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viral hepatitis b and c, HIV,

Jolanta Parada-Turska, Monika Turska
Polyarteritis nodosa is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis which predominantly affects medium-sized arteries. It is a rare disease nowadays. Both the nomenclature and the classification of polyarteritis nodosa was amended several times in the past. Currently, there is a distinction between the primary form described as classical polyarteritis nodosa and other forms that are associated with their probable cause e.g. with viral hepatitis B, C or HIV infection. Moreover, polyarteritis-like necrotizing vasculitis can appear in the course of genetic diseases caused by mutations in single genes...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Khoa T D Thai, Hannelore Götz, Bibi C G C Slingerland, Janienne Klaasse, Martin Schutten, Corine H GeurtsvanKessel
BACKGROUND: Correct identification of blood borne viral infections, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is crucial in detection and follow up of infection in patients. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the DiaSorin LIAISON XL (LIAISON XL) for screening of HBV, HCV and HIV infection. In addition, we investigated the variability of the signal-to-cuttoff ratio (S/CO) of the LIAISON XL HIV Ag/Ab assay and it's predictive value in subsequent confirmation of HIV-1 infection...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Daniel Enosi Tuipulotu, Natalie E Netzler, Jennifer H Lun, Jason M Mackenzie, Peter A White
Norovirus infections are a significant health and economic burden globally, accounting for hundreds of millions of cases of acute gastroenteritis every year. In the absence of an approved norovirus vaccine, there is an urgent need to develop antivirals to treat chronic infections, and provide prophylactic therapy to limit viral spread during epidemics and pandemics. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been explored widely for their antiviral potential and several are progressing through clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and as adjuvants for norovirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Wolfgang Miehsler, Clemens Dejaco, Hans-Peter Gröchenig, Harry Fuchssteiner, Christoph Högenauer, Lili Kazemi-Shirazi, Harald Maier, Andreas Mayer, Alexander Moschen, Walter Reinisch, Wolfgang Petritsch, Reingard Platzer, Pius Steiner, Herbert Tilg, Harald Vogelsang, Heimo Wenzl, Gottfried Novacek
Anti-TNFα-antibodies have revolutionized the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases and other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Due to the increasing application of these substances, the Working Group of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of the Austrian Association of Gastroenterology and Hepatology intended to update their consensus report on the safe use of Infliximab (published in 2010) and to enlarge its scope to cover all anti-TNFα-antibodies. The present consensus report summarizes the current evidence on the safe use of anti-TNFα-antibodies and covers the following topics: general risk of infection, bacterial infections (i...
March 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Luis J Jara, Gabriela Medina, Miguel A Saavedra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update about the interactions between infections and autoimmune diseases (AIDs), from the molecular perspective to the clinical spectrum and the differentiation between infection and disease activity. RECENT FINDINGS: Any kind of infection may modify the innate and adaptive immune response through the following mechanisms: molecular mimicry, superantigens, epitope spreading and B-cell activation. The consequence is the overproduction of antibodies shared with those found in AIDs...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Camille Zambaz, Diana Dan
Arthritis and arthralgia during a viral infection are often polyarticular and symmetric and can mimic rheumatoid arthritis. Depending on germs, others signs and symptoms as fever, cutaneous rash (Parvovirus B19) or jaundice (hepatitis) can be present. Worldwide most common germs are Parvovirus B19, hepatitis B and C, HIV and alphavirus. There are significant differences throughout the world and epidemiology continues to evolve with a progression of vector-borne infections. Diagnosis of viral arthritis is often difficult and is based on epidemiological, clinical and serological data...
March 7, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
D Raben, M Hoekstra, I Sperle, A J Amato Gauci, C Gauci, B West, A Sullivan, J V Lazarus, T Platteau, J K Rockstroh
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the article is to provide an overview of the results of the HepHIV 2017 Conference organized by the HIV in Europe initiative under the Maltese EU Presidency in January 2017. METHODS: A thourough review of all conference presentations (oral and poster presentations) was performed to retrieve the key outcomes of the conference. RESULTS: The key result from the conference was a call to action summarising key priorities in HIV and viral hepatitis testing and linkage to care...
