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Lijun Zhang, Xiantao Song, Li Dong, Jianan Li, Ruiyu Dou, Zhanming Fan, Jing An, Debiao Li
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the work was to evaluate the incremental diagnostic value of free-breathing, contrast-enhanced, whole-heart, 3 T cardiovascular magnetic resonance coronary angiography (CE-MRCA) to stress/rest myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Fifty-one patients with suspected CAD underwent a comprehensive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) examination (CE-MRCA, MPI, and LGE)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Phu Hai Nguyen, Erika I Lutter, Ted Hackstadt
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that replicates within a vacuole termed an inclusion. At the end of their intracellular developmental cycle, chlamydiae are released either by lysis of the host cell or extrusion of the intact inclusion. The inclusion membrane is extensively modified by the insertion of type III secreted inclusion membrane proteins, Incs, which contribute to inclusion membrane structure and facilitate host-pathogen interactions. An interaction was identified between the inclusion membrane protein, MrcA, and the Ca2+ channel inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 3 (ITPR3)...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
György Sipos, Arun N Prasanna, Mathias C Walter, Eoin O'Connor, Balázs Bálint, Krisztina Krizsán, Brigitta Kiss, Jaqueline Hess, Torda Varga, Jason Slot, Robert Riley, Bettina Bóka, Daniel Rigling, Kerrie Barry, Juna Lee, Sirma Mihaltcheva, Kurt LaButti, Anna Lipzen, Rose Waldron, Nicola M Moloney, Christoph Sperisen, László Kredics, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Andrea Patrignani, David Fitzpatrick, István Nagy, Sean Doyle, James B Anderson, Igor V Grigoriev, Ulrich Güldener, Martin Münsterkötter, László G Nagy
In the version of this Article originally published, it was incorrectly stated that "16,687 protein-coding genes were inferred for the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Armillaria"; the value was incorrect and it should have read "15,787". This has now been corrected.
March 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Jianhua Yin, Yiyang Sun, Yijuan Sun, Zhiliang Yu, Juanping Qiu, Haichun Gao
Production of chromosome-encoded β-lactamases confers resistance to β-lactams in many Gram-negative bacteria. Some inducible β-lactamases, especially the class C β-lactamase AmpC in Enterobacteriaceae, share a common regulatory mechanism, the ampR - ampC paradigm. Induction of ampC is intimately linked to peptidoglycan recycling, and the LysR-type transcriptional regulator AmpR plays a central role in the process. However, our previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of class D β-lactamase gene blaA in Shewanella oneidensis is distinct from the established paradigm since an AmpR homolog is absent and major peptidoglycan recycling enzymes play opposite roles in β-lactamase expression...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sofie Claerhout, Michiel Vandenbosch, Kelly Nivelle, Leen Gruyters, Anke Peeters, Maarten H D Larmuseau, Ronny Decorte
Knowledge of Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) mutation rates is essential to determine the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) in familial searching or genealogy research. Up to now, locus-specific mutation rates have been extensively examined especially for commercially available forensic Y-STRs, while haplogroup specific mutation rates have not yet been investigated in detail. Through 450 patrilineally related namesakes distributed over 212 deep-rooting genealogies, the individual mutation rates of 42 Y-STR loci were determined, including 27 forensic Y-STR loci from the Yfiler® Plus kit and 15 additional Y-STR loci (DYS388, DYS426, DYS442, DYS447, DYS454, DYS455, DYS459a/b, DYS549, DYS607, DYS643, DYS724a/b and YCAIIa/b)...
May 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
P Margaritte-Jeannin, M-C Babron, C Laprise, N Lavielle, C Sarnowski, M Brossard, M Moffatt, V Gagné-Ouellet, A Etcheto, M Lathrop, J Just, W O Cookson, E Bouzigon, F Demenais, M-H Dizier
BACKGROUND: Genetic studies of eczema have identified many genes, which explain only 14% of the heritability. Missing heritability may be partly due to ignored gene-gene (G-G) interactions. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to detect new interacting genes involved in eczema. METHODS: The search for G-G interaction in eczema was conducted using a two-step approach, which included as a first step, a biological selection of genes, which are involved either in the skin or epidermis development or in the collagen metabolism, and as a second step, an interaction analysis of the selected genes...
March 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Marek Slovák, Jaromír Kučera, Hans Walter Lack, Jotham Ziffer-Berger, Andrea Melicharková, Eliška Záveská, Peter Vďačný
Understanding transcontinental biogeographic patterns has been one of the main foci of the field of biogeography. While multiple explanations for transcontinental disjunctions have been proposed, little is still known about the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic traits for the diversification dynamics of disjunct taxa. Here, we study the evolutionary history of the genus Picris L. (Compositae), a great model for investigating the diversification dynamics of transoceanic bipolar disjunct organisms...
