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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908422/bioprospection-of-immature-salivary-glands-of-chrysomya-megacephala-fabricius-1794-diptera-calliphoridae
#1
Ronaldo Roberto Tait Caleffe, Stefany Rodrigues de Oliveira, Adriana Aparecida Sinópolis Gigliolli, Maria Claudia Colla Ruvolo-Takasusuki, Helio Conte
Larval therapy (LT) comprises the application of sterile Calliphoridae larvae for wound debridement, disinfection, and healing in humans and animals. Larval digestion plays a key role in LT, where the salivary glands and gut produce and secrete proteolytic and antimicrobial substances. The objective of this work was to bioprospect the salivary glands of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) larvae, using ultrastructural, morphological, and histological observations, and the total protein electrophoretic profile...
June 8, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908161/autophagy-attenuates-compression-induced-apoptosis-of-human-nucleus-pulposus-cells-via-mek-erk-nrf1-atg7-signaling-pathways-during-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#2
Shuai Li, Wenbin Hua, Kun Wang, Yong Gao, Songfeng Chen, Wei Liu, Yu Song, Xinghuo Wu, Ji Tu, Liang Kang, Kangcheng Zhao, Liming Xiong, Yukun Zhang, Cao Yang
Autophagy dysfunction has been observed in intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) cells, a main contributing factor to cell death, but the precise role of autophagy during IVDD is still controversial. This study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy involved in the pathogenesis of human IVDD and determine the signal transduction pathways responsible for compression-induced autophagy in human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Autophagy, suppressing the induction of apoptosis, was activated in NP cells exposed to compression...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907694/hmgb1-induced-autophagy-facilitates-hepatic-stellate-cells-activation-a-new-pathway-in-liver-fibrosis
#3
Jing Li, Chuxiong Zeng, Beishi Zheng, Chun Liu, Min Tang, Yan Jiang, Yizhong Chang, Weiping Song, Yingxin Wang, Changqing Yang
High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) plays a context-dependent role in autophagy, which is required for hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. However, the significance of HMGB1-induced HSCs autophagy in liver fibrosis has not been elucidated. Here, we first documented an enrichment of peripheral and intra-hepatic HMGB1 signal in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver fibrosis progression, and presented the direct evidence of anatomic proximity of HMGB1 with a-SMA (a marker for HSCs activation) in cirrhotic liver specimens...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906462/control-of-autophagosome-size-and-number-by-atg7
#4
Hayley Cawthon, Ronith Chakraborty, Jacquelyn R Roberts, Steven K Backues
The induction of bulk autophagy by nitrogen starvation in baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae) involves the upregulation of many autophagy related proteins, including Atg7. One way to investigate the importance of this upregulation is to measure the size and number of autophagosomes formed when insufficient amounts of that protein are available. Atg8 is known to affect autophagosome size, consistent with its role in phagophore expansion. Atg7 is upstream of Atg8, and might therefore be expected to affect only autophagosome size...
June 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904891/%C3%AE-viniferin-activates-autophagic-apoptosis-and-cell-death-by-reducing-glucocorticoid-receptor-expression-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-cells
#5
Kejun Cheng, Xi Liu, Lu Chen, Jian-Min Lv, Fa-Jun Qu, Xiu-Wu Pan, Lin Li, Xin-Gang Cui, Yi Gao, Dan-Feng Xu
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed urological malignancies. However, there are limited therapies for PCa patients who develop biochemical recurrence after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of α-Viniferin (KCV), an oligostilbene of trimeric resveratrol, against human PCa cells and found that it markedly inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP, DU145, and PC-3 cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and had a strong cytotoxicity in non-androgen-dependent PCa cells...
June 15, 2018: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903018/emerging-roles-and-regulation-of-mit-tfe-transcriptional-factors
#6
REVIEW
Min Yang, En Liu, Li Tang, Yuanyuan Lei, Xuemei Sun, Jiaxi Hu, Hui Dong, Shi-Ming Yang, Mingfa Gao, Bo Tang
The MiT/TFE transcription factors play a pivotal role in the regulation of autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis. The subcellular localization and activity of MiT/TFE proteins are primarily regulated through phosphorylation. And the phosphorylated protein is retained in the cytoplasm and subsequently translocates to the nucleus upon dephosphorylation, where it stimulates the expression of hundreds of genes, leading to lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy induction. The transcription factor-mediated lysosome-to-nucleus signaling can be directly controlled by several signaling molecules involved in the mTORC1, PKC, and AKT pathways...
June 15, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903014/lrrk-2-gene-mutations-in-the-pathophysiology-of-the-roco-domain-and-therapeutic-targets-for-parkinson-s-disease-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Meng-Ling Chen, Ruey-Meei Wu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder and manifests as resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Pathologically, PD is characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the formation of intracellular inclusions containing α-synuclein and ubiquitin called Lewy bodies. Consequently, a remarkable deficiency of dopamine in the striatum causes progressive disability of motor function. The etiology of PD remains uncertain. Genetic variability in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the most common genetic cause of sporadic and familial PD...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901107/autophagy-protects-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-palmitate%C3%A2-induced-apoptosis-through-the-ros%C3%A2-jnk-p38-mapk-signaling-pathways
#8
Yongyi Liu, Ning Wang, Shaokun Zhang, Qingwei Liang
In recent years, the association between saturated fatty acids (FA) and bone cells has received a high level of attention. Previous studies have shown that palmitate (PA), a common saturated FA, can cause apoptosis in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). However, whether PA can induce autophagy, an important intracellular protection mechanism that is closely associated with apoptosis, in BMSCs is still unknown; the association between autophagy and apoptosis is also unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine whether PA can induce autophagy in BMSCs...
