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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320216/legibility-of-text-and-pictograms-in-variable-message-signs-can-single-word-messages-outperform-pictograms
#1
Javier Roca, Beatriz Insa, Pilar Tejero
OBJECTIVE: The current research shows the advantage of single-word messages in the particular case of variable message signs (VMSs) with a high aspect ratio. BACKGROUND: Early studies on traffic sign design proposed that pictorial information would advantage equivalent text messages in static signs. METHOD: We used a driving simulator to present individually 36 VMSs, showing six words (e.g., "congestion") and six danger signs (e.g., congestion traffic sign)...
January 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309196/cues-to-stress-assignment-in-reading-aloud
#2
Maria Ktori, Petroula Mousikou, Kathleen Rastle
Research seeking to uncover the mechanisms by which we read aloud has focused almost exclusively on monosyllabic items presented in isolation. Consequently, important challenges that arise when considering polysyllabic word reading, such as stress assignment, have been ignored, while little is known about how important sentence-level stress cues, such as syntax and rhythm, may influence word reading aloud processes. The present study seeks to fill these gaps in the literature by (a) documenting the individual influences of major sublexical cues that readers use to assign stress in single-word reading in English and (b) determining how these cues may interact with contextual stress factors in sentence reading...
January 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303790/relaxation-before-debriefing-during-high-fidelity-simulation-improves-memory-retention-of-residents-at-three-months-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-study
#3
Marc Lilot, Jean-Noel Evain, Christian Bauer, Jean-Christophe Cejka, Alexandre Faure, Baptiste Balança, Olivia Vassal, Cécile Payet, Bernard Bui Xuan, Antoine Duclos, Jean-Jacques Lehot, Thomas Rimmelé
BACKGROUND: High-fidelity simulation is known to improve participant learning and behavioral performance. Simulation scenarios generate stress that affects memory retention and may impact future performance. The authors hypothesized that more participants would recall three or more critical key messages at three months when a relaxation break was performed before debriefing of critical event scenarios. METHODS: Each resident actively participated in one scenario and observed another...
January 5, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296476/optical-mapping-of-brain-activation-during-the-english-to-chinese-and-chinese-to-english-sight-translation
#4
Yan He, Meng-Yun Wang, Defeng Li, Zhen Yuan
Translating from Chinese into another language or vice versa is becoming a widespread phenomenon. However, current neuroimaging studies are insufficient to reveal the neural mechanism underlying translation asymmetry during Chinese/English sight translation. In this study, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to extract the brain activation patterns associated with Chinese/English sight translation. Eleven unbalanced Chinese (L1)/English (L2) bilinguals participated in this study based on an intra-group experimental design, in which two translation and two reading aloud tasks were administered: forward translation (from L1 to L2), backward translation (from L2 to L1), L1 reading, and L2 reading...
December 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289410/respiratory-and-laryngeal-function-in-teachers-pre-and-postvocal-loading-challenge
#5
Nicole E Herndon, Anusha Sundarrajan, M Preeti Sivasankar, Jessica E Huber
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine laryngeal and respiratory physiological changes in teachers before and after a 1-hour vocal loading challenge. METHODS: Twelve teachers completed ratings of vocal tiredness, vocal effort, and produced a reading passage and monologue before and after a 1-hour vocal loading challenge (reading aloud in noise). Sound pressure level, lung volume parameters, cepstral peak prominence, and low/high spectral ratio were measured...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284645/reading-aloud-and-child-development-a-cluster-randomized-trial-in-brazil
#6
Adriana Weisleder, Denise S R Mazzuchelli, Aline Sá Lopez, Walfrido Duarte Neto, Carolyn Brockmeyer Cates, Hosana Alves Gonçalves, Rochele Paz Fonseca, João Oliveira, Alan L Mendelsohn
OBJECTIVES: Many children in low- and middle-income countries fail to reach their developmental potential. We sought to determine if a parenting program focused on the promotion of reading aloud enhanced parent-child interactions and child development among low-income families in northern Brazil. METHODS: This was a cluster-randomized study of educational child care centers randomly assigned to receive an additional parenting program (intervention) or standard child care without a parenting component (control)...
December 28, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218331/justpoint-identifying-colors-with-a-natural-user-interface
#7
Sergio Mascetti, Silvia D'Acquisto, Andrea Gerino, Mattia Ducci, Cristian Bernareggi, James M Coughlan
People with severe visual impairments usually have no way of identifying the colors of objects in their environment. While existing smartphone apps can recognize colors and speak them aloud, they require the user to center the object of interest in the camera's field of view, which is challenging for many users. We developed a smartphone app to address this problem that reads aloud the color of the object pointed to by the user's fingertip, without confusion from background colors. We evaluated the app with nine people who are blind, demonstrating the app's effectiveness and suggesting directions for improvements in the future...
