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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289395/reading-aloud-discrete-stage-s-redux
#1
Serje Robidoux, Derek Besner
Interactive activation accounts of processing have had a broad and deep influence on cognitive psychology, particularly so in the context of computational accounts of reading aloud at the single word level. Here we address the issue of whether such a framework can simulate the joint effects of stimulus quality and word frequency (which have been shown to produce both additive and interactive effects depending on the context). We extend previous work on this question by considering an alternative implementation of a stimulus quality manipulation, and the role of interactive activation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277213/the-effect-of-learning-modality-and-auditory-feedback-on-word-memory-cochlear-implanted-versus-normal-hearing-adults
#2
Riki Taitelbaum-Swead, Michal Icht, Yaniv Mama
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the effect of cognitive abilities on the achievements of cochlear implant (CI) users has been evaluated. Some studies have suggested that gaps between CI users and normal-hearing (NH) peers in cognitive tasks are modality specific, and occur only in auditory tasks. PURPOSE: The present study focused on the effect of learning modality (auditory, visual) and auditory feedback on word memory in young adults who were prelingually deafened and received CIs before the age of 5 yr, and their NH peers...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238974/why-american-sign-language-gloss-must-matter
#3
Samuel J Supalla, Jody H Cripps, Andrew P Byrne
Responding to an article by Grushkin on how deaf children best learn to read, published, along with the present article, in an American Annals of the Deaf special issue, the authors review American Sign Language gloss. Topics include how ASL gloss enables deaf children to learn to read in their own language and simultaneously experience a transition to written English, and what gloss looks like and how it underlines deaf children's learning and mastery of English literacy through ASL. Rebuttal of Grushkin's argument includes data describing a deaf child's engagement in reading aloud (entirely in ASL) with a gloss text, which occurred without the breakdown implied by Grushkin...
2017: American Annals of the Deaf
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211025/participants-shift-response-deadlines-based-on-list-difficulty-during-reading-aloud-megastudies
#4
Michael J Cortese, Maya M Khanna, Robert Kopp, Jonathan B Santo, Kailey S Preston, Tyler Van Zuiden
We tested the list homogeneity effect in reading aloud (e.g., Lupker, Brown, & Colombo, 1997) using a megastudy paradigm. In each of two conditions, we used 25 blocks of 100 trials. In the random condition, words were selected randomly for each block, whereas in the experimental condition, words were blocked by difficulty (e.g., easy words together, etc.), but the order of the blocks was randomized. We predicted that standard factors (e.g., frequency) would be more predictive of reaction times (RTs) in the blocked than in the random condition, because the range of RTs across the experiment would increase in the blocked condition...
February 16, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177182/morpheme-based-reading-and-spelling-in-italian-children-with-developmental-dyslexia-and-dysorthography
#5
Paola Angelelli, Chiara Valeria Marinelli, Marinella De Salvatore, Cristina Burani
Italian sixth graders, with and without dyslexia, read pseudowords and low-frequency words that include high-frequency morphemes better than stimuli not including any morpheme. The present study assessed whether morphemes affect (1) younger children, with and without dyslexia; (2) spelling as well as reading; and (3) words with low-frequency morphemes. Two groups of third graders (16 children with dyslexia and dysorthography and 16 age-matched typically developing children) read aloud and spelt to dictation pseudowords and words...
February 8, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167328/attentional-biases-in-body-dysmorphic-disorder-bdd-eye-tracking-using-the-emotional-stroop-task
#6
Wei Lin Toh, David J Castle, Susan L Rossell
OBJECTIVE: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterised by repetitive behaviours and/or mental acts occurring in response to preoccupations with perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance. This study aimed to examine attentional biases in BDD via the emotional Stroop task with two modifications: i) incorporating an eye-tracking paradigm, and ii) employing an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) control group. METHOD: Twenty-one BDD, 19 OCD and 21 HC participants, who were age-, sex-, and IQ-matched, were included...
January 23, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118633/the-effect-of-loud-voice-and-clear-speech-on-the-use-of-vocal-fry-in-women
#7
Alison Behrman, Ali Akhund
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of clear speech and loud voice on the use of vocal fry in women. METHODS: Twenty healthy-voiced young women who used a moderate amount of vocal fry when reading aloud in conversational-style speech (defined as a minimum of three occurrences per sentence) also read the same stimuli in loud voice and clear speech. The occurrence of vocal fry was assessed in the three speaking styles. Intensity and fundamental frequency levels in each condition were obtained to help interpret the findings...
