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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932235/zika-virus-congenital-syndrome-experimental-models-and-clinical-aspects
#1
REVIEW
Carolina Manganeli Polonio, Carla Longo de Freitas, Nagela Ghabdan Zanluqui, Jean Pierre Schatzmann Peron
Viral infections have long been the cause of severe diseases to humans, increasing morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, either in rich or poor countries. Yellow fever virus, H1N1 virus, HIV, dengue virus, hepatitis B and C are well known threats to human health, being responsible for many million deaths annually, associated to a huge economic and social cost. In this context, a recently introduced flavivirus in South America, called Zika virus (ZIKV), led the WHO to declare in February 1st 2016 a warning on Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921677/clinical-profile-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-a-developing-country-india
#2
Ramit Mahajan, Vandana Midha, Omesh Goyal, Varun Mehta, Vikram Narang, Kirandeep Kaur, Arshdeep Singh, Dharmatma Singh, Rishu Bhanot, Ajit Sood
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology and clinical profile of hepatitis C virus (HCV) varies worldwide and data from developing countries is sparse. AIMS: To study the clinical profile of HCV infection in a developing country in South East Asia (India). METHODS: This observational study assessed patient demographics, viral characteristics, risk factors for virus acquisition and disease characteristics in HCV patients diagnosed between January 2004 and December 2015...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899424/clade-homogeneity-and-low-rate-of-delta-virus-despite-hyperendemicity-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-ethiopia
#3
Yeshambel Belyhun, Uwe Gerd Liebert, Melanie Maier
BACKGROUND: Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) is hyperendemic and heterogeneous in its genetic diversity in Ethiopia, little is known about hepatitis D virus (HDV) circulating genotypes and molecular diversity. METHODS: A total of 321 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positives (125 HIV co-infected, 102 liver disease patients and 94 blood donors) were screened for anti-HDV antibody. The anti-HDV positive sera were subjected to Real time PCR for HDV-RNA confirmation...
September 12, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885693/epidemiological-and-molecular-analysis-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-manicurists-in-central-brazil
#4
Larissa Dos Santos Pereira Cavaretto, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro, Sheila Araujo Teles, Fernanda Queiroz de Souza, Wesley Marcio Cardoso, Grazielli Rocha de Rezende, Tayana Serpa Ortiz Tanaka, Larissa Melo Bandeira, Gabriela Alves Cesar, Marco Antonio Moreira Puga, Bruna Bentos Nepomuceno, Bárbara Vieira do Lago, Sonia Maria Fernandes Fitts
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the serological and molecular prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 514 manicurists/pedicurists and identify the risk factors related with this infection. METHODS: Samples were tested for HBV serological markers, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by ELISA. Anti-HBc-positive samples were tested to investigate occult hepatitis B by PCR. HBsAg-positive samples were genotyped and the viral loads of HBV-DNA positive samples were quantified...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879707/analysis-of-hepatitis-c-virus-ns5a-region-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-using-an-ultra-deep-pyrosequencing-method
#5
Fahriye Keskin, Sevgi Ciftci, Filiz Akyuz, Neslihan Abaci, Aris Cakiris, Umit Akyuz, Kadir Demir, Fatih Besisik, Duran Ustek, Sabahattin Kaymakoglu
BACKGROUND: HCV (Hepatitis C Virus) is genetically more diverse than HBV and HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and exists as quasispecies within infected individuals. This is due to the lack of efficient proofreading of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Consequently, quasispecies emerge depending on the mutation rate of the viral polymerase, which may display a high level of genetic variability in a population. In infected individuals, HCV replicates and circulates as quasispecies composed of a complex mixture of different but closely related genomes that undergoes continuous change due to competitive selection and cooperation between arising mutants...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857896/viral-hepatitis-screening-in-transgender-patients-undergoing-gender-identity-hormonal-therapy
#6
Neeraj Mangla, Rifat Mamun, Ilan S Weisberg
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Viral hepatitis is a global health issue and can lead to cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Guidelines for viral hepatitis screening in the transgender population do not exist. Transgender patients may be at higher risk for contracting viral hepatitis due to socioeconomic and behavioral factors. The aim of this study was to measure the quality of screening, prevalence, and susceptibility of viral hepatitis, and to identify barriers to screening in transgender patients undergoing gender identity hormonal therapy...
