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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853955/lexical-tone-and-stuttering-in-cantonese
#1
Thomas Law, Ann Packman, Mark Onslow, Carol K-S To, Michael C-F Tong, Kathy Y-S Lee
Cantonese is a tone language, in which the variation of the fundamental frequency contour of a syllable can change meaning. There are six different lexical tones in Cantonese. While research with Western languages has shown an association between stuttering and syllabic stress, nothing is known about whether stuttering in Cantonese speakers is associated with one or more of the six lexical tones. Such an association has been reported in conversational speech in Mandarin, which is also a tone language, but which varies markedly from Cantonese...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806713/activity-groups-for-persons-with-dementia-personal-predictors-of-participation-engagement-and-mood
#2
Jiska Cohen-Mansfield
This study examined the relationship between personal characteristics and attendance, engagement, sleep, and mood outcomes of persons with dementia participating in group activities. The purpose of this study is to examine which persons with dementia benefit most from group interventions. Sixty-nine persons with dementia were observed by research and therapeutic recreation staff during 10 types of group activities (reading aloud with discussion, choral-singing, baking, creative storytelling, brain games, active games, exercise, reminiscence poetry, holiday newsletter, and holiday discussions) on multiple outcomes (attendance duration, sleep, engagement, active participation, attitude, and positive mood)...
July 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795406/multiple-aspects-of-high-school-students-strategic-processing-on-reading-outcomes-the-role-of-quantity-quality-and-conjunctive-strategy-use
#3
Meghan M Parkinson, Daniel L Dinsmore
BACKGROUND: While the literature on strategy use is relatively mature, measures of strategy use overwhelmingly measure only one aspect of that use, frequency, when relating that strategy use to performance outcomes. While this might be one important attribute of strategy use, there is increasing evidence that quality and conditional use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies may also be important. AIMS: This study examines how multiple aspects of strategy use, namely frequency, quality, and conjunctive use of strategies, influence task performance on both well- and ill-structured task outcomes in addition to other concomitant variables that may interact with strategic processing during reading...
August 9, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782969/a-switch-is-not-a-switch-syntactically-driven-bilingual-language-control
#4
Tamar H Gollan, Matthew Goldrick
The current study investigated the possibility that language switches could be relatively automatically triggered by context. Single-word switches, in which bilinguals switched languages on a single word in midsentence and then immediately switched back, were contrasted with more complete whole-language switches, in which bilinguals completed a full phrase (or more) in the switched to language before switching back. Speech production was elicited by asking Spanish-English bilinguals to read aloud mixed-language paragraphs that manipulated switch type (single word, whole language), part of speech (switches on function or content words), and default language (dominant language English or nondominant Spanish)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777693/beyond-descriptive-neurology-broca-cerebral-hemodynamics-and-cortical-function
#5
Richard Leblanc
Pierre-Paul Broca's studies in neurobiology remain of interest. I review a previously neglected aspect of Broca's work in which he presages the use of modern scanning techniques. Broca's goal was to correlate cerebral metabolism to regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) using a novel method, to which he referred as cerebral thermometry. Broca attempted to measure changes in temperatures from the ischemic area and across the watershed regions during a stroke, and the increased CBF produced by performing a cognitive task such as reading aloud...
August 4, 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753438/bilingual-language-intrusions-and-other-speech-errors-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Tamar H Gollan, Alena Stasenko, Chuchu Li, David P Salmon
The current study investigated how Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects production of speech errors in reading-aloud. Twelve Spanish-English bilinguals with AD and 19 matched controls read-aloud 8 paragraphs in four conditions (a) English-only, (b) Spanish-only, (c) English-mixed (mostly English with 6 Spanish words), and (d) Spanish-mixed (mostly Spanish with 6 English words). Reading elicited language intrusions (e.g., saying la instead of the), and several types of within-language errors (e.g., saying their instead of the)...
November 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710937/developmental-surface-and-phonological-dyslexia-in-both-greek-and-english
#7
Andreas Sotiropoulos, J Richard Hanley
The hallmark of developmental surface dyslexia in English and French is inaccurate reading of words with atypical spelling-sound correspondences. According to Douklias, Masterson and Hanley (2009), surface dyslexia can also be observed in Greek (a transparent orthography for reading that does not contain words of this kind). Their findings suggested that surface dyslexia in Greek can be characterized by slow reading of familiar words, and by inaccurate spelling of words with atypical sound-spelling correspondences (Greek is less transparent for spelling than for reading)...