January 25, 2017: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112580/does-use-of-text-to-speech-and-related-read-aloud-tools-improve-reading-comprehension-for-students-with-reading-disabilities-a-meta-analysis
#8
Sarah G Wood, Jerad H Moxley, Elizabeth L Tighe, Richard K Wagner
Text-to-speech and related read-aloud tools are being widely implemented in an attempt to assist students' reading comprehension skills. Read-aloud software, including text-to-speech, is used to translate written text into spoken text, enabling one to listen to written text while reading along. It is not clear how effective text-to-speech is at improving reading comprehension. This study addresses this gap in the research by conducting a meta-analysis on the effects of text-to-speech technology and related read-aloud tools on reading comprehension for students with reading difficulties...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073100/investigating-the-use-of-appropriation-in-the-writing-of-a-child-with-autism-a-case-study
#9
Jamie Maxwell, Christine Weill, Jack Damico
This case study investigated how a 10year old child with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder), Kameron (pseudonym), utilized appropriation as a writing strategy in the context of group therapy. Using the same questions as Lensmire and Beals (1994) in their study of a typically developing third-grader, written products were collected over the course of one semester and analyzed, along with video, audio, and participant observation data, to consider the following questions: 1) Where did the material come from? 2) What was taken? and 3) How was it used? Analysis of the process of Kameron's writing revealed utilization of appropriation as a strategy for 2 of the 4 written products...
January 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033738/the-production-effect-in-adults-with-dysarthria-improving-long-term-verbal-memory-by-vocal-production
#10
Michal Icht, Orly Bergerzon-Biton, Yaniv Mama
People show better memory for words read aloud relative to words read silently, the Production Effect (PE). Vocalisation at study makes the produced (aloud) words more distinct than the non-produced (silent) words, hence more memorable. Such encoding distinctiveness is related to the additional processing of aloud words that is later used during retrieval. This study investigated the PE in dysarthric adults, characterised by speech production difficulties. Their memory performance (recognition) was compared to a group of healthy adults...
December 29, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030516/scotoma-visibility-and-reading-rate-with-bilateral-central-scotomas
#11
Joshua D Pratt, Scott B Stevenson, Harold E Bedell
PURPOSE: In this experiment, we tested whether perceptually delineating the scotoma location and border with a gaze contingent polygon overlay improves reading speed and reading eye movements in patients with bilateral central scotomas. METHODS: Eight patients with age-related macular degeneration and bilateral central scotomas read aloud MNRead style sentences with their preferred eye. Eye movement signals from an EyeLink II eyetracker were used to create a gaze contingent display in which a polygon overlay delineating the area of the patient's scotoma was superimposed on the text during 18 of the 42 trials...
March 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965604/the-n400-effect-during-speaker-switch-towards-a-conversational-approach-of-measuring-neural-correlates-of-language
#12
Tatiana Goregliad Fjaellingsdal, Esther Ruigendijk, Stefan Scherbaum, Martin G Bleichner
Language occurs naturally in conversations. However, the study of the neural underpinnings of language has mainly taken place in single individuals using controlled language material. The interactive elements of a conversation (e.g., turn-taking) are often not part of neurolinguistic setups. The prime reason is the difficulty to combine open unrestricted conversations with the requirements of neuroimaging. It is necessary to find a trade-off between the naturalness of a conversation and the restrictions imposed by neuroscientific methods to allow for ecologically more valid studies...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942710/orthography-and-modality-influence-speech-production-in-adults-and-children
#13
Meredith Saletta, Lisa Goffman, Tiffany P Hogan
Purpose: The acquisition of literacy skills influences the perception and production of spoken language. We examined if orthography influences implicit processing in speech production in child readers and in adult readers with low and high reading proficiency. Method: Children (n = 17), adults with typical reading skills (n = 17), and adults demonstrating low reading proficiency (n = 18) repeated or read aloud nonwords varying in orthographic transparency. Analyses of implicit linguistic processing (segmental accuracy and speech movement stability) were conducted...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936847/reading-aloud-on-the-determinants-of-the-joint-effects-of-stimulus-quality-and-word-frequency
#14
Darcy White, Derek Besner
