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viral hepatitis b and c, HIV,

U Sixdorf, E Märker-Hermann
Viral arthritis and vasculitis are important differential diagnoses primarily in patients with acute polyarticular arthritis in association with fever and rash, in populations specially at risk and in returning travellers. Parvovirus B19 is the most frequent cause of viral arthritis in Europe, whereas rubella, hepatitis B and C viruses have become less common. Due to worldwide tourism arthritogenic alphaviruses, which are transmitted by mosquito vectors have come into the focus of tropical medicine and rheumatology...
October 19, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Jian Huang, Lei Zhao, Ping Yang, Zhen Chen, Ni Tang, Xiong Z Ruan, Yaxi Chen
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatocyte-specific DNA virus whose gene expression and replication are closely associated with hepatic metabolic processes. Thus, a potential anti-viral strategy is to target the host metabolic factors necessary for HBV gene expression and replication. Recent studies revealed that fatty acid translocase CD36 is involved in the replication, assembly, storage, and secretion of certain viruses, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the relationship between CD36 and the HBV life cycle remains unclear...
2016: PloS One
Kai-Wen Li, Anna Kramvis, Shujia Liang, Xiang He, Qin-Yan Chen, Chao Wang, Qing-Li Yang, Li-Ping Hu, Hui-Hua Jia, Zhong-Liao Fang
In the era of combination therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), liver disease including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), are the major causes of death for patients co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV. However, the mechanisms remain obscure. We aimed to determine whether HCC-related HBV mutations including 1762T/1764A double mutation and pre-S deletions occur more frequently in HBV/HIV co-infected individuals compared to HBV mono-infected individuals. In this study, the basic core promoter (BCP) and the preS/S regions of HBV isolated from 61 pairs of HBV/HIV co-infected and HBV mono-infected participants were analyzed...
October 6, 2016: Virus Research
Guoying Ni, Yuejian Wang, Scott Cummins, Shelley Walton, Kate Mounsey, Xiaosong Liu, Ming Q Wei, Tianfang Wang
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a cytokine that is able to downregulate inflammation. Its overexpression is directly associated with the difficulty in the clearance of chronic viral infections, such as chronic hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV infection, and infection-related cancer. IL-10 signaling blockade has been proposed as a promising way of clearing chronic viral infection and preventing tumor growth in animal models. Recently, we have reported that peptides with a helical repeating pattern of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues are able to inhibit IL-10 significantly both in vitro and in vivo (1) ...
September 29, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Belinda K Mössner, Benjamin Staugaard, Janne Jensen, Søren Thue Lillevang, Peer B Christensen, Dorte Kinggaard Holm
AIM: To detect chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in dried blood spot (DBS) and compare these samples to venous blood sampling in real-life. METHODS: We included prospective patients with known viral infections from drug treatment centers, a prison and outpatient clinics and included blood donors as negative controls. Five drops of finger capillary blood were spotted on filter paper, and a venous blood sample was obtained...
September 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Steffen Leth, Mariane H Schleimann, Sara K Nissen, Jesper F Højen, Rikke Olesen, Mette E Graversen, Sofie Jørgensen, Anne Sofie Kjær, Paul W Denton, Alejandra Mørk, Maja A Sommerfelt, Kim Krogsgaard, Lars Østergaard, Thomas A Rasmussen, Martin Tolstrup, Ole Schmeltz Søgaard
BACKGROUND: Immune priming before reversal of latency might be a component of a functional HIV cure. To assess this concept, we assessed if therapeutic HIV immunisation followed by latency reversal would affect measures of viral transcription, plasma viraemia, and reservoir size in patients with HIV on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: In this single-arm, phase 1B/2A trial, we recruited adults treated at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark (aged ≥18 years) with successfully treated HIV-1 with plasma RNA loads of less than 50 copies per mL for the previous year and CD4 counts of at least 500 cells per μL...
