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Reading aloud

Jonathan S Brumberg, Dean J Krusienski, Shreya Chakrabarti, Aysegul Gunduz, Peter Brunner, Anthony L Ritaccio, Gerwin Schalk
How the human brain plans, executes, and monitors continuous and fluent speech has remained largely elusive. For example, previous research has defined the cortical locations most important for different aspects of speech function, but has not yet yielded a definition of the temporal progression of involvement of those locations as speech progresses either overtly or covertly. In this paper, we uncovered the spatio-temporal evolution of neuronal population-level activity related to continuous overt speech, and identified those locations that shared activity characteristics across overt and covert speech...
2016: PloS One
Fang Wang, Rachel A Diana
Temporal context, memory for the timing of events, can be assessed using non-temporal strategies such as relative familiarity or inference from a semantic narrative. Neuroimaging studies, which have previously encouraged such strategies, find similar patterns of brain regions involved in both temporal and non-temporal context memory. The present study aims to investigate whether previous findings are driven by the use of non-temporal strategies or whether the same pattern of brain regions is identified when relative familiarity and semantic narrative strategies are discouraged...
November 17, 2016: Brain Research
Simone Sulpizio, Giacomo Spinelli, Cristina Burani
In their comment, White and Besner (2016) argued against our conclusion that stress assignment may affect polysyllable pseudoword reading and concluded that, currently, we do not know whether the effect of stress position is solid and reliable. White and Besner stated that because the experiments reported in Sulpizio, Spinelli, and Burani (2015) have methodological problems, our conclusion is grounded on weak evidence. In this reply, we present further analyses of our data that overcome the methodological weakness highlighted by White and Besner...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Darcy White, Derek Besner
Sulpizio, Spinelli, and Burani (2015a), concluded, on the basis of results from 3 reading aloud experiments, that stress assignment in polysyllabic pseudowords is closely tied to the process of articulation. We argue that there are methodological and statistical grounds for believing that this conclusion is premature. (PsycINFO Database Record
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Jennifer Chesters, Kate E Watkins, Riikka Möttönen
Developmental stuttering is a disorder of speech fluency affecting 1% of the adult population. Long-term reductions in stuttering are difficult for adults to achieve with behavioural therapies. We investigated whether a single session of transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) could improve fluency in people who stutter (PWS). In separate sessions, either anodal TDCS (1mA for 20min) or sham stimulation was applied over the left inferior frontal cortex while PWS read sentences aloud. Fluency was induced during the stimulation period by using choral speech, that is, participants read in unison with another speaker...
October 31, 2016: Brain and Language
R Harvey, L Foulds, T Housden, K A Bennett, D Falzon, A F McNarry, C Graham
Significant benefits have been demonstrated with the use of peri-operative checklists. We assessed whether a read-aloud didactic action card would improve performance of cannula cricothyroidotomy in a simulated 'can't intubate, can't oxygenate' scenario. A 17-step action card was devised by an expert panel. Participants in their first 4 years of anaesthetic training were randomly assigned into 'no-card' or 'card' groups. Scenarios were video-recorded for analysis. Fifty-three participants (27 no-card and 26 card) completed the scenario...
October 31, 2016: Anaesthesia
Xenia Schmalz, Alexander Porshnev, Eva Marinus
Word reading partly depends on the activation of sublexical letter clusters. Previous research has studied which types of letters clusters have psychological saliency, but less is known about cognitive mechanisms of letter string parsing. Here, we take advantage of the high degree of context-dependency of the Russian orthography to examine whether CV clusters are treated as units in two stages of sublexical processing. In two experiments using a nonword reading task, we use two orthogonal manipulations: (1) insertion of a visual disruptor (#) to assess whether CV clusters are kept intact during the early visual parsing stage, and (2) presence of context-dependent GPCs (e...
October 14, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Henriette Folkmann Pedersen, Riccardo Fusaroli, Lene Louise Lauridsen, Rauno Parrila
The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of oral reading and how it relates to reading comprehension in students with dyslexia. A group of Danish university students with dyslexia (n = 16) and a comparison group of students with no history of reading problems (n = 16) were assessed on their oral reading performance when reading a complex text. Along with reading speed, we measured not only the number and quality of reading errors but also the extent and semantic nature of the self-corrections during reading...
December 0: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Jean-Sebastien Provost, Simona M Brambati, Marianne Chapleau, Maximiliano A Wilson
Cognitive and computational models of reading aloud agree on the existence of two procedures for reading. Pseudowords (e.g., atendier) are correctly read through subword processes only while exception words (e.g., pint) are only correctly read via whole-words processes. Regular words can be correctly read by means of either way. Previous behavioral studies showed that older adults relied more on whole-word processing for reading. The aim of the present fMRI study was to verify whether this larger whole-word reliance for reading in older adults was reflected by changes in the pattern of brain activation...
September 17, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
P S Lúcio, G A Salum, L A Rohde, W Swardfager, A Gadelha, J Vandekerckhove, P M Pan, G V Polanczyk, M C do Rosário, A P Jackowski, J J Mari, H Cogo-Moreira
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with poorer reading ability; however, the specific neuropsychological domains linking this co-occurrence remain unclear. This study evaluates information-processing characteristics as possible neuropsychological links between ADHD symptoms and RA in a community-based sample of children and early adolescents with normal IQ (⩾70). METHOD: The participants (n = 1857, aged 6-15 years, 47% female) were evaluated for reading ability (reading single words aloud) and information processing [stimulus discriminability in the two-choice reaction-time task estimated using diffusion models]...
