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Emergent literacy

Sairam Parthasarathy, Mary A Carskadon, Girardin Jean-Louis, Judith Owens, Adam Bramoweth, Daniel Combs, Lauren Hale, Elizabeth Harrison, Chantelle N Hart, Brant P Hasler, Sarah M Honaker, Elisabeth Hertenstein, Samuel Kuna, Clete Kushida, Jessica C Levenson, Caitlin Murray, Allan I Pack, Vivek Pillai, Kristi Pruiksma, Azizi Seixas, Patrick Strollo, Saurabh S Thosar, Natasha Williams, Daniel Buysse
A wealth of scientific knowledge is being generated in sleep and circadian science. In order for us to realize the return on investment for such scientific knowledge and to improve the health of the nation, we need to disseminate and implement research findings into practice. An implementation gap - termed a "quality chasm" by the Institutes of Medicine - separates the scientific knowledge we possess and the implementation of such knowledge into preventative interventions or healthcare treatments. It is frequently reported that a time lag of 17 years transpires before medical research reaches clinical practice...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Elizabeth S Norton, Georgios Sideridis, Sara D Beach, Maryanne Wolf, John D E Gabrieli, Nadine Gaab
Research suggests that early identification of developmental dyslexia is important for mitigating the negative effects of dyslexia, including reduced educational attainment and increased socioemotional difficulties. The strongest pre-literacy predictors of dyslexia are rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological awareness (PA), letter knowledge, and verbal short-term memory. The relationship among these constructs has been debated, and several theories have emerged to explain the unique role of each in reading ability/disability...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
Charlotte Brooks, Claire Ballinger, Don Nutbeam, Jo Adams
PURPOSE: Health literacy is the ability to access, understand and use health information. This study qualitatively explored the views and experiences of older adults with varying health literacy levels who had attended a falls clinic on their overall experience of the falls clinic, access to the service and provider-patient interaction. METHODS: Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine older adults using a falls clinic in England. Health literacy was assessed using the REALM and NVS-UK...
October 7, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Richard G Parker, Amaya Perez-Brumer, Jonathan Garcia, Kelly Gavigan, Ana Ramirez, Jack Milnor, Veriano Terto
INTRODUCTION: Critical technological advances have yielded a toolkit of HIV prevention strategies. This literature review sought to provide contextual and historical reflection needed to bridge the conceptual gap between clinical efficacy and community effectiveness (i.e. knowledge and usage) of existing HIV prevention options, especially in resource-poor settings. METHODS: Between January 2015 and October 2015, we reviewed scholarly and grey literatures to define treatment literacy and health literacy and assess the current need for literacy related to HIV prevention...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Andrew J Rosenbaum, Andrew Dunkman, Daniel Goldberg, Richard L Uhl, Michael Mulligan
Background: Approximately 33% of Americans have inadequate health literacy, which is associated with infrequent use of preventative services, increased hospitalization and use of emergency care, and worse control of chronic diseases. In this study, the Literacy in Musculoskeletal Problems (LiMP) questionnaire was used to evaluate the prevalence of limited musculoskeletal literacy in patients undergoing carpal tunnel release (CTR), as these individuals may be at increased risk of inferior outcomes. Methods: This cross-sectional study included individuals older than or equal to 18 years of age who were scheduled for elective CTR...
September 2016: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
Frøydis Morken, Turid Helland, Kenneth Hugdahl, Karsten Specht
Dyslexia is a literacy disorder affecting the efficient acquisition of reading and writing skills. The disorder is neurobiological in origin. Due to its developmental nature, longitudinal studies of dyslexia are of essence. They are, however, relatively scarce. The present study took a longitudinal approach to cortical connectivity of brain imaging data in reading tasks in children with dyslexia and children with typical reading development. The participants were followed with repeated measurements through Pre-literacy (6 years old), Emergent Literacy (8 years old) and Literacy (12 years old) stages, using Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) when analysing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data...