October 2017: ASSETS Association for Computing Machinery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211656/the-neural-basis-of-successful-word-reading-in-aphasia
#8
Sara B Pillay, William L Gross, William W Graves, Colin Humphries, Diane S Book, Jeffrey R Binder
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the neural basis of recovery from stroke is a major research goal. Many functional neuroimaging studies have identified changes in brain activity in people with aphasia, but it is unclear whether these changes truly support successful performance or merely reflect increased task difficulty. We addressed this problem by examining differences in brain activity associated with correct and incorrect responses on an overt reading task. On the basis of previous proposals that semantic retrieval can assist pronunciation of written words, we hypothesized that recruitment of semantic areas would be greater on successful trials...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209999/elaborative-feedback-engaging-reward-and-task-relevant-brain-regions-promotes-learning-in-pseudoword-reading-aloud
#9
Samantha R Mattheiss, Edward J Alexander, William W Graves
Although much is known about the cognitive and neural basis of establishing letter-sound mappings in learning word forms, relatively little is known about what makes for the most effective feedback during this process. We sought to determine the neural basis by which elaborative feedback (EF), which contains both reward-related and content-specific information, may be more helpful than feedback containing only one kind of information (simple positive feedback, PF) or the other (content feedback, CF) in learning orthography-phonology (spelling-sound) mappings for novel letter strings...
December 5, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186175/oral-vocabulary-training-program-for-spanish-third-graders-with-low-socio-economic-status-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Clara Gomes-Koban, Ian Craig Simpson, Araceli Valle, Sylvia Defior
Although the importance of vocabulary training in English speaking countries is well recognized and has been extensively studied, the same is not true for Spanish-few evidence based vocabulary studies for Spanish-speaking children have been reported. Here, two rich oral vocabulary training programs (definition and context), based on literature about vocabulary instruction for English-speaking children, were developed and applied in a sample of 100 Spanish elementary school third-graders recruited from areas of predominantly low socio-economic status (SES)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141983/are-parents-who-feel-the-need-to-watch-over-their-children-s-care-better-patient-safety-partners
#11
Elizabeth D Cox, Kristofer Hansen, Victoria P Rajamanickam, Roger L Brown, Paul J Rathouz, Pascale Carayon, Lori L DuBenske, Linda A Buel, Michelle M Kelly
OBJECTIVES: Many parents report needing to watch over their child's hospital care to prevent mistakes. In this study, we assessed whether needing to watch over care predicts parent performance of recommended safety behaviors to reduce medication errors and health care-associated infections. METHODS: At admission, we surveyed 170 parents about their need to watch over care, demographics, and hospitalization factors. At discharge, parents were surveyed about medication awareness and hand hygiene behaviors...
November 15, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060144/the-motion-influence-on-respiration-rate-estimation-from-low-resolution-thermal-sequences-during-attention-focusing-tasks
#12
A Kwasniewska, J Ruminski, J Wtorek
Global aging has led to a growing expectancy for creating home-based platforms for indoor monitoring of elderly people. A motivation is to provide a non-intrusive technique, which does not require special activities of a patient but allows for remote monitoring of elderly people while assisting them with their daily activities. The goal of our study was to evaluate motion performed by a person focused on a specific task and check if this motion disrupts estimation of respiration rate. The preliminary results show that it is possible to reliable estimate respiration rate by focusing attention of a patient on a certain activity...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032699/a-patient-with-aphasia-using-the-nonsemantic-lexical-route-for-kanji-reading
#13
Kosei Hashimoto, Akira Uno, Ami Sambai, Go Mizumoto
We report a patient with aphasia, caused by cerebral hemorrhage, who probably used the nonsemantic lexical route when reading words aloud. To investigate the mechanisms underlying her reading dysfunction, we analyzed her reading abilities using the Dual-Route Cascaded Model. Language tests resulted in low correct percentages for both reading comprehension and reading nonwords aloud, suggesting problems in the semantic system and the nonlexical route. Conversely, the patient showed high scores on the reading words aloud task...
