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Reading aloud

Yaniv Mama, Leah Fostick, Michal Icht
The presence of background noise has been previously shown to disrupt cognitive performance, especially memory. The amount of interference is derived from the acoustic characteristics of the noise; energetic vs. informational, steady-state vs. fluctuating. However, the literature is inconsistent concerning the effects of different types of noise on long-term memory free recall. In the present study, we tested the impact of different noises on recall of items that were learned under two conditions - silent or aloud reading, a Production Effect (PE) paradigm...
March 17, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Mikimasa Omori, Jun-Ichi Yamamoto
Children with intellectual disabilities (ID) often have difficulty in sentence reading and comprehension. Previous studies have shown that training in segment-unit reading (SUR) facilitates the acquisition of sentence reading comprehension skills for Japanese students with ID. However, it remains unknown whether SUR training is also effective for individuals unable to read sentences and can generalize to untrained sentences. In this study, we examined the improvement and generalization of sentence reading accuracy and comprehension for two children with ID through SUR training with listening comprehensible sentences...
March 2018: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Ivan Chow, Steven Brown
We present here a musical approach to speech melody, one that takes advantage of the intervallic precision made possible with musical notation. Current phonetic and phonological approaches to speech melody either assign localized pitch targets that impoverish the acoustic details of the pitch contours and/or merely highlight a few salient points of pitch change, ignoring all the rest of the syllables. We present here an alternative model using musical notation, which has the advantage of representing the pitch of all syllables in a sentence as well as permitting a specification of the intervallic excursions among syllables and the potential for group averaging of pitch use across speakers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Carles Escera, Fran López-Caballero, Natàlia Gorina-Careta
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to run a proof of concept on a new commercially available device, Forbrain® (Sound For Life Ltd/Soundev, Luxemburg, model UN38.3), to test whether it can modulate the speech of its users. Method: Participants were instructed to read aloud a text of their choice during 3 experimental phases: baseline, test, and posttest, while wearing a Forbrain® headset. Critically, for half of the participants (Forbrain group), the device was turned on during the test phase, whereas for the other half (control group), the device was kept off...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Jacqueline Cummine, Daniel Aalto, Amberley Ostevik, Kulpreet Cheema, William Hodgetts
Reading is a complex process that includes the integration of information about letters (graphemes) and sounds (phonemes). In many circumstances, such as noisy environments, response inhibition is an additional factor that plays a marked role in successful oral reading. Response inhibition can take the form of task relevant inhibition (i.e., foils in a go/no-go task) and task irrelevant inhibition (i.e., distractor information). Here we investigated task relevant inhibition by having participants (N = 30) take part in two tasks: go/no-go naming with nonwords foils (GNG-NW) and go/no-go naming with pseudohomophones foils (GNG-PH)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Gloria Di Filippo, Pierluigi Zoccolotti
The study examined whether developmental deficits in reading and numerical skills could be expressed in terms of global factors by reference to the rate and amount (RAM) and difference engine (DEM) models. From a sample of 325 fifth grade children, we identified 5 children with dyslexia, 16 with dyscalculia, 7 with a "mixed pattern," and 49 control children. Children were asked to read aloud words presented individually that varied for frequency and length and to respond (either vocally or manually) to a series of simple number tasks (addition, subtraction, number reading, and number comparisons)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Dominic W Massaro
Extensive experience in written language might provide children the opportunity to learn to read in the same manner they learn spoken language. One potential type of written language immersion is reading aloud to children, which is additionally valuable because the vocabulary in picture books is richer and more extensive than that found in child-directed speech. This study continues a comparison between these 2 communication media by evaluating their relative linguistic and cognitive complexity. Although reading grade level has been used only to assess the complexity of written language, it was also applied to both child-directed and adult-directed speech...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Christopher Dromey, Elise Hunter, Shawn L Nissen
Purpose: This study used perceptual and acoustic measures to examine the time course of speech adaptation after the attachment of electromagnetic sensor coils to the tongue, lips, and jaw. Method: Twenty native English speakers read aloud stimulus sentences before the attachment of the sensors, immediately after attachment, and again 5, 10, 15, and 20 min later. They read aloud continuously between recordings to encourage adaptation. Sentence recordings were perceptually evaluated by 20 native English listeners, who rated 150 stimuli (which included 31 samples that were repeated to assess rater reliability) using a visual analog scale with the end points labeled as "precise" and "imprecise...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Ye Wang, Julia A Silvestri, Laudan B Jahromi
The purpose of the study was to identify factors related to reading comprehension, and to compare similarities and differences in the reading processes of deaf and hearing adults. The sample included four groups, each consisting of 15 adults. The groups were identified as (a) deaf high-achieving readers, (b) deaf low-achieving readers, (c) hearing high-achieving readers, and (d) hearing low-achieving readers. Measurement instruments included a demographic form along with assessments of reading comprehension, phonological skills, and metacognition, the latter of which contained both a making-inferences measure and a think-aloud discussion with a reading strategies checklist...
2018: American Annals of the Deaf
Julia A Silvestri, Ye Wang
The purpose of the study was to uncover and describe psycholinguistic and sociocognitive factors facilitating effective reading by signing adults who are profoundly deaf and do not use hearing technology. The sample comprised four groups, each consisting of 15 adults, for a total of 60 participants. The four groups were deaf high-achieving, deaf low-achieving, hearing high-achieving, and hearing low-achieving. Measurements included a language background interview and think-aloud reading discussion. Through the lens of a grounded theory approach, the conditions that facilitate effective reading were uncovered-by coding and categorizing themes, relating the codes and categories, and determining a central theme...
