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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088235/the-sense-behind-retroviral-anti-sense-transcription
#1
Mamneet Manghera, Alycia Magnusson, Renée N Douville
Retroviruses are known to rely extensively on the expression of viral proteins from the sense proviral genomic strand. Yet, the production of regulatory retroviral proteins from antisense-encoded viral genes is gaining research attention, due to their clinical significance. This report will discuss what is known about antisense transcription in Retroviridae, and provide new information about antisense transcriptional regulation through a comparison of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Human T-cell Lymphotrophic Virus (HTLV-1) and endogenous retrovirus-K (ERVK) long terminal repeats (LTRs)...
January 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088213/glycine-alanine-dipeptide-repeat-protein-contributes-to-toxicity-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-c9orf72-associated-neurodegeneration
#2
Yu Ohki, Andrea Wenninger-Weinzierl, Alexander Hruscha, Kazuhide Asakawa, Koichi Kawakami, Christian Haass, Dieter Edbauer, Bettina Schmid
BACKGROUND: The most frequent genetic cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the expansion of a GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat in a non-coding region of the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) locus. The pathological hallmarks observed in C9orf72 repeat expansion carriers are the formation of RNA foci and deposition of dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins derived from repeat associated non-ATG (RAN) translation. Currently, it is unclear whether formation of RNA foci, DPR translation products, or partial loss of C9orf72 predominantly drive neurotoxicity in vivo...
January 14, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088076/in%C3%A2-vivo-visualization-of-endogenous-mir-21-using-hyaluronic-acid-coated-graphene-oxide-for-targeted-cancer-therapy
#3
Do Won Hwang, Han Young Kim, Fangyuan Li, Ji Yong Park, Dohyun Kim, Jae Hyung Park, Hwa Seung Han, Jung Woo Byun, Yun-Sang Lee, Jae Min Jeong, Kookheon Char, Dong Soo Lee
Oncogene-targeted nucleic acid therapy has been spotlighted as a new paradigm for cancer therapeutics. However, in vivo delivery issues and uncertainty of therapeutic antisense drug reactions remain critical hurdles for a successful targeted cancer therapy. In this study, we developed a fluorescence-switchable theranostic nanoplatform using hyaluronic acid (HA)-conjugated graphene oxide (GO), which is capable of both sensing oncogenic miR-21 and inhibiting its tumorigenicity simultaneously. Cy3-labeled antisense miR-21 peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes loaded onto HA-GO (HGP21) specifically targeted CD44-positive MBA-MB231 cells and showed fluorescence recovery by interacting with endogenous miR-21 in the cytoplasm of the MBA-MB231 cells...
December 31, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080251/tetrahedral-dna-nanoparticle-vector-for-intracellular-delivery-of-targeted-peptide-nucleic-acid-antisense-agents-to-restore-antibiotic-sensitivity-in-cefotaxime-resistant-escherichia-coli
#4
John Benedict Readman, George Dickson, Nick G Coldham
The bacterial cell wall presents a barrier to the uptake of unmodified synthetic antisense oligonucleotides, such as peptide nucleic acids, and so is one of the greatest obstacles to the development of their use as therapeutic anti-bacterial agents. Cell-penetrating peptides have been covalently attached to antisense agents, to facilitate penetration of the bacterial cell wall and deliver their cargo into the cytoplasm. Although they are an effective vector for antisense oligonucleotides, they are not specific for bacterial cells and can exhibit growth inhibitory properties at higher doses...
January 12, 2017: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080221/molecular-mechanisms-of-antisense-oligonucleotides
#5
Stanley T Crooke
In 1987, when I became interested in the notion of antisense technology, I returned to my roots in RNA biochemistry and began work to understand how oligonucleotides behave in biological systems. Since 1989, my research has focused primarily on this topic, although I have been involved in most areas of research in antisense technology. I believe that the art of excellent science is to frame large important questions that are perhaps not immediately answerable with existing knowledge and methods, and then conceive a long-term (multiyear) research strategy that begins by answering the most pressing answerable questions on the path to the long-term goals...
January 12, 2017: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078998/lipoprotein-a-management-pharmacological-and-apheretic-treatment
#6
Ruth Hanssen, Ioanna Gouni-Berthold
Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-like particle with an additional apolipoprotein, apolipoprotein (a), [apo(a)] attached to apolipoprotein B. Recent epidemiologic and Mendelian randomization studies have provided evidence that Lp(a) is causally related to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk association between Lp(a) concentrations and CVD is still controversial but seems to be continuous and without an obvious threshold Lp(a) level. Circulating concentrations of Lp(a) are genetically determined; desirable levels are amplt; 50 mg/dl...
January 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074027/a-unique-cis-encoded-small-noncoding-rna-is-regulating-legionella-pneumophila-hfq-expression-in-a-life-cycle-dependent-manner
#7
Giulia Oliva, Tobias Sahr, Monica Rolando, Maike Knoth, Carmen Buchrieser
: Legionella pneumophila is an environmental bacterium that parasitizes protozoa, but it may also infect humans, thereby causing a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease. To cycle between the environment and a eukaryotic host, L. pneumophila is regulating the expression of virulence factors in a life cycle-dependent manner: replicating bacteria do not express virulence factors, whereas transmissive bacteria are highly motile and infective. Here we show that Hfq is an important regulator in this network...
