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Reading aloud

Xenia Schmalz, Alexander Porshnev, Eva Marinus
Word reading partly depends on the activation of sublexical letter clusters. Previous research has studied which types of letters clusters have psychological saliency, but less is known about cognitive mechanisms of letter string parsing. Here, we take advantage of the high degree of context-dependency of the Russian orthography to examine whether CV clusters are treated as units in two stages of sublexical processing. In two experiments using a nonword reading task, we use two orthogonal manipulations: (1) insertion of a visual disruptor (#) to assess whether CV clusters are kept intact during the early visual parsing stage, and (2) presence of context-dependent GPCs (e...
October 14, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Henriette Folkmann Pedersen, Riccardo Fusaroli, Lene Louise Lauridsen, Rauno Parrila
The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of oral reading and how it relates to reading comprehension in students with dyslexia. A group of Danish university students with dyslexia (n = 16) and a comparison group of students with no history of reading problems (n = 16) were assessed on their oral reading performance when reading a complex text. Along with reading speed, we measured not only the number and quality of reading errors but also the extent and semantic nature of the self-corrections during reading...
October 11, 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Jean-Sebastien Provost, Simona M Brambati, Marianne Chapleau, Maximiliano A Wilson
Cognitive and computational models of reading aloud agree on the existence of two procedures for reading. Pseudowords (e.g., atendier) are correctly read through subword processes only while exception words (e.g., pint) are only correctly read via whole-words processes. Regular words can be correctly read by means of either way. Previous behavioral studies showed that older adults relied more on whole-word processing for reading. The aim of the present fMRI study was to verify whether this larger whole-word reliance for reading in older adults was reflected by changes in the pattern of brain activation...
September 17, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
P S Lúcio, G A Salum, L A Rohde, W Swardfager, A Gadelha, J Vandekerckhove, P M Pan, G V Polanczyk, M C do Rosário, A P Jackowski, J J Mari, H Cogo-Moreira
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with poorer reading ability; however, the specific neuropsychological domains linking this co-occurrence remain unclear. This study evaluates information-processing characteristics as possible neuropsychological links between ADHD symptoms and RA in a community-based sample of children and early adolescents with normal IQ (⩾70). METHOD: The participants (n = 1857, aged 6-15 years, 47% female) were evaluated for reading ability (reading single words aloud) and information processing [stimulus discriminability in the two-choice reaction-time task estimated using diffusion models]...
October 4, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Menahem Yeari, Adi Avramovich, Rachel Schiff
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have demonstrated that students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) struggle particularly with grasping the implicit, inferential level of narratives that is crucial for story comprehension. However, these studies used offline tasks (i.e., after story presentation), used indirect measurements (e.g., identifying main ideas), and/or yielded inconclusive results using think-aloud techniques. Moreover, most studies were conducted with preschool or elementary school children with ADHD, using listening or televised story comprehension...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Tamar H Gollan, Matthew Goldrick
The current study investigated the roles of grammaticality and executive control on bilingual language selection by examining production speed and failures of language control, or intrusion errors (e.g., saying el instead of the), in young and aging bilinguals. Production of mixed-language connected speech was elicited by asking Spanish-English bilinguals to read aloud paragraphs that had mostly grammatical (conforming to naturally occurring constraints) or mostly ungrammatical (haphazard mixing) language switches, and low or high switching rate...
October 2016: Journal of Memory and Language
Rosa Kit Wan Kwok, Fernando Cuetos, Rrezarta Avdyli, Andrew W Ellis
Do skilled readers of opaque and transparent orthographies make differential use of lexical and sublexical processes when converting words from print to sound? Two experiments are reported, which address that question, using effects of letter length on naming latencies as an index of the involvement of sublexical letter-sound conversion. Adult native speakers of English (Experiment 1) and Spanish (Experiment 2) read aloud four- and seven-letter high-frequency words, low-frequency words, and nonwords in their native language...
September 9, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Yuka Saito-Tanji, Emi Tsujimoto, Reiko Taketani, Ami Yamamoto, Hisae Ono
Several studies have proven the effectiveness of psychoeducation in bipolar II disorder patients; however, simpler psychoeducation is needed in daily medical practice. Therefore, we devised a simple individual psychoeducation program, which involved 20-minute sessions spent reading a textbook aloud in the waiting time before examination. Here, we report a successful case of simple individual psychoeducation with a patient with bipolar II disorder, a 64-year-old woman who had misconceptions surrounding her mood due to 24 years of treatment for depression...
2016: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Mara Breen, Lianne Kaswer, Julie A Van Dyke, Jelena Krivokapić, Nicole Landi
Researchers have established a relationship between beginning readers' silent comprehension ability and their prosodic fluency, such that readers who read aloud with appropriate prosody tend to have higher scores on silent reading comprehension assessments. The current study was designed to investigate this relationship in two groups of high school readers: Specifically Poor Comprehenders (SPCs), who have adequate word level and phonological skills but poor reading comprehension ability, and a group of age- and decoding skill-matched controls...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Kay Kulason, Rui Nouchi, Yasushi Hoshikawa, Masafumi Noda, Yoshinori Okada, Ryuta Kawashima
BACKGROUND: This project proposes a pilot study to investigate the positive healing effects of cognitive training with simple arithmetic and reading aloud on elderly postsurgical patients. Elderly patients undergoing surgery have an increased risk of Postoperative Cognitive Decline (POCD), a condition in which learning, memory, and processing speed is greatly reduced after surgery. Since elderly patients are more likely to exhibit symptoms of POCD, the incidence is increasing as the population receiving surgery has aged...