September 26, 2016: NeuroImage
Lillian K Durán, Daphne Hartzheim, Emily M Lund, Vicki Simonsmeier, Theresa L Kohlmeier
Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to determine what bilingual or home language interventions have been found to be effective for 2- to 6-year-old dual language learners who have language impairment (LI) or are at risk for LI. Method: We conducted ancestral searches and searches of electronic databases, hand-searched article bibliographies, and searched 19 journals for experimental, quasiexperimental, or single-subject studies. Results: The review yielded 26 studies that were coded for quality, frequency and duration of the intervention, number of participants, location of intervention, interventionist, language(s) of intervention, and reported or calculated effect sizes...
September 27, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Edimansyah Abdin, Mythily Subramaniam, Louisa Picco, Shirlene Pang, Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Shazana Shahwan, Vathsala Sagayadevan, Yunjue Zhang, Siow Ann Chong
PURPOSE: The present study aims to examine the impact of chronic conditions after adjusting for differential item functioning (DIF) on the various aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a multi-ethnic Asian population in Singapore. METHOD: Data on 3006 participants from a nation-wide cross-sectional survey of mental health literacy conducted in Singapore were used. Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes model was used to investigate the effects of chronic medical conditions on various HRQoL dimensions assessed with the 36-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) after adjusting for DIF...
September 27, 2016: Quality of Life Research
Maria Lennox, Marleen F Westerveld, David Trembath
PURPOSE: This study examined the effectiveness of a classroom-based intervention programme aimed at improving the oral language and emergent literacy skills of students from low socio-economic, culturally diverse backgrounds within their first formal year of schooling ("prep"). METHOD: Data from 137 students were available for analysis. Participants were from three primary schools located in Queensland, Australia. Eight classes were allocated to intervention and two classes acted as a business as usual control...
September 19, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Richard T Griffey, Candace D McNaughton, Danielle M McCarthy, Erica Shelton, Ana Castaneda-Guarderas, Angela Young-Brinn, Donna Fowler, Corita Grudszen
Health literacy is "the degree to which individuals can obtain, process and understand the basic health information needed to make appropriate health decisions and access health services needed to prevent or treat illness." The prevalence of limited health literacy (LHL) among adult ED patients is as high as 88%. Numeracy, or the "ability to understand and use numbers in daily life," is a continuum of skills that ranges from basic recognition and computation of numbers to understanding and use of high level skills such as probability, risk, and randomization...
September 19, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Khaiwal Ravindra, Kamalpreet Kaur, Suman Mor
Manual handling of municipal solid waste is of serious concern owing to emerging occupational risks. Considering this, health risks of municipal solid waste workers involved in street sweeping, waste collection, waste processing and rag picking were assessed in Chandigarh, India, using an interview schedule as a study tool. Result shows that the waste worker profession is mainly dominated by males, except in rag pickers, and with a lower literacy rate. Age distribution shows that 16% of waste collectors and 11% of rag pickers were below 18 years of age...
November 2016: Waste Management & Research
Kimberly Diggle Mueller, Rebecca L Koscik, Lyn S Turkstra, Sarah K Riedeman, Asenath LaRue, Lindsay R Clark, Bruce Hermann, Mark A Sager, Sterling C Johnson
Connected language is often impaired among people with Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet little is known about when language difficulties first emerge on the path to a clinical diagnosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether individuals with psychometric (preclinical) evidence of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (pMCI) showed deficits in connected language measures. Participants were 39 pMCI and 39 cognitively healthy (CH) adults drawn from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention, who were matched for age, literacy, and sex...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Alexandriah N Alas, Gena C Dunivan, Cecelia K Wieslander, Claudia Sevilla, Biatris Barrera, Rezoana Rashid, Sally Maliski, Karen Eilber, Rebecca G Rogers, Jennifer Tash Anger
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare perceptions and barriers between Spanish-speaking and English-speaking women in public and private hospitals being treated for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). METHODS: Eight focus groups, 4 in English and 4 in Spanish, were conducted at 3 institutions with care in female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery. Standardized questions were asked regarding patients' emotions to when they initially noticed the POP, if they sought family support, and their response to the diagnosis and treatment...