November 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697699/effects-of-word-frequency-and-transitional-probability-on-word-reading-durations-of-younger-and-older-speakers
#8
Cornelia Moers, Antje Meyer, Esther Janse
High-frequency units are usually processed faster than low-frequency units in language comprehension and language production. Frequency effects have been shown for words as well as word combinations. Word co-occurrence effects can be operationalized in terms of transitional probability (TP). TPs reflect how probable a word is, conditioned by its right or left neighbouring word. This corpus study investigates whether three different age groups-younger children (8-12 years), adolescents (12-18 years) and older (62-95 years) Dutch speakers-show frequency and TP context effects on spoken word durations in reading aloud, and whether age groups differ in the size of these effects...
June 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654941/internally-versus-externally-cued-speech-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-cerebellar-disease
#9
Phil Weir-Mayta, Kristie A Spencer, Tanya L Eadie, Kathryn Yorkston, Sara Savaglio, Chris Woollcott
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an internally versus externally cued speech task on perceived understandability and naturalness in speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD) and cerebellar disease (CD). Method: Sentences extracted from a covertly recorded conversation (internally cued) were compared to the same sentences read aloud (externally cued) by speakers with PD and a clinical comparison group of speakers with CD. Experienced listeners rated the speech samples using a visual analog scale for the perceptual dimensions of understandability and naturalness...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649169/form-overrides-meaning-when-bilinguals-monitor-for-errors
#10
Iva Ivanova, Victor S Ferreira, Tamar H Gollan
Bilinguals rarely produce unintended language switches, which may in part be because switches are detected and corrected by an internal monitor. But are language switches easier or harder to detect than within-language semantic errors? To approximate internal monitoring, bilinguals listened (Experiment 1) or read aloud (Experiment 2) stories, and detected language switches (translation equivalents or semantically unrelated to expected words) and within-language errors (semantically related or unrelated to expected words)...
June 2017: Journal of Memory and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614458/capacity-for-self-monitoring-reading-comprehension-in-elementary-school
#11
Gabriela Juliane Bueno, Carolina Alves Ferreira Carvalho, Clara Regina Brandão de Ávila
Purpose: To investigate the capacity for self-monitoring reading comprehension in Brazilian Elementary School students. Methods: Fifty-three Elementary students in the 5th and 9th grades from two Public Schools in the city of São Paulo were assessed. They were selected based on their oral reading rate and grouped according to their performance in reading comprehension in the following categories: Group with best comprehension: students with adequate rate and accuracy, without difficulties in reading comprehension; Group with worst comprehension: students with adequate rate and accuracy but with difficulties in reading comprehension...
June 8, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613114/enhancing-accessibility-for-students-with-decoding-difficulties-on-large-scale-reading-assessments
#12
Allison Gruner Gandhi, Burhan Ogut, Laura Stein, Robin Bzura, Louis Danielson
This study reports findings from studies examining potential read-aloud accommodations on standardized reading comprehension assessments for students with decoding difficulties. Three types of accommodations were evaluated: question stems and answer options read aloud; question stems, answer options, and proper nouns read aloud; and full read-aloud. Drawing from a sample of 207 fourth-grade students with and without decoding difficulties, we used 3-level hierarchical linear modeling to assess whether there were significant differences between students with and without decoding difficulties in the effect of each accommodation relative to no accommodation...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608193/do-alternating-color-words-facilitate-reading-aloud-text-in-chinese-evidence-with-developing-and-adult-readers
#13
Manuel Perea, Xiaoyun Wang
Prior research has shown that colors induce perceptual grouping and, hence, colors can be used as word dividers during reading (Pinna & Deiana, 2014). This issue is particularly important for those writing systems that do not employ interword spaces (e.g., Chinese). The rationale is that alternating colors across words in these scripts may facilitate the process of word identification without altering the spatial distribution of text. Here, we tested whether color alternation across words produces a benefit in a reading-aloud task in native speakers of Chinese...