2018: American Annals of the Deaf
Anita D'Anselmo, Felice Giuliani, Federica Campopiano, Emanuele Carta, Alfredo Brancucci
Musical setticlavio (literally, seven clefs) reading refers to the ability to read (i.e., to say aloud, without to sing) the musical note labels in the 7 musical clefs. The present research report aims to investigate hemispheric asymmetries in such a basic musical ability, very poorly investigated in the domain of cognitive neurosciences. Sixty-three musicians underwent lateralized tachistoscopic presentation of musical notes on staves, 50% in the left and 50% in the right visual field, associated with each of the 7 musical clefs...
February 22, 2018: Neuropsychology
Alexandra S Dylman, Mariko Kikutani
Research on Japanese reading has generally indicated that processing of the logographic script Kanji primarily involves whole-word lexical processing and follows a semantics-to-phonology route, while the two phonological scripts Hiragana and Katakana (collectively called Kana) are processed via a sub-lexical route, and more in a phonology-to-semantics manner. Therefore, switching between the two scripts often involves switching between two reading processes, which results in a delayed response for the second script (a script switch cost)...
2018: Reading and Writing
Natalie Schaeffer, Akiko Fuse
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the voices of post-therapy dysphonic participants with participants who have normal voices to determine how close the corrected voices approached normal vocal levels. The present investigation is a follow-up to the authors' previous research in which dysphonic participants, with voices ranging from moderate-to-severe dysphonia, were evaluated pre- and post therapy using the Dysphonic Severity Percentage scale and the interval scale...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Virgilijus Uloza, Ben Barsties V Latoszek, Nora Ulozaite-Staniene, Tadas Petrauskas, Youri Maryn
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the feasibility and robustness of the Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI) and the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) in diagnostic accuracy, differentiating normal and dysphonic voices. METHODS: A group of 264 subjects with normal voices (n = 105) and with various voice disorders (n = 159) were asked to read aloud a text and to sustain the vowel /a/. Both speech tasks were concatenated, and perceptually rated for dysphonia severity by five voice clinicians...
February 13, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
David Playfoot, Jac Billington, Jeremy J Tree
This paper describes longitudinal testing of two Semantic Dementia (SD) cases. It is common for patients with SD to present with deficits in reading aloud irregular words (i.e. surface dyslexia), and in lexical decision. Theorists from the connectionist tradition (e.g. Woollams, et al., 2007) argue that in SD cases with concurrent surface dyslexia, the deterioration of irregular word reading and recognition performance is related to the extent of the deterioration of the semantic system. The Dual Route Cascaded model (DRC; Coltheart et al...
February 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Q H Wang, X T Ren, J Hu, Q Li, S S Cui, Y Y Zou
Objective: To assess the reading speed of normally-sighted young Chinese with the International Reading Speed Texts (IReST) Chinese version, and evaluate the normal range of the texts, the equivalence of the ten different texts and the potential clinical value. Methods: Evaluation of diagnostic techniques. Participants aged 18 to 35 years old with junior high school or above education and best corrected visual acuity no less than 0.6 were recruited. Best corrected visions of both eyes and binocular vision were tested, and ocular and nervous system diseases were excluded with slit-lamp microscope and funduscope...
February 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Ami Sambai, Max Coltheart, Akira Uno
In English, the size of the regularity effect on word reading-aloud latency decreases across position of irregularity. This has been explained by a sublexical serially operating reading mechanism. It is unclear whether sublexical serial processing occurs in reading two-character kanji words aloud. To investigate this issue, we studied how the position of atypical character-to-sound correspondences influenced reading performance. When participants read inconsistent-atypical words aloud mixed randomly with nonwords, reading latencies of words with an inconsistent-atypical correspondence in the initial position were significantly longer than words with an inconsistent-atypical correspondence in the second position...
February 5, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Javier Espuny, Laura Jiménez-Ortega, Pilar Casado, Sabela Fondevila, Francisco Muñoz, David Hernández-Gutiérrez, Manuel Martín-Loeches
Many Event-Related brain Potential (ERP) experiments have explored how the two main dimensions of emotion, arousal and valence, affect linguistic processing. However, the heterogeneity of experimental paradigms and materials has led to mixed results. In the present study, we aim to clarify words' emotional valence effects on ERP when arousal is controlled, and determine whether these effects may vary as a function of the type of task performed. For these purposes, we designed an ERP experiment with the valence of words manipulated, and arousal equated across valences...
January 30, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Connie Kim Yen Nguyen-Truong, Andra Davis, Cassius Spencer, Melody Rasmor, Lida Dekker
BACKGROUND: Health care environments are fraught with fast-paced critical demands and ethical dilemmas requiring decisive nursing actions. Nurse educators must prepare nursing students to practice skills, behaviors, and attitudes needed to meet the challenges of health care demands. Evidence-based, innovative, multimodal techniques with novice and seasoned nurses were incorporated into a baccalaureate (BSN) completion program (RN to-BSN) to deepen learning, complex skill building, reflective practice, teamwork, and compassion toward the experiences of others...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Education
Ara J Schmitt, Elizabeth McCallum, Renee O Hawkins, Emily Stephenson, Kenneth Vicencio
This study compared the effectiveness of two assistive technologies to accommodate the word reading skills of four middle school students with reading learning disabilities. Kurzweil 3000 is a continuous text-to-speech (TTS) computer software program that allows students to follow along on a computer monitor while passages of text are read aloud. A reading pen is a discontinuous TTS assistive technology device that allows students to scan and hear read aloud words selected by the student. An adapted alternating treatments design was implemented to compare the effects of listening-while-reading using continuous TTS assistive technology, discontinuous TTS assistive technology, and silently reading without accommodation on reading comprehension accuracy and rate...
January 25, 2018: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
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