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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209492/reproductive-considerations-in-the-setting-of-chronic-viral-illness
#1
REVIEW
Brent M Hanson, Jessie A Dorais
Special considerations must be taken when patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B, or Hepatitis C desire to achieve pregnancy. Patients with chronic viral illnesses desire children at rates similar to the general population, and options are available to decrease both vertical transmission and viral transmission between partners. Preconception counseling or consultation with fertility specialists is imperative in patients with HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C so that reproductive goals can be addressed and optimized...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164313/the-characteristics-of-hepatitis%C3%A2-b-surface-antigen-hbsag-negative-hepatitis%C3%A2-b-virus-hbv-infection-in-chinese-blood-donors-a-follow-up-study-of-donors-tested-negative-for-hbsag-and-reactive-for-simultaneous-nucleic-acid-testing-of-hbv-hepatitis%C3%A2-c-virus-and
#2
Zhaofu Guo, Ping Fu, Yijin Yin, Funeng Wang, Yiqing Yin, Jingxing Wang, Yu Liu
BACKGROUND: The real infection status of hepatitis B virus (HBV) of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative yet nucleic acid test (NAT)-positive blood donors is difficult to clarify. Detailed follow-up study is needed for analyzing the infectivity of these blood donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood donors who screened negative for HBsAg and reactive for simultaneous NAT of HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were included in a follow-up epidemiologic questionnaire survey and contributed follow-up samples for further testing...
February 5, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163164/anti-pd-1-pd-l1-therapy-for-infectious-diseases-learning-from-the-cancer-paradigm
#3
REVIEW
Martin Rao, Davide Valentini, Ernest Dodoo, Alimuddin Zumla, Markus Maeurer
OBJECTIVES: Immune checkpoint pathways regulate optimal host immune responses against transformed cells, induce immunological memory, and limit tissue pathology. Conversely, aberrant immune checkpoint activity signifies a poor prognosis in cancer and infectious diseases. Host-directed therapy (HDT) via immune checkpoint blockade has revolutionized cancer treatment with therapeutic implications for chronic infections, thus laying the foundation for this review. METHODS: Online literature searches were performed via PubMed, PubMed Central, and Google using the keywords "immune checkpoint inhibition"; "host-directed therapy"; "T cell exhaustion"; "cancer immunotherapy"; "anti-PD-1 therapy"; "anti-PD-L1 therapy"; "chronic infections"; "antigen-specific cells"; "tuberculosis"; "malaria"; "viral infections"; "human immunodeficiency virus"; "hepatitis B virus"; "hepatitis C virus"; "cytomegalovirus" and "Epstein-Barr virus"...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150510/quality-of-life-in-an-italian-cohort-of-people-living-with-hiv-in-the-era-of-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-evidence-from-i-a-n-u-a-study-investigation-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#4
A Venturini, G Cenderello, A Di Biagio, B Giannini, M Ameri, M Giacomini, M Montefiori, M Setti, G Mazzarello, C Merlano, P Orcamo, C Viscoli, G Cassola
The aims of this study were to assess the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who attend outpatient services in Genoa, Italy, and to evaluate the relationship between HRQoL and clinical factors, primarily: CD4+ cell count, viral load and HIV-Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) coinfection. A cross-sectional study was performed involving a sample of 943 consecutive patients. Firstly the EuroQol-Five Dimensions-Three Level (EQ-5D-3L) self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate HRQoL, while socio-demographic information was collected using a separate self-administered questionnaire...
February 2, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127941/multidisciplinary-managed-care-networks-life-saving-interventions-for-hepatitis-c-patients
#5
J M Tait, H Wang, B P Stephens, M Miller, P G McIntyre, S Cleary, J F Dillon
Successful hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy depends on effective pathways of care. Over two decades, we have developed four sequential models of care latterly using a multidisciplinary managed care network to improve HCV testing, care and treatment. This was a cohort study to evaluate the effectiveness of care pathways, carried out using all HCV antibody-positive individuals tested in a geographical region between 1994 and 2014. The study involved 3122 HCV-positive patients. They were divided into four subgroups representing different care pathways defined by their date of HCV antibody diagnosis...
March 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121714/hepatitis-delta-and-hiv-infection
#6
Vincent Soriano, Kenneth E Sherman, Pablo Barreiro
Viral liver diseases are frequent co-morbidities and major contributors to death in HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy. Whereas cure of hepatitis C and control of hepatitis B with antivirals avert liver disease progression in most HIV-coinfected patients, the lack of satisfactory treatment for hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection remains a major threat for developing cirrhosis and liver cancer in this population. In the European Union and North America, sexual contact has replaced injection drug use has major transmission route for HDV in HIV-positive persons...