September 16, 2016: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
Janet K Williams, W Gregory Feero, Debra G B Leonard, Bernice Coleman
Implementation of genomic discoveries into health care optimally includes evaluation of outcomes for recipients of care, providers, payers, and health care systems. However, the influence of specific aspects of the implementation process on observed outcomes may be missed if assessment of implementation success is not built into the implementation design. The intersection of implementation science with genomics may provide new insights on how to maximize the benefits of emerging genomic technologies in health care...
August 20, 2016: Nursing Outlook
Siobhan O'Connor, Peter Hanlon, Catherine A O'Donnell, Sonia Garcia, Julie Glanville, Frances S Mair
BACKGROUND: Numerous types of digital health interventions (DHIs) are available to patients and the public but many factors affect their ability to engage and enrol in them. This systematic review aims to identify and synthesise the qualitative literature on barriers and facilitators to engagement and recruitment to DHIs to inform future implementation efforts. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus and the ACM Digital Library were searched for English language qualitative studies from 2000 - 2015 that discussed factors affecting engagement and enrolment in a range of DHIs (e...
2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Sara D L Santos, Daniel Memmert, Jaime Sampaio, Nuno Leite
Developing creativity in team sports players is becoming an increasing focus in sports sciences. The Creativity Developmental Framework is presented to provide an updated science based background. This Framework describes five incremental creative stages (beginner, explorer, illuminati, creator, and rise) and combines them into multidisciplinary approaches embodied in creative assumptions. In the first training stages, the emphasis is placed on the enrollment in diversification, deliberate play and physical literacy approaches grounded in nonlinear pedagogies...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Elizabeth D Nesoff, J Nell Brownstein, Mark Veazie, Marcia O'Leary, Eric A Brody
Early recognition of acute myocardial infarction (MI), followed by prompt emergency care, improves patient outcomes. Among rural American Indian (AI) populations there are disparities in access to care for MI and processes of care, resulting in poor MI-related health outcomes compared to the general population. We sought to gain an understanding of barriers related to MI time-to-treatment delays using a qualitative approach. We conducted semi-structured interviews and focus groups with AI key informants and community members in three Indian Health Service regions...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Community Health
Jean Mullins, Donna Z Bliss, Sharon Rolnick, Casey Arntson Henre, Jody Jackson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine barriers to communicating with healthcare professionals and health literacy about incontinence among different types of informal caregivers of individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD). DESIGN: Descriptive secondary analysis. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: The sample included 48 family/friend adult caregivers of individuals who had AD. Seventy-five percent were female; their mean age was 64 ± 14 years (mean ± SD)...
September 2016: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
Reynaldo Rivera, David Santos, Gaspar Brändle, Miguel Ángel M Cárdaba
BACKGROUND: Exposure to media violence might have detrimental effects on psychological adjustment and is associated with aggression-related attitudes and behaviors. As a result, many media literacy programs were implemented to tackle that major public health issue. However, there is little evidence about their effectiveness. Evaluating design effectiveness, particularly regarding targeting process, would prevent adverse effects and improve the evaluation of evidence-based media literacy programs...
April 2016: Evaluation Review
Sarah Bauerle Bass, Thomas F Gordon, Laurie Maurer, Judith Greener, Gabriella Mora, Dominique Ruggieri, Caitlin Wolak, Claudia Parvanta
Potential terror events such as "dirty bombs" could have significant public health effects, but little is known about how low-literacy populations perceive dirty bombs, their trust in public health or government officials to provide credible information, and their willingness to comply with recommended actions. We surveyed 50 low-literacy adults from a large urban center; they were mostly members of ethnic minority groups. We used unique social marketing methods-perceptual mapping and vector message modeling-to create 3-dimensional models that reflected respondents' knowledge of what a dirty bomb is, their intended behaviors should one occur, and their concerns about complying with "shelter in place" recommendations...
September 2016: Health Security
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