October 2016: Lancet HIV
Nicholas Petersdorf, Jennifer M Ross, Helen A Weiss, Ruanne V Barnabas, Judith N Wasserheit
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV infection frequently co-occur due to shared transmission routes. Co-infection is associated with higher HCV viral load (VL), but less is known about the effect of HCV infection on HIV VL and risk of onward transmission. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review comparing 1) HIV VL among ART-naïve, HCV co-infected individuals versus HIV mono-infected individuals and 2) HIV VL among treated versus untreated HCV co-infected individuals...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Martijn Fenaux, Xiaodong Lin, Fumiaki Yokokawa, Zachary Sweeney, Oliver Saunders, Lili Xie, Siew Pheng Lim, Marianne Uteng, Kyoko Uehara, Robert Warne, Wang Gang, Christopher Jones, Satya Yendluri, Helen Gu, Keith Mansfield, Julie Boisclair, Tycho Heimbach, Alexandre Catoire, Kathryn Bracken, Margaret Weaver, Heinz Moser, Weidong Zhong
Nucleoside or nucleotide inhibitors are a highly successful class of antivirals due to selectivity, potency, broad coverage, and high barrier to resistance. Nucleosides are the backbone of combination treatments for HIV, hepatitis B and - since the FDA approval of sofosbuvir in 2013 - also for hepatitis C (HCV). However, many promising nucleotides have advanced to clinical trials only to be terminated due to unexpected toxicity. Here we describe the in vitro pharmacology of 1: , a monophosphate prodrug of a 2' -ethynyluridine developed for the treatment of HCV...
September 19, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Philippa J Easterbrook
Testing and diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, and crucial for an effective hepatitis epidemic response. In contrast to HIV, a systematic approach to hepatitis C testing has been fragmented and limited to a few countries, and there remains a large burden of undiagnosed cases globally. Key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, include lack of simple, reliable, and low cost diagnostic tests, laboratory capacity, and testing facilities; inadequate data to guide country-specific hepatitis testing approaches and who to test; stigmatization and social marginalization of some groups with or at risk of viral hepatitis; and lack of international or national guidelines on hepatitis testing for resource-limited settings...
October 2016: Journal of Hepatology
P Feuillet, F Lert, L Tron, C Aubriere, B Spire, R Dray-Spira
OBJECTIVES: Depression is common among people living with HIV (PLWHIV) and is associated with poorer therapeutic outcomes and risky behaviours. We sought to estimate the prevalence of major depressive episode (MDE) across PLWHIV groups, to compare this with its prevalence in the general population and to assess factors associated with it. METHODS: We used data from the Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida et les Hépatites Virales (ANRS)-Vespa2 study, a national study on a representative sample of PLWHIV conducted in France in 2011...
September 14, 2016: HIV Medicine
Luz M Medrano, Norma Rallón, Juan Berenguer, María A Jiménez-Sousa, Vicente Soriano, Teresa Aldámiz-Echevarria, Amanda Fernández-Rodríguez, Marcial García, Francisco Tejerina, Isidoro Martínez, José M Benito, Salvador Resino
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: TRIM5 and TRIM22 are restriction factors involved in innate immune response and exhibit anti-viral activity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at TRIM5 and TRIM22 genes have shown to influence several viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B, as well as measles and rubella vaccination. The aim of this study is to analyze whether TRIM5 and TRIM22 polymorphisms are associated with liver fibrosis inflammation-related biomarkers and response to pegylated-interferon-alpha plus ribavirin (pegIFNα/RBV) therapy in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected patients...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Michael B Yakass, Bryan J Woodward, Mary A Otoo, Edem K Hiadzi
OBJECTIVE: The rate of infertility continues to be on the increase in the developing world. Similarly, the rates of blood-borne viral infections (BBVs) such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are also on this rise. In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) quoted prevalences of 1.5% (HIV), 15% (HBV) 1.3 - 8.4% (HCV) in the Ghanaian general population. It has been reported that BBVs can adversely affect male fertility, specifically sperm count and progressive motility...
2016: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
A Bechini, M Levi, A Falla, A Ahmad, I Veldhuijzen, E Tiscione, P Bonanni
INTRODUCTION: Chronic viral hepatitis is still a major public health concern in the EU. In order to halt the progression of the disease and to prevent onward transmission, timely recognition and accurate clinical management are crucial. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the general practitioner (GP) in the screening of persons at risk and in the clinical management of chronic viral hepatitis patients in six EU countries. METHODS: An online survey among GPs and secondary-care specialists was conducted in the UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Hungary, Italy and Spain...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
Mohammad Reza Hasanjani Roushan, Safa Farokhtabar, Masomeh Bayani, Sepideh Siadati
BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis patients are potentially susceptible to infection with blood-borne viral agents, especially hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of HBV, HCV, and HIV infections in hemodialysis patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was carried out in 482 hemodialysis patients who had been referred to eight dialysis centers in the Mazandaran province in Iran from 2012 - 2014...