2016: Trials
Alice F Healy, Tessa K Zangara
This study examined a novel task in which participants read aloud passages shown 2 words per line on a computer screen. There were 4 different passages, all of which included unrelated sentences, with each sentence containing 1 test word. The passages differed only in the text type (prose, scrambled) and in the identity of the test word (the, one). The word the is a common function word, whereas one is a less common content word. The test word was repeated in half of the sentences at the end of one line and at the start of the next line...
July 28, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Ana P Pinheiro, Neguine Rezaii, Andréia Rauber, Margaret Niznikiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Impairments in self-other voice discrimination have been consistently reported in schizophrenia, and associated with the severity of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). This study probed the interactions between voice identity, voice acoustic quality, and semantic valence in a self-other voice discrimination task in schizophrenia patients compared with healthy subjects. The relationship between voice identity discrimination and AVH severity was also explored. METHODS: Seventeen chronic schizophrenia patients and 19 healthy controls were asked to read aloud a list of adjectives characterised by emotional or neutral content...
July 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Giacomo Spinelli, Simone Sulpizio, Silvia Primativo, Cristina Burani
Recent findings from English and Russian have shown that grammatical category plays a key role in stress assignment. In these languages, some grammatical categories have a typical stress pattern and this information is used by readers. However, whether readers are sensitive to smaller distributional differences and other morpho-syntactic properties (e.g., gender, number, person) remains unclear. We addressed this issue in word and non-word reading in Italian, a language in which: (1) nouns and verbs differ in the proportion of words with a dominant stress pattern; (2) information specified by words sharing morpho-syntactic properties may contrast with other sources of information, such as stress neighborhood...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Virgilijus Uloza, Tadas Petrauskas, Evaldas Padervinskis, Nora Ulozaitė, Ben Barsties, Youri Maryn
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to validate the Acoustic Voice Quality Index in Lithuanian language (AVQI-LT) and investigate the feasibility and robustness of its diagnostic accuracy, differentiating normal and dysphonic voice. METHODS: A total of 184 native Lithuanian subjects with normal voices (n = 46) and with various voice disorders (n = 138) were asked to read aloud the Lithuanian text and to sustain the vowel /a/. A sentence with 13 syllables and a 3-second midvowel portion of the sustained vowel were edited...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Lina Tieu, Dean Schillinger, Urmimala Sarkar, Mekhala Hoskote, Kenneth J Hahn, Neda Ratanawongsa, James D Ralston, Courtney R Lyles
OBJECTIVE: With the rapid rise in the adoption of patient portals, many patients are gaining access to their personal health information online for the first time. The objective of this study was to examine specific usability barriers to patient portal engagement among a diverse group of patients and caregivers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted interviews using performance testing and think-aloud methods with 23 patients and 2 caregivers as they first attempted to use features of a newly launched patient portal...
July 8, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Zhipeng Chen, Pingjiang Ge
OBJECTIVE: To understand the vowel duration and statement reading of the adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) patients compared with their normal controls, and provide ideas for clinical diagnosis and treatment. METHOD: Twenty-nine ADSD patients were included in the research, with 31 normal controls. All subjects filled in form voice handicap index (VHI) by themselves. Maximum phonetic time (MPT) and maximum loudness phonetic time(MLPT) were tested on /a/ sound for all patients...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Chris Davis, Colin Schoknecht, Jeesun Kim, Denis Burnham
Three naming aloud experiments and a lexical decision (LD) experiment used masked priming to index the processing of written Thai vowels and tones. Thai allows for manipulation of the mapping between orthography and phonology not possible in other orthographies, for example, the use of consonants, vowels and tone markers in both horizontal and vertical orthographic positions (HOPs and VOPs). Experiment I showed that changing a vowel between prime and target slowed down target naming but changing a tone mark did not...
June 2016: Language and Speech
Kit W Cho
The present study explored the self-directed-speech effect, the finding that relative to silent reading of a label (e.g., DOG), saying it aloud reduces visual search reaction times (RTs) for locating a target picture among distractors. Experiment 1 examined whether this effect is due to a confound in the differences in the number of cues in self-directed speech (two) vs. silent reading (one) and tested whether self-articulation is required for the effect. The results showed that self-articulation is not required and that merely hearing the auditory label reduces visual search RTs relative to silent reading...
October 2016: Acta Psychologica
Kenji Ikeda, Taiji Ueno, Yuichi Ito, Shinji Kitagami, Jun Kawaguchi
Humans can pronounce a nonword (e.g., rint). Some researchers have interpreted this behavior as requiring a sequential mechanism by which a grapheme-phoneme correspondence rule is applied to each grapheme in turn. However, several parallel-distributed processing (PDP) models in English have simulated human nonword reading accuracy without a sequential mechanism. Interestingly, the Japanese psycholinguistic literature went partly in the same direction, but it has since concluded that a sequential parsing mechanism is required to reproduce human nonword reading accuracy...
June 20, 2016: Cognitive Science
Aurélie Calabrèse, Jean-Baptiste Bernard, Géraldine Faure, Louis Hoffart, Eric Castet
PURPOSE: To describe and quantify a largely unnoticed oculomotor pattern that often occurs when patients with central field loss (CFL) read continuous text: Horizontal distribution of eye fixations dramatically varies across sentences and often reveals clusters. Also to statistically analyze the effect of this new factor on reading speed while controlling for the effect of saccadic amplitude (measured in letters per forward saccade, L/FS), an established oculomotor effect. METHODS: Quantification of nonuniformity of eye fixations (NUF factor) was based on statistical analysis of the curvature of fixation distributions...
June 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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