January 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070636/extracellular-matrix-loss-in-chondrocytes-after-exposure-to-interleukin-1%C3%AE-in-nadph-oxidase-dependent-manner
#8
Sakie Funato, Rika Yasuhara, Kentaro Yoshimura, Yoichi Miyamoto, Kotaro Kaneko, Tetsuo Suzawa, Daichi Chikazu, Kenji Mishima, Kazuyoshi Baba, Ryutaro Kamijo
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease caused by excessive death of chondrocytes and loss of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in articular cartilage. We previously reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the NADPH oxidase (NOX) isoform NOX-2 are involved in chondrocyte death induced by interleukin-1β (IL-1β). In this study, we investigate the role of NOX-2 in the production and degradation of ECM by chondrocytes. Although IL-1β lowered the mRNA expression of type II collagen (Col2a1) and aggrecan (Acan) in mouse chondrocyte-like ATDC5 cells, RNA silencing of Nox2 did not change the mRNA expression of these major components of the ECM of cartilage...
January 9, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070051/-prognostic-value-of-lncrna-hotair-expression-in-%C3%A2-patients-with-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#9
Wenna Xi, Wei Song
To systematically review the prognostic value regarding the expression of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) in patients with cancer. 
 Methods: Databases including The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PubMed were searched to collect English literature on the correlation between lncRNA HOTAIR expression and overall survival in tumors. The retrieval time was from inception to September 2015. After data were extracted, a Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5...
December 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067598/why-so-narrow-distribution-of-anti-sense-regulated-type-i-toxin-antitoxin-systems-compared-to-type-ii-and-type-iii-systems
#10
Dorien S Coray, Nicole E Wheeler, Jack A Heinemann, Paul P Gardner
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are gene modules that appear to be horizontally mobile across a wide range of prokaryotes. It has been proposed that type I TA systems, with an antisense RNA-antitoxin, are less mobile than other TAs that rely on direct toxin-antitoxin binding but no direct comparisons have been made. We searched for type I, II and III toxin families using iterative searches with profile hidden Markov models across phyla and replicons. The distribution of type I toxin families were comparatively narrow, but these patterns weakened with recently discovered families...
January 9, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064104/dermal-transdermal-delivery-of-small-interfering-rna-and-antisense-oligonucleotides-advances-and-hurdles
#11
REVIEW
Kevin Ita
A diverse array of nucleic acids has been studied by several researchers for the management of several diseases. Among these compounds, small interfering RNA and antisense oligonucleotides have attracted considerable attention. Antisense oligonucleotides are synthetic single stranded strings of nucleic acids that bind to RNA and thereby alter or reduce expression of the target RNA while siRNAs, on the other hand, are double-stranded RNA molecules which can hybridize with a specific mRNA sequence and block the translation of numerous genes...
January 5, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062294/assessment-of-biofilm-formation-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-antisense-maze-pna
#12
Hassan Valadbeigi, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard, Majid Baseri Salehi
The hallmark patogenicity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is biofilm formation that is not easy to eradicate, because it has variety mechanisms for antibiotic resistance. In addition, toxin-antitoxin (TA) system may play role in biofilm formation. The current study aimed to evaluate the role of TA loci in biofilm formation. Therefore, 18 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were collected and evaluated for specific biofilm and TA genes. The analysis by RT-qPCR demonstrated that expression of mazE antitoxin in biofilm formation was increase...
January 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061540/metallothionein-2a-an-interactive-protein-linking-phosphorylated-fadd-to-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-leads-to-colorectal-cancer-formation
#13
Faiz M M T Marikar, Guanghui Jin, Wang Sheng, Dingyuan Ma, Zichun Hua
BACKGROUND: The rapid increase in the incidence rate of colorectal cancer has led to the search and identification of biomarkers that can predict risk for and future behavior of this malignancy and management. To study the biological role of the phosphorylated Fas associated death domain (pFADD) gene in colorectal cancer, we performed a GAL4-based yeast two-hybrid screening of a human heart cDNA library. METHODS: A series of two yeast hybrid method was used to identification of protein-protein interaction...
December 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060734/let-7a-regulates-expression-of-%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptors-and-forms-a-negative-feedback-circuit-with-the-%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptor-signaling-pathway-in-chronic-ischemic-heart-failure
#14
Yue Du, Mingyu Zhang, Wei Zhao, You Shu, Ming Gao, Yanan Zhuang, Ti Yang, Wei Mu, Tingting Li, Xin Li, Fei Sun, Zhenwei Pan, Yanjie Lu
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of microRNA (miRNA) let-7a in down-regulation of β1-adrenoceptors (β1-AR) and elucidate the underlying mechanism of chronic ischemia heart failure (CIHF) in rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: CIHF model was established by occlusion of coronary artery for 4 weeks. β1-AR level was obviously down-regulated and let-7a up-regulated in the failing heart 4 weeks after myocardial infarction. Overexpression of let-7a inhibited β1-AR expression in neonatal rat ventricular cells (NRVCs), which was abolished by anti-let-7a antisense inhibitor...