August 29, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782578/performance-of-rapid-diagnostic-tests-for-detection-of-hepatitis-b-and-c-markers-in-hiv-infected-patients
#7
Jakeline Ribeiro Barbosa, Jeová Keny Baima Colares, Geane Lopes Flores, Vanessa Faria Cortes, Juliana Custódio Miguel, Moyra Machado Portilho, Vanessa Alves Marques, Denise Vigo Potsch, Carlos Eduardo Brandão-Mello, Marcia Amendola-Pires, José Henrique Pilotto, Danielle Malta Lima, Elisabeth Lampe, Livia Melo Villar
There is little information describing the influence of HIV infection upon the performance of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for hepatitis B and C virus diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the performance of RDTs for HBsAg and anti-HCV detection among HIV-infected individuals. A total of 362 HIV infected individuals were recruited from clinics between January 2013 to November 2014 in the southeast and northeast of Brazil. HBsAg and anti-HCV were detected using commercial EIAs and four RDTs: HBV (Vikia HBsAg(®) and Wama Imuno-Rapido HBV(®)) and HCV (Bioeasy Teste Rápido HCV(®) and Wama Imuno-Rapido HCV(®))...
October 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774417/treatment-of-hepatitis-b-virus-with-combination-therapy-now-and-in-the-future
#8
REVIEW
Joel S Emery, Jordan J Feld
Chronic Hepatitis B continues as a significant public health problem despite the availability of safe and effective antivirals and a highly effective protective vaccine. Current therapy, however rarely leads to cure and lifelong therapy is often required, contributing to poor uptake and ongoing morbidity. New insights into the hepatitis B viral life cycle and the host immune response have expanded the potential targets for drug therapies with interesting antiviral candidates and novel immunotherapeutic approaches in early stage development...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769934/human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-and-immune-regulation-how-do-classical-and-non-classical-hla-alleles-modulate-immune-response-to-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus-infections
#9
REVIEW
Nicole B Crux, Shokrollah Elahi
The genetic factors associated with susceptibility or resistance to viral infections are likely to involve a sophisticated array of immune response. These genetic elements may modulate other biological factors that account for significant influence on the gene expression and/or protein function in the host. Among them, the role of the major histocompatibility complex in viral pathogenesis in particular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), is very well documented. We, recently, added a novel insight into the field by identifying the molecular mechanism associated with the protective role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27/B57 CD8(+) T cells in the context of HIV-1 infection and why these alleles act as a double-edged sword protecting against viral infections but predisposing the host to autoimmune diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723711/epidemiology-of-autoimmune-and-inflammatory-diseases-in-a-french-nationwide-hiv-cohort
#10
D Lebrun, M Hentzien, L Cuzin, D Rey, V Joly, L Cotte, C Allavena, P Dellamonica, A Servettaz, F Bani-Sadr
HIV infection and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (IAD) are both related to immune dysfunction. Epidemiological data on IAD in patients living with HIV (PLHIV) are scarce. The aim of this study was thus to estimate the prevalence of 26 IAD among PLHIV followed in a large French multicenter cohort in the cART era (from January 2000 to July 2013), and to describe their occurrence according to cART onset, the immuno-virological status of patients and HCV and/or HBV co-infection.During the study period, 33 403 PLHIV were included in the Dat'AIDS cohort; 1381 patients with an IAD were identified...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707319/tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-significantly-decreases-serum-lipoprotein-levels-compared-with-entecavir-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-therapy-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-carriers
#11
A A Shaheen, M AlMattooq, S Yazdanfar, K W Burak, M G Swain, S E Congly, M A Borman, S S Lee, R P Myers, C S Coffin
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and entecavir (ETV) are first-line treatments for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Studies suggest lipid lowering effect of TDF in human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) individuals, but the effect on lipids and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in CHB is unknown. AIM: To compare TDF vs ETV effects on lipid levels in CHB. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, data on serum lipids and CVD risk factors at baseline and ~1 year on TDF or ETV were collected from CHB carriers...
September 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681826/prevalence-of-transfusion-transmitted-viral-pathogens-among-health-care-workers-and-risk-mitigation-programme-in-a-paediatric-tertiary-care-hospital
#12
Charu Nayyar, Rushika Saksena, Vikas Manchanda
The health-care workers (HCWs) are at an occupational risk of exposure to blood-borne pathogens, mainly, HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus. HBV is currently the only blood-borne virus for which a vaccine is available. All health-care institutions must encourage the HCWs to undergo screening for blood-borne pathogens.