May 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
Sandeep Satsangi, Yogesh K Chawla
Viral hepatitis is a cause for major health care burden in India and is now equated as a threat comparable to the "big three" communicable diseases - HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Hepatitis A virus and Hepatitis E virus are predominantly enterically transmitted pathogens and are responsible to cause both sporadic infections and epidemics of acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus are predominantly spread via parenteral route and are notorious to cause chronic hepatitis which can lead to grave complications including cirrhosis of liver and hepatocellular carcinoma...
July 2016: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Fassil Shiferaw, Meketew Letebo, Abate Bane
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and C are silent killers not yet recognized as major public health challenges in many developing countries with huge disease burden. In Ethiopia, Hepatitis B is endemic with an average prevalence of 10.8 %, and the prevalence of Hepatitis C is 2 %. The prevalence of both infections, however, is likely to be underreported due to the lack of diagnostic facilities and appropriate surveillance systems. Ethiopia is also among the many Sub-Sahara African countries lacking a coordinated and systematic national response to chronic viral hepatitis...
August 11, 2016: BMC Public Health
Marina B Klein, Keri N Althoff, Yuezhou Jing, Bryan Lau, Mari Kitahata, Vincent Lo Re, Gregory D Kirk, Mark Hull, H Nina Kim, Giada Sebastiani, Erica E M Moodie, Michael J Silverberg, Timothy R Sterling, Jennifer E Thorne, Angela Cescon, Sonia Napravnik, Joe Eron, M John Gill, Amy Justice, Marion G Peters, James J Goedert, Angel Mayor, Chloe L Thio, Edward R Cachay, Richard Moore
BACKGROUND:  Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients coinfected with hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses are at increased risk of end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Whether modern antiretroviral therapy has reduced ESLD risk is unknown. METHODS:  Twelve clinical cohorts in the United States and Canada participating in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design validated ESLD events from 1996 to 2010. ESLD incidence rates and rate ratios according to hepatitis status adjusted for age, sex, race, cohort, time-updated CD4 cell count and HIV RNA were estimated in calendar periods corresponding to major changes in antiretroviral therapy: early (1996-2000), middle (2001-2005), and modern (2006-2010) eras...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
D S Kadochnikov, P V Minaeva
The annually increasing number of the patients presenting with HIV infection and hemocontact viral hepatitis is naturally accompanied by the growing number of deaths from these infectious pathologies. The objective of the present study was to analyze the results of forensic medical expertises of the cases of HIV infection and hemocontact viral hepatitis B and C during the period from 2011 till 2015 in different subjects of the Russian Federation. The data obtained confirm the tendency toward the further rise in the frequency of such cases in the practical work of forensic medical experts...
July 2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Michael J Vinikoor, Lloyd Mulenga, Alice Siyunda, Kalo Musukuma, Roma Chilengi, Carolyn Bolton Moore, Benjamin H Chi, Mary-Ann Davies, Matthias Egger, Gilles Wandeler
OBJECTIVE: To describe the liver disease epidemiology among HIV-infected individuals in Zambia. METHODS: We recruited HIV-infected adults (≥18 years) at antiretroviral therapy initiation at two facilities in Lusaka. Using vibration controlled transient elastography we assessed liver stiffness, a surrogate for fibrosis/cirrhosis, and analyzed liver stiffness measurements (LSM) according to established thresholds (>7.0 kPa for significant fibrosis and >11...
August 6, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Abid Qureshi, Gazaldeep Kaur, Manoj Kumar
Viral infections constantly jeopardize the global public health due to lack of effective antiviral therapeutics. Therefore, there is an imperative need to speed up the drug discovery process to identify novel and efficient drug candidates. In the present study, we have developed Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) based models for predicting Antiviral compounds (AVCs) against deadly viruses like Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Human herpesvirus (HHV) and 26 others using publicly available experimental data from the ChEMBL bioactivity database...
August 4, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
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