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Reading aloud

Joshua Garner, Nancy A Neef, Ralph Gardner
This study determined if previously reinforced academic responding recurred when alternative responses were differentially reinforced and subsequently placed on extinction, and whether the magnitude of resurgence was related to the rate of differential reinforcement for the alternative behavior. Three kindergarten students read Greek letters aloud as arbitrary consonant-vowel blends. Resurgence was reliably demonstrated within and across participants, and the magnitude of resurgence was related to the prior rate of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Kathryn J O'Toole, Kathleen N Kannass
Young children learn from traditional print books, but there has been no direct comparison of their learning from print books and tablet e-books while controlling for narration source. The current project used a between-subjects design and examined how 4-year-olds (N = 100) learned words and story content from a print book read aloud by a live adult, a print book narrated by an audio device, an e-book read aloud by a live adult, and an e-book narrated by an audio device. Attention to the book and prior experience with tablet e-books were also measured and included in analyses...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Pey-Shan Wen, Marilys G Randolph, Leonard Elbaum, Mario De la Rosa
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the gender differences in psychosocial and physical outcomes in users of lower-extremity prostheses who became amputees after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. METHOD: We enrolled 140 unilateral amputees in this cross-sectional study in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Trained staff administered the assessments by reading the questions aloud to participants. Participants completed the Trinity Amputation and Prosthesis Experience Scales and Locomotor Capabilities Index about 2 yr after the earthquake...
May 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Chuchu Li, Tamar H Gollan
The current study investigated the contribution of phonology to bilingual language control in connected speech. Speech production was elicited by asking Mandarin-English bilinguals to read aloud paragraphs either in Chinese or English, while six words were switched to the other language in each paragraph. The switch words were either cognates or noncognates, and switching difficulty was measured by production of cross-language intrusion errors on the switch words (e.g., mistakenly saying (qiao3-ke4-li4) instead of chocolate)...
April 20, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Kay Kulason, Rui Nouchi, Yasushi Hoshikawa, Masafumi Noda, Yoshinori Okada, Ryuta Kawashima
Background: There has been little research conducted regarding cognitive treatments for the elderly postsurgical population. Patients aged ≥60 years have an increased risk of postoperative cognitive decline, a condition in which cognitive functions are negatively affected. This cognitive decline can lead to a decline in quality of life. In order to maintain a high quality of life, the elderly postsurgical population may benefit from treatment to maintain and/or improve their cognitive functions. This pilot study investigates the effect of simple calculation and reading aloud (SCRA) cognitive training in elderly Japanese postsurgical patients...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Celine De Looze, Finnian Kelly, Lisa Crosby, Aisling Vourdanou, Robert F Coen, Cathal Walsh, Brian A Lawlor, Richard B Reilly
BACKGROUND: Speech and language impairments, generally attributed to lexico-semantic deficits, have been documented in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigates the temporal organisation of speech (reflective of speech production planning) in reading aloud in relation to cognitive impairment, particularly working memory and attention deficits in MCI and AD. The discriminative ability of temporal features extracted from a newly designed read speech task is also evaluated for the detection of MCI and AD...
April 4, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Eva Marinus, Yvette Kezilas, Saskia Kohnen, Serje Robidoux, Anne Castles
This research examines the acquisition of letter-position processing. Study 1 investigated letter-position processing in Grades 1-6 and adult readers, using the occurrence of specific error types as the outcome measure. Between Grades 1 and 2, there was a shift from making more other-word to making more letter-position errors. This shift was a function of reading proficiency, not of years of reading instruction. Based on the multiple-route model of reading development (Grainger, Lété, Bertand, Dufau, & Ziegler, 2012), we argue that the fact that children make fewer other-word errors (i...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Bo Yao, Christoph Scheepers
The implicit prosody hypothesis (Fodor, 1998, 2002) proposes that silent reading coincides with a default, implicit form of prosody to facilitate sentence processing. Recent research demonstrated that a more vivid form of implicit prosody is mentally simulated during silent reading of direct speech quotations (e.g., Mary said, "This dress is beautiful"), with neural and behavioural consequences (e.g., Yao, Belin, & Scheepers, 2011; Yao & Scheepers, 2011). Here, we explored the relation between 'default' and 'simulated' implicit prosody in the context of relative-clause (RC) attachment in English...
March 31, 2018: Cognition
Giovanni Furlanis, Mariana Ridolfi, Paola Polverino, Alina Menichelli, Paola Caruso, Marcello Naccarato, Arianna Sartori, Lucio Torelli, Valentina Pesavento, Paolo Manganotti
BACKGROUND: Aphasia is one of the most devastating stroke-related consequences for social interaction and daily activities. Aphasia recovery in acute stroke depends on the degree of reperfusion after thrombolysis or thrombectomy. As aphasia assessment tests are often time-consuming for patients with acute stroke, physicians have been developing rapid and simple tests. The aim of our study is to evaluate the improvement of language functions in the earliest stage in patients treated with thrombolysis and in nontreated patients using our rapid screening test...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Stephen C Pritchard, Max Coltheart, Eva Marinus, Anne Castles
The self-teaching hypothesis describes how children progress toward skilled sight-word reading. It proposes that children do this via phonological recoding with assistance from contextual cues, to identify the target pronunciation for a novel letter string, and in so doing create an opportunity to self-teach new orthographic knowledge. We present a new computational implementation of self-teaching within the dual-route cascaded (DRC) model of reading aloud, and we explore how decoding and contextual cues can work together to enable accurate self-teaching under a variety of circumstances...