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678865/transfusion-transmissible-viral-infections-among-blood-donors-at-the-north-gondar-district-blood-bank-northwest-ethiopia-a-three-year-retrospective-study
#13
Belete Biadgo, Elias Shiferaw, Berhanu Woldu, Kefyalew Addis Alene, Mulugeta Melku
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmissible viral infections, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), remain a major public health problem in developing countries. The prevalence of these viral infections among blood donors may reflect the burden of these diseases among populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the sero-prevalence of transfusion-transmissible viral infections among blood donors. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted using data obtained from registration books of blood donors from the Ethiopian North Gondar District Blood Bank from 2010 to 2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636651/yield-of-yearly-routine-physical-examination-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-is-limited-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-the-netherlands
#14
Marleen A van Amsterdam, Sander van Assen, Herman G Sprenger, Kasper R Wilting, Ymkje Stienstra, Wouter F W Bierman
BACKGROUND: Routine physical examinations might be of value in HIV-infected patients, but the yield is unknown. We determined the diagnoses that would have been missed without performing annual routine physical examinations in HIV-infected patients with stable disease. METHODS: Data were collected from the medical records of 299 HIV-1-infected patients with CD4 count >350 cells/mm3 if not using combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), or CD4 count >100 cells/mm3 and undetectable viral load if using cART...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632974/hcv-positive-donor-organs-in-solid-organ-transplantation-mind-the-gap
#15
EDITORIAL
J A Fishman, X Forns
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621653/increased-mortality-among-indigenous-persons-in-a-multisite-cohort-of-people-living-with-hiv-in-canada
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Anita C Benoit, Jaime Younger, Kerrigan Beaver, Randy Jackson, Mona Loutfy, Renée Masching, Tony Nobis, Earl Nowgesic, Doe O'Brien-Teengs, Wanda Whitebird, Art Zoccole, Mark Hull, Denise Jaworsky, Elizabeth Benson, Anita Rachlis, Sean B Rourke, Ann N Burchell, Curtis Cooper, Robert S Hogg, Marina B Klein, Nima Machouf, Julio S G Montaner, Chris Tsoukas, Janet Raboud
OBJECTIVE: Compare all-cause mortality between Indigenous participants and participants of other ethnicities living with HIV initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in an interprovincial multi-site cohort. METHODS: The Canadian Observational Cohort is a collaboration of 8 cohorts of treatment-naïve persons with HIV initiating cART after January 1, 2000. Participants were followed from the cART initiation date until death or last viral load (VL) test date on or before December 31, 2012...
June 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598793/croi-2017-highlights-of-advances-in-viral-hepatitis-and-liver-fibrosis
#17
Anne F Luetkemeyer, David L Wyles
At the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Seattle, Washington, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was a major focus in the context of HIV-associated liver disease. Well-tolerated direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have enabled effective treatment of the populations that are hardest to cure, including those with decompensated cirrhosis, and many studies examined the impact of HCV cure on hepatitis and extrahepatic outcomes. Scaling up access to DAA, and the impact that their universal availability can have on reducing prevalence were key topics...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586700/injection-into-the-jugular-vein-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-the-united-kingdom-prevalence-associated-factors-and-harms
#18
Vivian D Hope, Jenny Iversen, Katelyn J Cullen, John V Parry, Lisa Maher, Fortune Nucbe
BACKGROUND: While people who inject drugs (PWID) typically use peripheral veins, some inject into their central veins, including the femoral and jugular veins. Injection into the jugular vein can have serious adverse health consequences, including jugular vein thrombosis, deep neck infections, pneumothorax, endocarditis and sepsis. This study examined the prevalence of, and factors associated with, jugular vein injection among a large sample of PWID in the United Kingdom. METHOD: Unlinked anonymous surveys (2011-14) recruited PWID from agencies providing services to this population...
June 3, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579170/vaccination-coverage-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-patients-receiving-care-at-an-aids-outpatient-clinic-in-esp%C3%A3-rito-santo-brazil
#19
Lauro Ferreira da Silva Pinto Neto, Julia Vescovi Vieira, Nathália Rossoni Ronchi
This cross-sectional study assessed the immunization status of human immune deficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving care at an outpatient clinic in Brazil. The sociodemographic characteristics, CD4 count and HIV viral load of 281 out of 612 adult outpatients were analyzed. A total of 331 patients were excluded because of no availability of vaccination cards. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used. Immunization coverage was higher for diphtheria/tetanus (59.79%) and hepatitis B (56.7%), and lowest for hepatitis A (6...
June 1, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562715/evaluation-of-hiv-sti-and-cd4-results-among-voluntary-attendees-at-the-hiv-aids-program-of-mexico-city
#20
Luis Alfredo Juárez-Figueroa, Felipe Javier Uribe-Salas, Andrea González-Rodríguez, Patricia Iracheta-Hernández, Verónica Ruiz-González, Yazmín Medina-Islas
Objective: To describe results of HIV, sexually transmitted diseases (STI) and CD4 counts at the HIV-specialized Condesa Clinic (CC) in Mexico City. Materials and methods: Individuals who requested voluntary counseling and testing at CC were studied. We identified antibodies against HIV, syphilis, hepatitis C, and hepatitis B HBsAg. CD4 cell counts and viral load of HIV positive individuals were also obtained. Late HIV infection diagnosis was established if CD4 counts were lower than 200 cells/μL...
March 2017: Salud Pública de México
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