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Toxoplasma Mytilus

Sarah E Staggs, Scott P Keely, Michael W Ware, Nancy Schable, Mary Jean See, Dominic Gregorio, Xuan Zou, Chunlei Su, J P Dubey, Eric N Villegas
Surveillance monitoring for microbial water quality typically involves collecting single discrete grab samples for analyzing only one contaminant. While informative, current approaches suffer from poor recoveries and only provide a limited snapshot of the microbial contaminants only at the time of collection. To overcome these limitations, bivalves have been proposed as effective biosentinels of water quality particularly for their ability to efficiently concentrate and retain microbial contaminants for long periods of time...
December 2015: Parasitology Research
Marianna Marangi, Annunziata Giangaspero, Vita Lacasella, Antonio Lonigro, Robin B Gasser
Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii are important parasitic protists linked to water- and food-borne diseases. The accurate detection of these pathogens is central to the diagnosis, tracking, monitoring and surveillance of these protists in humans, animals and the environment. In this study, we established a multiplex real-time PCR (qPCR), coupled to high resolution melting (HRM) analysis, for the specific detection and quantification of each G. duodenalis (assemblage A), C. parvum and T...
April 2015: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Karen Shapiro, Elizabeth VanWormer, Beatriz Aguilar, Patricia A Conrad
Coastal habitat contamination with Toxoplasma gondii is a health risk to humans and marine wildlife, with infections documented in both nearshore and pelagic marine mammals. Due to lack of sensitive methods for detection of T. gondii in water, this study utilized an alternative surveillance approach for evaluating marine habitat contamination using wild mussels. The objectives of this study were to (i) validate sensitive molecular tools for T. gondii detection in mussels and (ii) apply optimized methods in a surveillance study to determine the prevalence and genotype(s) of T...
November 2015: Environmental Microbiology
U Aksoy, M Marangi, R Papini, S Ozkoc, S Bayram Delibas, A Giangaspero
To evaluate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii and Cyclospora cayetanensis in edible shellfish, a total of 795 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis from 8 different sites on the west coast of Turkey (Bays of Izmir and Mersin) were examined. Fifty-three pooled samples were created and subjected to EvaGreen(®) RealTime PCR assay and HRM analysis for protozoans detection and oocyst quantification. Seven out of 8 sites were contaminated with at least one protozoan species. Twenty-one out of 53 (39.6%) samples tested positive for T...
December 2014: Food Microbiology
Benoît Lévesque, Christine Barthe, Brent R Dixon, Lorna J Parrington, Daniel Martin, Bill Doidge, Jean-François Proulx, Donald Murphy
This pilot study was aimed at documenting the presence of fecal indicators and enteric pathogens in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from 6 communities in Nunavik, Quebec. One to four 2 kg samples of mussels were collected at low tide in each community. Samples were investigated by enumeration methods for the fecal indicators enterococci, Escherichia coli, F-specific coliphages, Clostridium perfringens, and by molecular identification for the pathogens norovirus, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari, verocytotoxin-producing E...
November 2010: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
L Putignani, L Mancinelli, F Del Chierico, D Menichella, D Adlerstein, M C Angelici, M Marangi, F Berrilli, M Caffara, D A Frangipane di Regalbono, A Giangaspero
To evaluate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in edible farmed shellfish, 1734 shellfish specimens i.e., 109 Crassostrea gigas (6 pools), 660 Mytilus galloprovincialis (22 pools), 804 Tapes decussatus (28 pools) and 161 Tapes philippinarum (6 pools), were collected from the Varano Lagoon (Apulia, Italy). Shellfish from 62 pools were subjected to two molecular techniques: a nested-PCR assay, and a fluorescent amplicon generation (FLAG) real-time PCR assay, both based on the multi-copy B1 target, were performed...
February 2011: Experimental Parasitology
Kristen D Arkush, Melissa A Miller, Christian M Leutenegger, Ian A Gardner, Andrea E Packham, Anja R Heckeroth, Astrid M Tenter, Bradd C Barr, Patricia A Conrad
Toxoplasma gondii is associated with morbidity and mortality in a variety of marine mammals, including fatal meningoencephalitis in the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). The source(s) of T. gondii infection and routes of transmission in the marine environment are unknown. We hypothesise that filter-feeding marine bivalve shellfish serve as paratenic hosts by assimilation and concentration of infective T. gondii oocysts and their subsequent predation by southern sea otters is a source of infection for these animals...
September 15, 2003: International Journal for Parasitology
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