February 2018: HIV Medicine
Parveen Rewri, Madhavi Sharma, D P Vats, Aparna Singhal
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of blood-borne viral infections (triple H: HBV-hepatitis B virus, HCV-hepatitis C virus, and HIV-human immunodeficiency virus) among cataract patients, sought possible risk associations and discuss feasibility of universal preoperative screening. Methods: This prospective, cross-sectional study enrolled consecutive patients of senile cataract. They were screened by immunoassay-based rapid diagnostic card tests for blood-borne viral infections...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Iulia A Neagu, Jason Olejarz, Mark Freeman, Daniel I S Rosenbloom, Martin A Nowak, Alison L Hill
Viral infections are one of the major causes of death worldwide, with HIV infection alone resulting in over 1.2 million casualties per year. Antiviral drugs are now being administered for a variety of viral infections, including HIV, hepatitis B and C, and influenza. These therapies target a specific phase of the virus's life cycle, yet their ultimate success depends on a variety of factors, such as adherence to a prescribed regimen and the emergence of viral drug resistance. The epidemiology and evolution of drug resistance have been extensively characterized, and it is generally assumed that drug resistance arises from mutations that alter the virus's susceptibility to the direct action of the drug...
February 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Abby May Falla, Sanne Henrietta Ina Hofstraat, Erika Duffell, Susan Josien Maria Hahné, Lara Tavoschi, Irene Karen Veldhuijzen
BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organisation set a goal to eliminate viral hepatitis by 2030. Robust epidemiological information underpins all efforts to achieve elimination and this systematic review provides estimates of HBsAg and anti-HCV prevalence in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) among three at-risk populations: people in prison, men who have sex with men (MSM), and people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Estimates of the prevalence among the three risk groups included in our study were derived from multiple sources...
February 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Julia Proff, Charlotte U Brey, Armin Ensser, Wolfgang Holter, Manfred Lehner
BACKGROUND: During infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) several viral proteins occur on cell surfaces in high quantity. We thus pursue an HLA-independent approach for immunotherapy of HCMV using chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) and bispecific BiTE® antibody constructs. In this context, HCMV-encoded proteins that mediate viral immune evasion and bind human IgG might represent particularly attractive target antigens. Unlike in observations of similar approaches for HIV and hepatitis B and C viruses, however, HCMV-infected cells develop a striking resistance to cytotoxic effector functions at later stages of the replication cycle...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Elkin Hernán Bermúdez-Aza, Sharmila Shetty, Janet Ousley, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Theint Thida Soe, Kyipyar Soe, Phyu Ei Mon, Kyaw Tin Tun, Iza Ciglenecki, Susanna Cristofani, Marcelo Fernandez
OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term clinical, immunological and virological outcomes among people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Myanmar. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of people on ART for >9 years followed by a cross-sectional survey among the patients in this group who remained on ART at the time of the survey. Routinely collected medical data established the baseline clinical and demographic characteristics for adult patients initiating ART between 2004 and 2006...
2018: PloS One
Nicole Atkins, William Hodge, Bruce Li
Tonometry has been identified as a common method for measuring the intraocular pressure in patients. The direct contact between the tonometer and the eye may contribute to the risk of cross infection, especially of viral particles, from one patient to another. A systematic review was undertaken to address the likelihood of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and prion diseases transmission through the use of tonometers. Additionally, a comparison of the current tonometer disinfection methods is provided to assist with identifying which technique effectively reduces the risk of disease transmission...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Ahmad Karkhah, Mostafa Javanian, Soheil Ebrahimpour
Two hepatotropic viruses hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been considered as the main cause of chronic viral infections. In addition, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system by eradication of some white blood cell (T-helper cell). The role of Tregs in HCV, HBV and HIV infections ranges from suppressing antiviral T cell responses to protecting tissues as liver and immune cells from immune mediated injury. In this review, we discuss the influence of regulatory T cells in immunopathology of specific viral infections including HCV, HBV and HIV by focusing on targeting Tregs as novel approach in vaccinology against viral infections...
April 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Daniele Rocha, Elisabete Andrade, Daniela T Godoy, Marcela Fontana-Maurell, Elaine Costa, Marisa Ribeiro, Antônio G P Ferreira, Rodrigo Brindeiro, Amilcar Tanuri, Patrícia Alvarez
BACKGROUND: The history of the development and implementation of the Brazilian nucleic acid testing (NAT) platform to detect and discriminate among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in blood donors is described here. The results for the sensitivity, reproducibility, and NAT yield of the platform since program implementation are provided. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The Brazilian NAT HIV, HCV, and HBV kit was developed and evaluated with regard to analytical sensitivity, specificity, intralot and interlot reproducibility, interfering substances, and genotype and diagnostic sensitivity...
