimed to examine times for transition to indirect levels of supervision and to identify resident factors associated with slower progression. METHODS: The authors compiled data from training files from years 2011-2015, including licensing exam scores, age, gender, medical school, month of first inpatient psychiatry rotation, and transition times between levels of supervision...
October 5, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978417/detection-and-treatment-of-fiebig-stage-i-hiv-1-infection-in-young-at-risk-women-in-south-africa-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Krista L Dong, Amber Moodley, Douglas S Kwon, Musie S Ghebremichael, Mary Dong, Nasreen Ismail, Zaza M Ndhlovu, Jenniffer M Mabuka, Daniel M Muema, Karyn Pretorius, Nina Lin, Bruce D Walker, Thumbi Ndung'u
BACKGROUND: HIV incidence among young women in sub-Saharan Africa remains high and their inclusion in vaccine and cure efforts is crucial. We aimed to establish a cohort of young women detected during Fiebig stage I acute HIV infection in whom treatment was initiated immediately after diagnosis to advance research in this high-risk group. METHODS: 945 women aged 18-23 years in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, who were HIV uninfected and sexually active consented to HIV-1 RNA testing twice a week and biological sampling and risk assessment every 3 months during participation in a 48-96 week life-skills and job-readiness programme...
September 29, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973967/-it-s-a-battle%C3%A2-you-want-to-do-it-but-how-will-you-get-it-done-teachers-and-principals-perceptions-of-implementing-additional-physical-activity-in-school-for-academic-performance
#20
Vera van den Berg, Rosanne Salimi, Renate H M de Groot, Jelle Jolles, Mai J M Chinapaw, Amika S Singh
School is an ideal setting to promote and increase physical activity (PA) in children. However, implementation of school-based PA programmes seems difficult, in particular due to schools' focus on academic performance and a lack of involvement of school staff in program development. The potential cognitive and academic benefits of PA might increase chances of successful implementation. Therefore, the aim of this qualitative study was: (1) to explore the perceptions of teachers and principals with regard to implementation of additional PA aimed at improving cognitive and academic performance, and (2) to identify characteristics of PA programmes that according to them are feasible in daily school practice...
September 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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