February 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Carlos Juan, Gabriel Torrens, Mar González-Nicolau, Antonio Oliver
This review deeply addresses for the first time the diversity, regulation and mechanisms leading to mutational overexpression of intrinsic β-lactamases from non-fermenting and other non-Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens. After a general overview of the intrinsic β-lactamases described so far in these microorganisms, including circa. 60 species and 100 different enzymes, we review the wide array of regulatory pathways of these β-lactamases. They include diverse LysR-type regulators, which control the expression of β-lactamases from relevant nosocomial pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Stenothrophomonas maltophilia or two-component regulators, with special relevance in Aeromonas spp...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Tavarekere N Nagaraja, Rasha Elmghirbi, Stephen L Brown, Lonni R Schultz, Ian Y Lee, Kelly A Keenan, Swayamprava Panda, Glauber Cabral, Tom Mikkelsen, James R Ewing
PURPOSE: The objective was to study temporal changes in tumor vascular physiological indices in a period of 24h in a 9L gliosarcoma rat model. METHODS: Fischer-344 rats (N=14) were orthotopically implanted with 9L cells. At 2weeks post-implantation, they were imaged twice in a 24h interval using dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Data-driven model-selection-based analysis was used to segment tumor regions with varying vascular permeability characteristics...
December 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Medhat K Shier, James C Iles, Mohammad S El-Wetidy, Hebatallah H Ali, Mohammad M Al Qattan
The source of HCV transmission in Saudi Arabia is unknown. This study aimed to determine HCV genotypes in a representative sample of chronically infected patients in Saudi Arabia. All HCV isolates were genotyped and subtyped by sequencing of the HCV core region and 54 new HCV isolates were identified. Three sets of primers targeting the core region were used for both amplification and sequencing of all isolates resulting in a 326 bp fragment. Most HCV isolates were genotype 4 (85%), whereas only a few isolates were recognized as genotype 1 (15%)...
2017: PloS One
Yi-Wei Huang, Yu Wang, Yun Lin, Chin Lin, Yi-Tsung Lin, Cheng-Chih Hsu, Tsuey-Ching Yang
Penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) are involved in peptidoglycan synthesis, and their inactivation is linked to β-lactamase expression in ampR-β-lactamase module-harboring Gram-negative bacteria. There are seven annotated PBP genes, namely, mrcA, mrcB, pbpC, mrdA, ftsI, dacB, and dacC, in the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia genome, and these genes encode PBP1a, PBP1b, PBP1c, PBP2, PBP3, PBP4, and PBP6, respectively. In addition, S. maltophilia harbors two β-lactamase genes, L1 and L2, whose expression is induced via β-lactam challenge...
July 2017: MSystems
Yuan-Yuan Li, Hong Liu, Shi-Hong Fu, Xiao-Long Li, Xiao-Fang Guo, Ming-Hua Li, Yun Feng, Wei-Xin Chen, Li-Hua Wang, Wen-Wen Lei, Xiao-Yan Gao, Zhi Lv, Ying He, Huan-Yu Wang, Hong-Ning Zhou, Gui-Qin Wang, Guo-Dong Liang
Getah virus (GETV) was first isolated in Malaysia in 1955. Since then, epidemics in horses and pigs caused by GETV have resulted in huge economic losses. At present, GETV has spread across Eurasia and Southeast Asia, including mainland China, Korea, Japan, Mongolia, and Russia. Data show that the Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) of GETV existed about 145years ago (95% HPD: 75-244) and gradually evolved into four distinct evolutionary populations: Groups I-IV. The MRCA of GETVs in Group III, which includes all GETVs isolated from mosquitoes, pigs, horses, and other animals since the 1960s (from latitude 19°N to 60°N), existed about 51years ago (95% HPD: 51-72)...
August 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Zhi-Teng Chen, Liang Lü, Ming-Xing Lu, Yu-Zhou Du
In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome, mtDNA) of Aposthonia borneensis and compare it with another sequenced webspinner, Aposthonia japonica. The A. borneensis mitogenome is smaller than A. japonica, but the size of each gene and the A + T content of protein-coding genes (PCGs) are almost identical in the two mitogenomes. Among the PCGs, atp6 shows the highest evolutionary rate and cox1 the lowest. The mtDNA map in A. borneensis is similar to Drosophila yakuba, but distinctly different from A...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tonatiuh Ramírez-Reyes, Daniel Piñero, Oscar Flores-Villela, Ella Vázquez-Domínguez
The description of cryptic gecko species worldwide has revealed both that many putative species are, in fact, conformed by a complex of morphologically conserved species that are genetically distinct and highly divergent, and that gecko species diversity could be underestimated. The taxonomy and species delimitation of geckos belonging to the genus Phyllodactylus is still controversial, 16 of which are distributed in Mexico and 13 are endemic. Although the large morphological variation shown by the Phyllodactylus species from Mexico has been amply documented, little is known about their genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships, and much less regarding cryptic speciation...