January 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059953/lipoprotein-a-new-insights-from-modern-genomics
#15
Mehdi Afshar, George Thanassoulis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is the strongest independent genetic risk factor for both myocardial infarction and aortic stenosis. It has also been associated with other forms of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) including ischemic stroke. Its levels are genetically determined and remain fairly stable throughout life. Elevated Lp(a), above 50 mg/dl, affects one in five individuals worldwide. RECENT FINDINGS: Herein, we review the recent epidemiologic and genetic evidence supporting the causal role of Lp(a) in CVD, highlight recommendations made by European and Canadian guidelines regarding Lp(a) and summarize the rapidly evolving field of Lp(a)-lowering therapies including antisense therapies and Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 inhibitors...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057603/the-protein-expression-landscape-of-mitosis-and-meiosis-in-diploid-budding-yeast
#16
Emmanuelle Becker, Emmanuelle Com, Régis Lavigne, Marie-Hélène Guilleux, Bertrand Evrard, Charles Pineau, Michael Primig
: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an established model organism for the molecular analysis of fundamental biological processes. The genomes of numerous strains have been sequenced, and the transcriptome and proteome of major phases during the haploid and diploid yeast life cycle have been determined. However, much less is known about dynamic changes of the proteome when cells switch from mitotic growth to meiotic development. We report a quantitative protein profiling analysis of yeast cell division and differentiation based on mass spectrometry...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056764/temperature-dependent-srna-transcriptome-of-the-lyme-disease-spirochete
#17
Niko Popitsch, Ivana Bilusic, Philipp Rescheneder, Renée Schroeder, Meghan Lybecker
BACKGROUND: Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi from its tick vector to a vertebrate host requires extensive reprogramming of gene expression. Small regulatory RNAs (sRNA) have emerged in the last decade as important regulators of bacterial gene expression. Despite the widespread observation of sRNA-mediated gene regulation, only one sRNA has been characterized in the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi. We employed an sRNA-specific deep-sequencing approach to identify the small RNA transcriptome of B...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054653/the-long-non-coding-rna-neat1-is-responsive-to-neuronal-activity-and-is-associated-with-hyperexcitability-states
#18
Guy Barry, James A Briggs, Do Won Hwang, Sam P Nayler, Patrick R J Fortuna, Nicky Jonkhout, Fabien Dachet, Jesper L V Maag, Pieter Mestdagh, Erin M Singh, Lotta Avesson, Dominik C Kaczorowski, Ezgi Ozturk, Nigel C Jones, Irina Vetter, Luis Arriola-Martinez, Jianfei Hu, Gloria R Franco, Victoria M Warn, Andrew Gong, Marcel E Dinger, Frank Rigo, Leonard Lipovich, Margaret J Morris, Terence J O'Brien, Dong Soo Lee, Jeffrey A Loeb, Seth Blackshaw, John S Mattick, Ernst J Wolvetang
Despite their abundance, the molecular functions of long non-coding RNAs in mammalian nervous systems remain poorly understood. Here we show that the long non-coding RNA, NEAT1, directly modulates neuronal excitability and is associated with pathological seizure states. Specifically, NEAT1 is dynamically regulated by neuronal activity in vitro and in vivo, binds epilepsy-associated potassium channel-interacting proteins including KCNAB2 and KCNIP1, and induces a neuronal hyper-potentiation phenotype in iPSC-derived human cortical neurons following antisense oligonucleotide knockdown...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053087/targeting-traf3ip2-by-genetic-and-interventional-approaches-inhibits-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-myocardial-injury-and-adverse-remodeling
#19
John M Erikson, Anthony J Valente, Srinivas Mummidi, Hemanthkumar Kandikattu, Vincent G DeMarco, Shawn B Bender, William P Fay, Ulrich Siebenlist, Bysani Chandrasekar
Re-establishing blood supply is the primary goal for reducing myocardial injury in subjects with ischemic heart disease. Paradoxically, reperfusion results in oxidative stress and a marked inflammatory response in the heart. TRAF3IP2 (TRAF3 Interacting Protein 2; previously known as CIKS or Act1) is an oxidative stress-responsive cytoplasmic adapter molecule that is an upstream regulator of both IκB kinase (IKK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and an important mediator of autoimmune and inflammatory responses...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053071/mouse-models-for-drug-discovery-can-new-tools-and-technology-improve-translational-power
#20
Aamir Zuberi, Cathleen Lutz
The use of mouse models in biomedical research and preclinical drug evaluation is on the rise. The advent of new molecular genome-altering technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9 allows for genetic mutations to be introduced into the germ line of a mouse faster and less expensively than previous methods. In addition, the rapid progress in the development and use of somatic transgenesis using viral vectors, as well as manipulations of gene expression with siRNAs and antisense oligonucleotides, allow for even greater exploration into genomics and systems biology...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
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