June 12, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600717/reading-and-lexical-decision-tasks-generate-different-patterns-of-individual-variability-as-a-function-of-condition-difficulty
#14
Pierluigi Zoccolotti, Maria De Luca, Gloria Di Filippo, Chiara Valeria Marinelli, Donatella Spinelli
We reanalyzed previous experiments based on lexical-decision and reading-aloud tasks in children with dyslexia and control children and tested the prediction of the difference engine model (DEM) that mean condition reaction times (RTs) and standard deviations (SDs) would be linearly related (Myerson et al., 2003). Then we evaluated the slope and the intercept with the x-axis of these linear functions in comparison with previously reported values (i.e., slope of about 0.30 and intercept of about 300 ms). In the case of lexical decision, the parameters were close to these values; by contrast, in the case of reading aloud, a much steeper slope (0...
June 9, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549759/-smile-away-your-cravings-facial-feedback-modulates-cue-induced-food-cravings
#15
Jennifer Schmidt, Alexandra Martin
Food cravings are common experiences that precede dysfunctional eating behaviors, such as overeating and binge eating. These cravings are often related to negative affect, especially in emotional eaters. Recent studies have revived interest in a theory on the implicit modulation of affect: the facial feedback-hypothesis. This theory claims that mimic expressions influence affective experiences. Given the association between negative affect and food craving, facial feedback could provide a means to reduce or prevent food cravings...
May 24, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522984/applicability-of-the-compensatory-encoding-model-in-foreign-language-reading-an-investigation-with-chinese-college-english-language-learners
#16
Feifei Han
While some first language (L1) reading models suggest that inefficient word recognition and small working memory tend to inhibit higher-level comprehension processes; the Compensatory Encoding Model maintains that slow word recognition and small working memory do not normally hinder reading comprehension, as readers are able to operate metacognitive strategies to compensate for inefficient word recognition and working memory limitation as long as readers process a reading task without time constraint. Although empirical evidence is accumulated for support of the Compensatory Encoding Model in L1 reading, there is lack of research for testing of the Compensatory Encoding Model in foreign language (FL) reading...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504532/orthography-affects-second-language-speech-double-letters-and-geminate-production-in-english
#17
Bene Bassetti
Second languages (L2s) are often learned through spoken and written input, and L2 orthographic forms (spellings) can lead to non-native-like pronunciation. The present study investigated whether orthography can lead experienced learners of EnglishL2 to make a phonological contrast in their speech production that does not exist in English. Double consonants represent geminate (long) consonants in Italian but not in English. In Experiment 1, native English speakers and EnglishL2 speakers (Italians) were asked to read aloud English words spelled with a single or double target consonant letter, and consonant duration was compared...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490791/intact-word-processing-in-developmental-prosopagnosia
#18
Edwin J Burns, Rachel J Bennetts, Sarah Bate, Victoria C Wright, Christoph T Weidemann, Jeremy J Tree
A wealth of evidence from behavioural, neuropsychological and neuroimaging research supports the view that face recognition is reliant upon a domain-specific network that does not process words. In contrast, the recent many-to-many model of visual recognition posits that brain areas involved in word and face recognition are functionally integrated. Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is characterised by severe deficits in the recognition of faces, which the many-to-many model predicts should negatively affect word recognition...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425742/comparing-and-validating-methods-of-reading-instruction-using-behavioural-and-neural-findings-in-an-artificial-orthography
#19
J S H Taylor, Matthew H Davis, Kathleen Rastle
There is strong scientific consensus that emphasizing print-to-sound relationships is critical when learning to read alphabetic languages. Nevertheless, reading instruction varies across English-speaking countries, from intensive phonic training to multicuing environments that teach sound- and meaning-based strategies. We sought to understand the behavioral and neural consequences of these differences in relative emphasis. We taught 24 English-speaking adults to read 2 sets of 24 novel words (e.g., /buv/, /sig/), written in 2 different unfamiliar orthographies...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424650/the-role-of-the-left-anterior-temporal-lobe-for-unpredictable-and-complex-mappings-in-word-reading
#20
Marilyne Joyal, Simona M Brambati, Robert J Laforce, Maxime Montembeault, Mariem Boukadi, Isabelle Rouleau, Joël Macoir, Sven Joubert, Shirley Fecteau, Maximiliano A Wilson
The anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) have been consistently associated with semantic processing which, in turn, has a key role in reading aloud single words. This study aimed to investigate (1) the reading abilities in patients with the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), and (2) the relationship between gray matter (GM) volume of the left ATL and word reading performance using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Three groups of participants (svPPA, Alzheimer's Disease, AD and healthy elderly adults) performed a reading task with exception words, regular words and pseudowords, along with a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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