October 16, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974150/production-on-hold-delaying-vocal-production-enhances-the-production-effect-in-free-recall
#14
Yaniv Mama, Michal Icht
The Production Effect (PE) represents superior memory for produced (read aloud) relative to non-produced (silently read) items. Another method of improving memory is taking a test on the study material - the Testing Effect. We evaluated the combined influence of both effects on free recall memory, using delayed vocal production, in which study words were vocally produced only after their disappearance. Such procedure involves an initial instant test since participants had to vocally retrieve the words (rather than read them aloud)...
October 3, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973016/what-do-your-eyes-reveal-about-your-foreign-language-reading-emotional-sentences-in-a-native-and-foreign-language
#15
Sara Iacozza, Albert Costa, Jon Andoni Duñabeitia
Foreign languages are often learned in emotionally neutral academic environments which differ greatly from the familiar context where native languages are acquired. This difference in learning contexts has been argued to lead to reduced emotional resonance when confronted with a foreign language. In the current study, we investigated whether the reactivity of the sympathetic nervous system in response to emotionally-charged stimuli is reduced in a foreign language. To this end, pupil sizes were recorded while reading aloud emotional sentences in the native or foreign language...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969489/this-time-it-s-personal-the-memory-benefit-of-hearing-oneself
#16
Noah D Forrin, Colin M MacLeod
The production effect is the memory advantage of saying words aloud over simply reading them silently. It has been hypothesised that this advantage stems from production featuring distinctive information that stands out at study relative to reading silently. MacLeod (2011) (I said, you said: The production effect gets personal. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 1197-1202. doi: 10.3758/s13423-011-0168-8 ) found superior memory for reading aloud oneself vs. hearing another person read aloud, which suggests that motor information (speaking), self-referential information (i...
October 2, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968409/a-brief-intervention-for-preparing-icu-families-to-be-proxies-a-phase-i-study
#17
Alison E Turnbull, Caroline M Chessare, Rachel K Coffin, Dale M Needham
BACKGROUND: Family members of critically ill patients report high levels of conflict with clinicians, have poor understanding of prognosis, struggle to make decisions, and experience substantial symptoms of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress regardless of patient survival status. Efficient interventions are needed to prepare these families to act as patient proxies. OBJECTIVES: To assess a brief "patient activation" intervention designed to set expectations and prepare families of adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients to communicate effectively with the clinical team...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958627/assisted-and-unassisted-recession-of-functional-anomalies-associated-with-dysprosody-in-adults-who-stutter
#18
Katrin Neumann, Harald A Euler, Malte Kob, Alexander Wolff von Gudenberg, Anne-Lise Giraud, Tobias Weissgerber, Christian A Kell
PURPOSE: Speech in persons who stutter (PWS) is associated with disturbed prosody (speech melody and intonation), which may impact communication. The neural correlates of PWS' altered prosody during speaking are not known, neither is how a speech-restructuring therapy affects prosody at both a behavioral and a cerebral level. METHODS: In this fMRI study, we explored group differences in brain activation associated with the production of different kinds of prosody in 13 male adults who stutter (AWS) before, directly after, and at least 1 year after an effective intensive fluency-shaping treatment, in 13 typically fluent-speaking control participants (CP), and in 13 males who had spontaneously recovered from stuttering during adulthood (RAWS), while sentences were read aloud with 'neutral', instructed emotional (happy), and linguistically driven (questioning) prosody...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939276/the-impact-of-a-daily-medication-time-out-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#19
Christopher R Tainter, Albert P Nguyen, Kimberly A Pollock, Edward O O'Brien, Jarone Lee, Ulrich Schmidt, Farivar Jahanasouz, Robert L Owens, Angela Meier
OBJECTIVE: Medical errors play a large role in preventable harms within our health care system. Medications administered in the ICU can be numerous, complex and subject to daily changes. We describe a method to identify medication errors with the potential to improve patient safety. DESIGN: A quality improvement intervention featuring a daily medication time out for each patient was performed during rounds. SETTING: A 12-bed Cardiac Surgical ICU at a single academic institution with approximately 180 beds...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853955/lexical-tone-and-stuttering-in-cantonese
#20
Thomas Law, Ann Packman, Mark Onslow, Carol K-S To, Michael C-F Tong, Kathy Y-S Lee
Cantonese is a tone language, in which the variation of the fundamental frequency contour of a syllable can change meaning. There are six different lexical tones in Cantonese. While research with Western languages has shown an association between stuttering and syllabic stress, nothing is known about whether stuttering in Cantonese speakers is associated with one or more of the six lexical tones. Such an association has been reported in conversational speech in Mandarin, which is also a tone language, but which varies markedly from Cantonese...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
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