October 4, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Menahem Yeari, Adi Avramovich, Rachel Schiff
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have demonstrated that students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) struggle particularly with grasping the implicit, inferential level of narratives that is crucial for story comprehension. However, these studies used offline tasks (i.e., after story presentation), used indirect measurements (e.g., identifying main ideas), and/or yielded inconclusive results using think-aloud techniques. Moreover, most studies were conducted with preschool or elementary school children with ADHD, using listening or televised story comprehension...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Tamar H Gollan, Matthew Goldrick
The current study investigated the roles of grammaticality and executive control on bilingual language selection by examining production speed and failures of language control, or intrusion errors (e.g., saying el instead of the), in young and aging bilinguals. Production of mixed-language connected speech was elicited by asking Spanish-English bilinguals to read aloud paragraphs that had mostly grammatical (conforming to naturally occurring constraints) or mostly ungrammatical (haphazard mixing) language switches, and low or high switching rate...
October 2016: Journal of Memory and Language
Rosa Kit Wan Kwok, Fernando Cuetos, Rrezarta Avdyli, Andrew W Ellis
Do skilled readers of opaque and transparent orthographies make differential use of lexical and sublexical processes when converting words from print to sound? Two experiments are reported, which address that question, using effects of letter length on naming latencies as an index of the involvement of sublexical letter-sound conversion. Adult native speakers of English (Experiment 1) and Spanish (Experiment 2) read aloud four- and seven-letter high-frequency words, low-frequency words, and nonwords in their native language...
September 9, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Yuka Saito-Tanji, Emi Tsujimoto, Reiko Taketani, Ami Yamamoto, Hisae Ono
Several studies have proven the effectiveness of psychoeducation in bipolar II disorder patients; however, simpler psychoeducation is needed in daily medical practice. Therefore, we devised a simple individual psychoeducation program, which involved 20-minute sessions spent reading a textbook aloud in the waiting time before examination. Here, we report a successful case of simple individual psychoeducation with a patient with bipolar II disorder, a 64-year-old woman who had misconceptions surrounding her mood due to 24 years of treatment for depression...
2016: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Mara Breen, Lianne Kaswer, Julie A Van Dyke, Jelena Krivokapić, Nicole Landi
Researchers have established a relationship between beginning readers' silent comprehension ability and their prosodic fluency, such that readers who read aloud with appropriate prosody tend to have higher scores on silent reading comprehension assessments. The current study was designed to investigate this relationship in two groups of high school readers: Specifically Poor Comprehenders (SPCs), who have adequate word level and phonological skills but poor reading comprehension ability, and a group of age- and decoding skill-matched controls...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Kay Kulason, Rui Nouchi, Yasushi Hoshikawa, Masafumi Noda, Yoshinori Okada, Ryuta Kawashima
BACKGROUND: This project proposes a pilot study to investigate the positive healing effects of cognitive training with simple arithmetic and reading aloud on elderly postsurgical patients. Elderly patients undergoing surgery have an increased risk of Postoperative Cognitive Decline (POCD), a condition in which learning, memory, and processing speed is greatly reduced after surgery. Since elderly patients are more likely to exhibit symptoms of POCD, the incidence is increasing as the population receiving surgery has aged...
2016: Trials
Alice F Healy, Tessa K Zangara
This study examined a novel task in which participants read aloud passages shown 2 words per line on a computer screen. There were 4 different passages, all of which included unrelated sentences, with each sentence containing 1 test word. The passages differed only in the text type (prose, scrambled) and in the identity of the test word (the, one). The word the is a common function word, whereas one is a less common content word. The test word was repeated in half of the sentences at the end of one line and at the start of the next line...
July 28, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Ana P Pinheiro, Neguine Rezaii, Andréia Rauber, Margaret Niznikiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Impairments in self-other voice discrimination have been consistently reported in schizophrenia, and associated with the severity of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). This study probed the interactions between voice identity, voice acoustic quality, and semantic valence in a self-other voice discrimination task in schizophrenia patients compared with healthy subjects. The relationship between voice identity discrimination and AVH severity was also explored. METHODS: Seventeen chronic schizophrenia patients and 19 healthy controls were asked to read aloud a list of adjectives characterised by emotional or neutral content...
July 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Giacomo Spinelli, Simone Sulpizio, Silvia Primativo, Cristina Burani
Recent findings from English and Russian have shown that grammatical category plays a key role in stress assignment. In these languages, some grammatical categories have a typical stress pattern and this information is used by readers. However, whether readers are sensitive to smaller distributional differences and other morpho-syntactic properties (e.g., gender, number, person) remains unclear. We addressed this issue in word and non-word reading in Italian, a language in which: (1) nouns and verbs differ in the proportion of words with a dominant stress pattern; (2) information specified by words sharing morpho-syntactic properties may contrast with other sources of information, such as stress neighborhood...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Virgilijus Uloza, Tadas Petrauskas, Evaldas Padervinskis, Nora Ulozaitė, Ben Barsties, Youri Maryn
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to validate the Acoustic Voice Quality Index in Lithuanian language (AVQI-LT) and investigate the feasibility and robustness of its diagnostic accuracy, differentiating normal and dysphonic voice. METHODS: A total of 184 native Lithuanian subjects with normal voices (n = 46) and with various voice disorders (n = 138) were asked to read aloud the Lithuanian text and to sustain the vowel /a/. A sentence with 13 syllables and a 3-second midvowel portion of the sustained vowel were edited...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
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