There are multiple reports, in the context of the time taken to read aloud, that the joint effects of stimulus quality and word frequency (a) interact when only words appear in the list but (b) are additive when nonwords are intermixed with words (O'Malley & Besner, 2008). This triple interaction has been explained in terms of the idea that different processing modes are in play in these different contexts. Processing is cascaded when only words appear in the list, allowing the effect of stimulus quality to influence the downstream process(es) affected by word frequency...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920731/do-you-read-how-i-read-systematic-individual-differences-in-semantic-reliance-amongst-normal-readers
#15
Anna M Woollams, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Gaston Madrid, Karalyn E Patterson
The extent to which meaning is involved in reading aloud has proven an area of longstanding debate, and current computational models differ on this dimension. The connectionist triangle model proposes that normal individuals rely on semantic information for correct reading of words with atypical spelling-sound relationships, but to varying degrees. This proposed individual difference would account for the varying stage of decline at which patients with semantic dementia first show the reading impairment known as surface dyslexia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919376/usability-evaluation-of-the-smart-application-for-youth-with-mtbi
#16
Judith W Dexheimer, Brad G Kurowski, Shilo H Anders, Nicole McClanahan, Shari L Wade, Lynn Babcock
OBJECTIVE: There is a dearth of evidence-based treatments available to address the significant morbidity associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). To address this gap, we designed a novel user-friendly, web-based application. We describe the preliminary evaluation of feasibility and usability of the application to promote recovery following mTBI in youth, the Self-Monitoring Activity-Restriction and Relaxation Treatment (SMART). SMART incorporates real-time recommendations for individualized symptom management and activity restriction along with training in cognitive-behavioral coping strategies...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875590/spatio-temporal-progression-of-cortical-activity-related-to-continuous-overt-and-covert-speech-production-in-a-reading-task
#17
Jonathan S Brumberg, Dean J Krusienski, Shreya Chakrabarti, Aysegul Gunduz, Peter Brunner, Anthony L Ritaccio, Gerwin Schalk
How the human brain plans, executes, and monitors continuous and fluent speech has remained largely elusive. For example, previous research has defined the cortical locations most important for different aspects of speech function, but has not yet yielded a definition of the temporal progression of involvement of those locations as speech progresses either overtly or covertly. In this paper, we uncovered the spatio-temporal evolution of neuronal population-level activity related to continuous overt speech, and identified those locations that shared activity characteristics across overt and covert speech...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867032/neural-correlates-of-temporal-context-retrieval-for-abstract-scrambled-phrases-reducing-narrative-and-familiarity-based-strategies
#18
Fang Wang, Rachel A Diana
Temporal context, memory for the timing of events, can be assessed using non-temporal strategies such as relative familiarity or inference from a semantic narrative. Neuroimaging studies, which have previously encouraged such strategies, find similar patterns of brain regions involved in both temporal and non-temporal context memory. The present study aims to investigate whether previous findings are driven by the use of non-temporal strategies or whether the same pattern of brain regions is identified when relative familiarity and semantic narrative strategies are discouraged...
January 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854460/stress-still-affects-articulatory-planning-in-reading-aloud-a-reply-to-white-and-besner-2016
#19
Simone Sulpizio, Giacomo Spinelli, Cristina Burani
In their comment, White and Besner (2016) argued against our conclusion that stress assignment may affect polysyllable pseudoword reading and concluded that, currently, we do not know whether the effect of stress position is solid and reliable. White and Besner stated that because the experiments reported in Sulpizio, Spinelli, and Burani (2015) have methodological problems, our conclusion is grounded on weak evidence. In this reply, we present further analyses of our data that overcome the methodological weakness highlighted by White and Besner...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854459/how-closely-is-the-syllable-stress-effect-tied-to-articulation-a-commentary-on-sulpizio-spinelli-and-burani-2015
#20
Darcy White, Derek Besner
Sulpizio, Spinelli, and Burani (2015a), concluded, on the basis of results from 3 reading aloud experiments, that stress assignment in polysyllabic pseudowords is closely tied to the process of articulation. We argue that there are methodological and statistical grounds for believing that this conclusion is premature. (PsycINFO Database Record
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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