January 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101146/bone-health-in-hiv-and-hepatitis-b-or-c-infections
#7
REVIEW
Emmanuel Biver, Alexandra Calmy, René Rizzoli
Chronic infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) add to age-dependent bone loss and may contribute to lower bone strength in the elderly. In this review, we report recent highlights on the epidemiology of bone fragility in chronic viral infections with HIV, HCV and HBV, its physiopathology and discuss the interference of antiviral therapies with bone metabolism. Chronic infections influence bone through the interactions between risk factors for bone fragility and falls (which are highly prevalent in infected patients), virus activity and antiviral drugs...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093538/prevalence-and-determinants-of-cryptosporidium-infection-in-an-underdeveloped-rural-region-of-southwestern-china
#8
Ya Yang, Yibiao Zhou, Wanting Cheng, Xiang Pan, Penglei Xiao, Yan Shi, Jianchuan Gao, Xiuxia Song, Yue Chen, Qingwu Jiang
Few studies have focused on the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in resource-challenged settings in China. We report a community-based cross-sectional study to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection and its risk factors and associations with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was 12.6% (95% confidence interval = 11.0-14.3). Individuals living in households with ≥ 5 family members and raising domestic pigs tended to have a greater risk of Cryptosporidium infection...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087069/safety-tolerability-and-antiviral-effect-of-rg-101-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-a-phase-1b-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Meike H van der Ree, J Marleen de Vree, Femke Stelma, Sophie Willemse, Marc van der Valk, Svend Rietdijk, Richard Molenkamp, Janke Schinkel, Ad C van Nuenen, Ulrich Beuers, Salah Hadi, Marten Harbers, Eva van der Veer, Kai Liu, John Grundy, Amy K Patick, Adam Pavlicek, Jacqueline Blem, Michael Huang, Paul Grint, Steven Neben, Neil W Gibson, Neeltje A Kootstra, Hendrik W Reesink
BACKGROUND: miR-122 is an important host factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral effect of a single dose of RG-101, a hepatocyte targeted N-acetylgalactosamine conjugated oligonucleotide that antagonises miR-122, in patients with chronic HCV infection with various genotypes. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase 1B study, patients were randomly assigned to RG-101 or placebo (7:1)...
January 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078644/eight-or-12-week-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-with-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-real-world-experience-in-a-large-integrated-health-system
#10
Jennifer B Lai, Maxwell A Witt, Mary Patricia Pauly, Joanna Ready, Michael Allerton, Suk Seo, David J Witt
BACKGROUND: Second-generation direct-acting antiviral agents are integral to treatment of hepatitis C (HCV) infection. Eight-week courses of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) have been supported in some studies, but data are limited on efficacy in real-world use. Controversy exists regarding applicability of clinical trials to real-world effectiveness. We report virologic responses of patients with HCV genotype 1 infection receiving LDV/SOF for 8 or 12 weeks in a large integrated healthcare system...
January 11, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069884/purification-of-zika-virus-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-and-its-use-to-identify-small-molecule-zika-inhibitors
#11
Hong-Tao Xu, Said A Hassounah, Susan P Colby-Germinario, Maureen Oliveira, Clare Fogarty, Yudong Quan, Yingshan Han, Olga Golubkov, Ilinca Ibanescu, Bluma Brenner, Brent R Stranix, Mark A Wainberg
BACKGROUND: The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) enzymes of the Flaviviridae family are essential for viral replication and are logically important targets for development of antiviral therapeutic agents. Zika virus (ZIKV) is a rapidly re-emerging human pathogen for which no vaccine or antiviral agent is currently available. METHODS: To facilitate development of ZIKV RdRp inhibitors, we have established an RdRp assay using purified recombinant ZIKV NS5 polymerase...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056752/inhibiting-the-secretion-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-hbsag-to-treat-hepatitis-b-infection-a-review
#12
Simon D Baugh
Chronic Hepatitis B is a major global health issue, and has no known cure. Currently there are over 240 million people infected with the disease, and it leads to the death of over 686,000 people each year. A total of seven treatments which help to control the disease are currently available: interferon-based treatments (pegasys, and interferon alpha), and nucleoside and nucleotide analogs (Viread, Baraclude, Tyzeka, Hepsera, Epivir-HBV), but all require continuing treatment to maintain control of the disease...
January 4, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018873/restrictions-for-reimbursement-of-direct-acting-antiviral-treatment-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-canada-a-descriptive-study
#13
Alison D Marshall, Sahar Saeed, Lisa Barrett, Curtis L Cooper, Carla Treloar, Julie Bruneau, Jordan J Feld, Lesley Gallagher, Marina B Klein, Mel Krajden, Naglaa H Shoukry, Lynn E Taylor, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: In Canada, interferon-free, direct-acting antiviral hepatitis C virus (HCV) regimens are costly. This presents challenges for universal drug coverage of the estimated 220 000 people with chronic HCV infection nationwide. The study objective was to appraise criteria for reimbursement of 4 HCV direct-acting antivirals in Canada. METHODS: We reviewed the reimbursement criteria for simeprevir, sofosbuvir, ledipasvir-sofosbuvir and paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir plus dasabuvir in the 10 provinces and 3 territories...