March 22, 2018: Cognitive Science
Yaniv Mama, Leah Fostick, Michal Icht
The presence of background noise has been previously shown to disrupt cognitive performance, especially memory. The amount of interference is derived from the acoustic characteristics of the noise; energetic vs. informational, steady-state vs. fluctuating. However, the literature is inconsistent concerning the effects of different types of noise on long-term memory free recall. In the present study, we tested the impact of different noises on recall of items that were learned under two conditions - silent or aloud reading, a Production Effect (PE) paradigm...
April 2018: Acta Psychologica
Mikimasa Omori, Jun-Ichi Yamamoto
Children with intellectual disabilities (ID) often have difficulty in sentence reading and comprehension. Previous studies have shown that training in segment-unit reading (SUR) facilitates the acquisition of sentence reading comprehension skills for Japanese students with ID. However, it remains unknown whether SUR training is also effective for individuals unable to read sentences and can generalize to untrained sentences. In this study, we examined the improvement and generalization of sentence reading accuracy and comprehension for two children with ID through SUR training with listening comprehensible sentences...
March 2018: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Ivan Chow, Steven Brown
We present here a musical approach to speech melody, one that takes advantage of the intervallic precision made possible with musical notation. Current phonetic and phonological approaches to speech melody either assign localized pitch targets that impoverish the acoustic details of the pitch contours and/or merely highlight a few salient points of pitch change, ignoring all the rest of the syllables. We present here an alternative model using musical notation, which has the advantage of representing the pitch of all syllables in a sentence as well as permitting a specification of the intervallic excursions among syllables and the potential for group averaging of pitch use across speakers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Carles Escera, Fran López-Caballero, Natàlia Gorina-Careta
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to run a proof of concept on a new commercially available device, Forbrain® (Sound For Life Ltd/Soundev, Luxemburg, model UN38.3), to test whether it can modulate the speech of its users. Method: Participants were instructed to read aloud a text of their choice during 3 experimental phases: baseline, test, and posttest, while wearing a Forbrain® headset. Critically, for half of the participants (Forbrain group), the device was turned on during the test phase, whereas for the other half (control group), the device was kept off...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Jacqueline Cummine, Daniel Aalto, Amberley Ostevik, Kulpreet Cheema, William Hodgetts
Reading is a complex process that includes the integration of information about letters (graphemes) and sounds (phonemes). In many circumstances, such as noisy environments, response inhibition is an additional factor that plays a marked role in successful oral reading. Response inhibition can take the form of task relevant inhibition (i.e., foils in a go/no-go task) and task irrelevant inhibition (i.e., distractor information). Here we investigated task relevant inhibition by having participants (N = 30) take part in two tasks: go/no-go naming with nonwords foils (GNG-NW) and go/no-go naming with pseudohomophones foils (GNG-PH)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Gloria Di Filippo, Pierluigi Zoccolotti
The study examined whether developmental deficits in reading and numerical skills could be expressed in terms of global factors by reference to the rate and amount (RAM) and difference engine (DEM) models. From a sample of 325 fifth grade children, we identified 5 children with dyslexia, 16 with dyscalculia, 7 with a "mixed pattern," and 49 control children. Children were asked to read aloud words presented individually that varied for frequency and length and to respond (either vocally or manually) to a series of simple number tasks (addition, subtraction, number reading, and number comparisons)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Dominic W Massaro
Extensive experience in written language might provide children the opportunity to learn to read in the same manner they learn spoken language. One potential type of written language immersion is reading aloud to children, which is additionally valuable because the vocabulary in picture books is richer and more extensive than that found in child-directed speech. This study continues a comparison between these 2 communication media by evaluating their relative linguistic and cognitive complexity. Although reading grade level has been used only to assess the complexity of written language, it was also applied to both child-directed and adult-directed speech...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Christopher Dromey, Elise Hunter, Shawn L Nissen
Purpose: This study used perceptual and acoustic measures to examine the time course of speech adaptation after the attachment of electromagnetic sensor coils to the tongue, lips, and jaw. Method: Twenty native English speakers read aloud stimulus sentences before the attachment of the sensors, immediately after attachment, and again 5, 10, 15, and 20 min later. They read aloud continuously between recordings to encourage adaptation. Sentence recordings were perceptually evaluated by 20 native English listeners, who rated 150 stimuli (which included 31 samples that were repeated to assess rater reliability) using a visual analog scale with the end points labeled as "precise" and "imprecise...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Ye Wang, Julia A Silvestri, Laudan B Jahromi
The purpose of the study was to identify factors related to reading comprehension, and to compare similarities and differences in the reading processes of deaf and hearing adults. The sample included four groups, each consisting of 15 adults. The groups were identified as (a) deaf high-achieving readers, (b) deaf low-achieving readers, (c) hearing high-achieving readers, and (d) hearing low-achieving readers. Measurement instruments included a demographic form along with assessments of reading comprehension, phonological skills, and metacognition, the latter of which contained both a making-inferences measure and a think-aloud discussion with a reading strategies checklist...
2018: American Annals of the Deaf
Julia A Silvestri, Ye Wang
The purpose of the study was to uncover and describe psycholinguistic and sociocognitive factors facilitating effective reading by signing adults who are profoundly deaf and do not use hearing technology. The sample comprised four groups, each consisting of 15 adults, for a total of 60 participants. The four groups were deaf high-achieving, deaf low-achieving, hearing high-achieving, and hearing low-achieving. Measurements included a language background interview and think-aloud reading discussion. Through the lens of a grounded theory approach, the conditions that facilitate effective reading were uncovered-by coding and categorizing themes, relating the codes and categories, and determining a central theme...
2018: American Annals of the Deaf
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