October 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Mariana Bustamante, Vikas Gupta, Carl-Johan Carlhäll, Tino Ebbers
Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) and Phase-Contrast MRA (PC-MRA) approaches used for assessment of cardiovascular morphology typically result in data containing information from the entire cardiac cycle combined into one 2D or 3D image. Information specific to each timeframe of the cardiac cycle is, however, lost in this process. This study proposes a novel technique, called Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance CardioAngiography (4D PC-MRCA), that utilizes the full potential of 4D Flow CMR when generating temporally resolved PC-MRA data to improve visualization of the heart and major vessels throughout the cardiac cycle...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Anuj Srivastava, Andrew P Morgan, Maya L Najarian, Vishal Kumar Sarsani, J Sebastian Sigmon, John R Shorter, Anwica Kashfeen, Rachel C McMullan, Lucy H Williams, Paola Giusti-Rodríguez, Martin T Ferris, Patrick Sullivan, Pablo Hock, Darla R Miller, Timothy A Bell, Leonard McMillan, Gary A Churchill, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena
The Collaborative Cross (CC) is a multiparent panel of recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains derived from eight founder laboratory strains. RI panels are popular because of their long-term genetic stability, which enhances reproducibility and integration of data collected across time and conditions. Characterization of their genomes can be a community effort, reducing the burden on individual users. Here we present the genomes of the CC strains using two complementary approaches as a resource to improve power and interpretation of genetic experiments...
June 2017: Genetics
Chen-Xi Zhang, Wei-Jun Ma, Dai-Lin Liu, Xiu-Juan Jia, Yan-Min Zhao
Microbial transformation of ursolic acid (1) was carried out by Alternaria longipes AS 3.2875. Six transformed products (2-7) from 1 were isolated and their structures were identified as 3-carbonyl ursolic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2), ursolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), ursolic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (4), 2α, 3β-dihydroxy ursolic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (5), 3β, 21β dihydroxy ursolic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (6), and 3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)- ursolic acid 28-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (7) based on the analysis of 1D NMR, 2DNMR and MS data...
May 29, 2017: Natural Product Research
Muhammad Ibrahim Rashid, Anam Naz, Amjad Ali, Saadia Andleeb
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among top critical nosocomial infectious agents due to its persistent infections and tendency for acquiring drug resistance mechanisms. To date, there is no vaccine available for this pathogen. We attempted to exploit the genomic and proteomic information of P. aeruginosa though reverse-vaccinology approaches to unveil the prospective vaccine candidates. P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 genome was subjected to sequential prioritization approach following genomic, proteomics and structural analyses...
July 2017: Genomics
Hiroyuki Takemoto, Yoshi Kawamoto, Shoko Higuchi, Emiko Makinose, John A Hart, Térese B Hart, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Nahoko Tokuyama, Gay E Reinartz, Patrick Guislain, Jef Dupain, Amy K Cobden, Mbangi N Mulavwa, Kumugo Yangozene, Serge Darroze, Céline Devos, Takeshi Furuichi
We report here where the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of bonobos (Pan paniscus) ranged and how they dispersed throughout their current habitat. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecular dating to analyze the time to MRCA (TMRCA) and the major mtDNA haplogroups of wild bonobos were performed using new estimations of divergence time of bonobos from other Pan species to investigate the dispersal routes of bonobos over the forest area of the Congo River's left bank. The TMRCA of bonobos was estimated to be 0.64 or 0...
2017: PloS One
P G Wolf, G Parthasarathy, J Chen, H M O'Connor, N Chia, A E Bharucha, H R Gaskins
BACKGROUND: Differences in the gut microbiota and breath methane production have been observed in chronic constipation, but the relationship between colonic microbiota, transit, and breath tests remains unclear. METHODS: In 25 healthy and 25 constipated females we evaluated the sigmoid colonic mucosal and fecal microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, abundance of hydrogenogenic FeFe (FeFe-hydA) and hydrogenotrophic (methyl coenzyme M reductase A [mrcA] and dissimilatory sulfite reductase A [dsrA]) genes with real-time qPCR assays, breath hydrogen and methane levels after oral lactulose, and colonic transit with scintigraphy...
October 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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