October 2016: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013267/shedding-of-hepatitis-c-virus-into-the-rectum-of-hiv-infected-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#14
Andrew L Foster, Michael M Gaisa, Rosanne M Hijdra, Samuel S Turner, Tristan J Morey, Karen B Jacobson, Daniel S Fierer
BACKGROUND: For over a decade we have known of an epidemic of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), but there still remains significant controversy over which bodily fluid(s) are responsible for HCV transmission in these men. METHODS: We enrolled HIV-infected MSM with recent and chronic HCV infection and quantified HCV from rectal fluid obtained by blind swab. We compared the rectal HCV viral load (VL) with paired blood HCV VL...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008927/immunotherapy-against-cancer-related-viruses
#15
REVIEW
Haruko Tashiro, Malcolm K Brenner
Approximately 12% of all cancers worldwide are associated with viral infections. To date, eight viruses have been shown to contribute to the development of human cancers, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Hepatitis B and C viruses, and Human papilloma virus, among others. These DNA and RNA viruses produce oncogenic effects through distinct mechanisms. First, viruses may induce sustained disorders of host cell growth and survival through the genes they express, or may induce DNA damage response in host cells, which in turn increases host genome instability...
January 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007791/factors-associated-with-seminal-impairment-in-hiv-infected-men-under-antiretroviral-therapy
#16
A Jerónimo, M B Baza, I Río, M Vera, V Hernando, J Castilla, C Rodriguez, J Del Romero
STUDY QUESTION: How do semen parameters of HIV-infected men under antiretroviral treatment compare with WHO parameters of normal semen, and what factors are associated with any differences? SUMMARY ANSWER: Semen quality in most HIV-infected patients under antiretroviral treatment exceeds WHO limits, but the number falling below them is higher than would be expected in a healthy population. Exposure to efavirenz has a significant association with dysmotility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Dysmotility is the most frequently described sperm alteration related to HIV infection, and it has recently been linked to treatment with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, particularly to efavirenz...
December 21, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998171/co-infections-of-tuberculosis-hepatitis-b-or-c-viruses-in-a-cohort-of-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-china-predictors-and-sequelae
#17
Chen Zhang, Xiaoming Li, Yu Liu, Shan Qiao, Yi Chen, Yuejiao Zhou, Zhiyong Shen
The co-infection of viral hepatitis and tuberculosis (TB) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) makes the syndemic of HIV even worse as there is higher mortality and morbidity among PLWHA with co-infections compared to people with HIV mono-infection. In the current study, we explored predictors and sequelae among a group of Chinese PLWHA to guide future program strategies and enhance the repertoire of action for both preventative and clinical purposes. Between October 2012 and August 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Guangxi Autonomous Region (Guangxi) of China...
December 21, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997475/diabetes-among-people-with-tuberculosis-hiv-infection-viral-hepatitis-b-and-c-and-stds-in-new-york-city-2006-2010
#18
Ann Drobnik, Alexander Breskin, Jennifer Fuld, Christine Chan, James Hadler, Bahman Tabaei, Natalie Stennis, Shama Ahuja, Winfred Wu, Jay K Varma
Matching infectious disease surveillance data has become a routine activity for many health departments. With the increasing focus on chronic disease, it is also useful to explore opportunities to match infectious and chronic disease surveillance data. To understand the burden of diabetes in New York City (NYC), adults with select infectious diseases (tuberculosis, HIV infection, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, chlamydial infection, gonorrhea, and syphilis) reported between 2006 and 2010 were matched with hemoglobin A1c results reported in the same period...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996693/assessment-of-semi-automated-nucleic-acid-testing-programme-in-a-regional-blood-transfusion-centre
#19
Kanjaksha Ghosh, Kanchan Kumar Mishra, Apeksha Trivedi, Sheetal Sosa, Krima Patel
BACKGROUND: Detection of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis-C (HCV) and hepatitis-B virus (HBV) in the blood donors is crucial. An efficient form of detection is nucleic acid testing (NAT) in blood screening. We assessed the suitability of commercial NAT testing in a developing country, focusing on the Altona RealStar assay and the method of Sacace Biotechnologies. METHODS: We have standardised and validated commercially available NAT kits with a semi-automated system for detection of HBV, HCV and HIV-1 in blood donations...
December 20, 2016: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993129/hepatitis-viruses-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Yeshambel Belyhun, Melanie Maier, Andargachew Mulu, Ermias Diro, Uwe Gerd Liebert
BACKGROUND: The existing seroepidemiological data on viral hepatitis in Ethiopia showed a wide variation in prevalence pattern and the clinical and public health burden have been underestimated. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to provide a clear and comprehensive estimation of viral hepatitis epidemiology and the potential clinical burdens in Ethiopia. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was carried out from five decades (1968-2015) published studies from biomedical databases; PubMed, Google scholar, Medline and Web of Science...
December 19, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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