January 30, 2018: Transfusion
Amine Benmassaoud, Peter Ghali, Joseph Cox, Philip Wong, Jason Szabo, Marc Deschenes, Maria Osikowicz, Bertrand Lebouche, Marina B Klein, Giada Sebastiani
BACKGROUND AND AIM: HIV-infected individuals are at high risk of developing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a leading cause of end-stage liver disease in Western countries. Nonetheless, due to the invasiveness of liver biopsy, NASH remains poorly understood in HIV mono-infection. We aimed to characterize the prevalence and predictors of NASH in unselected HIV mono-infected patients by means of non-invasive diagnostic tools. METHODS: HIV-infected adults without significant alcohol intake or co-infection with hepatitis B or C underwent a routine screening program employing transient elastography (TE) with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and the serum biomarker cytokeratin-18 (CK-18)...
2018: PloS One
Wusiman Aibibula, Joseph Cox, Anne-Marie Hamelin, Erica E M Moodie, Aranka Anema, Marina B Klein, Paul Brassard
Depressive symptoms are associated with poor HIV viral control and immune recovery among people living with HIV. However, no prior studies assessed this association exclusively among people co-infected with HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV). While people with HIV only and those with HIV-HCV co-infection share many characteristics, co-infected people may become more susceptible to the effects of depressive symptoms on health outcomes. We assessed this association exclusively among people co-infected with HIV-HCV in Canada using data from the Food Security & HIV-HCV Sub-Study (FS Sub-Study) of the Canadian Co-Infection Cohort (CCC)...
January 28, 2018: AIDS Care
Vicente Soriano, Benjamin Young, Nancy Reau
The International Conference on Viral Hepatitis 2017 brought exciting news on the treatment of viral hepatitis. The most recent estimates of the burden for hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were presented. The current gaps and prospects for regional and global eradication of viral hepatitis were discussed on the light of the WHO roadmap until 2030. Debates focused on hepatitis C and expectations using the new approved HCV pan-genotypic, once daily, oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), glecaprevir-pibrentasvir, and sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir...
January 25, 2018: AIDS Reviews
Alastair Heffernan, Ella Barber, Nicola A Cook, Asmaa I Gomaa, Yolande X Harley, Christopher R Jones, Aaron G Lim, Zameer Mohamed, Shevanthi Nayagam, Gibril Ndow, Rajiv Shah, Mark W Sonderup, C Wendy Spearman, Imam Waked, Robert J Wilkinson, Simon D Taylor-Robinson
A recent international workshop, organized by the authors, analyzed the obstacles facing the ambitious goal of eliminating viral hepatitis globally. We identified several policy areas critical to reaching elimination targets. These include providing hepatitis B birth-dose vaccination to all infants within 24 hours of birth, preventing the transmission of blood-borne viruses through the expansion of national hemovigilance schemes, implementing the lessons learned from the HIV epidemic regarding safe medical practices to eliminate iatrogenic infection, adopting point-of-care testing to improve coverage of diagnosis, and providing free or affordable hepatitis C treatment to all...
January 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Sarah J Willis, Stephen R Cole, Daniel Westreich, Andrew Edmonds, Christopher B Hurt, Svenja Albrecht, Kathryn Anastos, Michael Augenbraun, Margaret Fischl, Audrey L French, Aley G Kalapila, Roksana Karim, Marion G Peters, Michael Plankey, Eric C Seaberg, Phyllis C Tien, Adaora A Adimora
OBJECTIVE(S): One in four persons living with HIV is coinfected with HCV. Biological and behavioral mechanisms may increase HIV viral load among coinfected persons. Therefore, we estimated the longitudinal effect of chronic HCV on HIV suppression after ART initiation among women with HIV (WWH). DESIGN: HIV RNA was measured every six months among 441 WWH in the Women's Interagency HIV Study who initiated ART from 2000-2015. METHODS: Log-binomial regression models were used to compare the proportion of study visits with detectable HIV RNA between women with and without chronic HCV...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
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