May 30, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900402/neuromelanin-organelles-are-specialized-autolysosomes-that-accumulate-undegraded-proteins-and-lipids-in-aging-human-brain-and-are-likely-involved-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Fabio A Zucca, Renzo Vanna, Francesca A Cupaioli, Chiara Bellei, Antonella De Palma, Dario Di Silvestre, Pierluigi Mauri, Sara Grassi, Alessandro Prinetti, Luigi Casella, David Sulzer, Luigi Zecca
During aging, neuronal organelles filled with neuromelanin (a dark-brown pigment) and lipid bodies accumulate in the brain, particularly in the substantia nigra, a region targeted in Parkinson's disease. We have investigated protein and lipid systems involved in the formation of these organelles and in the synthesis of the neuromelanin of human substantia nigra. Membrane and matrix proteins characteristic of lysosomes were found in neuromelanin-containing organelles at a lower number than in typical lysosomes, indicating a reduced enzymatic activity and likely impaired capacity for lysosomal and autophagosomal fusion...
2018: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899828/efficient-lysis-of-b-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-cells-by-the-plant-derived-sesquiterpene-alcohol-%C3%AE-bisabolol-a-dual-proapoptotic-and-antiautophagic-agent
#10
Antonella Rigo, Isacco Ferrarini, Angela Bonalumi, Cristina Tecchio, Alessio Montresor, Carlo Laudanna, Fabrizio Vinante
The sesquiterpene α-bisabolol (α-BSB) is a cytotoxic agent against acute leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia cells. Here the profile of α-BSB citotoxicity was evaluated ex vivo in primary mononuclear blood cells isolated from 45 untreated B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients. We studied the effects of α-BSB by flow cytometric and western blotting techniques with the following findings: (1) α-BSB was an effective proapoptotic agent against B-CLL cells (IC50 42 ± 15 μM). It was also active, but to a lesser extent, on normal residual B cells and monocytes (IC50 68 ± 34 and 74 ± 28 μM, respectively; p < 0...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898994/flightless-i-blocks-p62-mediated-recognition-of-lc3-to-impede-selective-autophagy-and-promote-breast-cancer-progression
#11
Jian-Ping He, Pei-Pei Hou, Qi-Tao Chen, Wei-Jia Wang, Xiao-Yu Sun, Peng-Bo Yang, Ying-Ping Li, Lu-Ming Yao, Xiaotong Li, Xin-Dong Jiang, Kun-Yi Chien, Zhi-Ming Zhang, Qiu-Wan Wu, Allison J Cowin, Qiao Wu, Hang-Zi Chen
p62 is a receptor that facilitates selective autophagy by interacting simultaneously with cargoes and LC3 protein on the autophagosome to maintain cellular homeostasis. However, the regulatory mechanism(s) behind this process and its association with breast cancer remain to be elucidated. Here we report that Flightless-I (FliI), a novel p62-interacting protein, promotes breast cancer progression by impeding selective autophagy. FliI was highly expressed in clinical breast cancer samples, and heterozygous deletion of FliI retarded development of mammary tumors in PyVT mice...
June 13, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897944/a-specific-expression-profile-of-lc3b-and-p62-is-associated-with-nonresponse-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-in-esophageal-adenocarcinomas
#12
Olivia Adams, Félice A Janser, Bastian Dislich, Sabina Berezowska, Magali Humbert, Christian A Seiler, Dino Kroell, Julia Slotta-Huspenina, Marcus Feith, Katja Ott, Mario P Tschan, Rupert Langer
Paclitaxel is a powerful chemotherapeutic drug, used for the treatment of many cancer types, including esophageal adenocarcinomas (EAC). Autophagy is a lysosome-dependent degradation process maintaining cellular homeostasis. Defective autophagy has been implicated in cancer biology and therapy resistance. We aimed to assess the impact of autophagy on chemotherapy response in EAC, with a special focus on paclitaxel. Responsiveness of EAC cell lines, OE19, FLO-1, OE33 and SK-GT-4, to paclitaxel was assessed using Alamar Blue assays...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897280/dual-gain-and-loss-of-cullin-3-function-mediates-familial-hyperkalemic-hypertension
#13
Ryan J Cornelius, Chong Zhang, Kayla J Erspamer, Larry N Agbor, Curt D Sigmund, Jeffrey D Singer, Chao-Ling Yang, David H Ellison
Familial hyperkalemic hypertension is caused by mutations in WNK kinases, or in proteins that mediate their degradation, KLHL3 and cullin 3 (Cul3). While the mechanisms by which WNK and KLHL3 mutations cause the disease are now clear, the effects of the disease-causing Cul3Δ403-459 mutation remain controversial. Possible mechanisms including hyperneddylation, altered ubiquitin ligase activity, decreased association with the COP9 signalosome (CSN), and increased association with and degradation of KLHL3 have all been postulated...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896171/autophagy-benefits-the-replication-of-egg-drop-syndrome-virus-in-duck-embryo-fibroblasts
#14
Xueping Wang, Xuefeng Qi, Bo Yang, Shuying Chen, Jingyu Wang
Egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) is an economically important pathogen with a broad host range, and it causes disease that leads to markedly decreased egg production. Although EDSV is known to induce apoptosis in duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs), the interaction between EDSV and its host needs to be further researched. Here, we provide the first evidence that EDSV infection triggers autophagy in DEFs through increases in autophagosome-like double-membrane vesicles, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, and LC3 colocalization with viral hexon proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893844/ulk2-controls-cortical-excitatory-inhibitory-balance-via-autophagic-regulation-of-p62-and-gabaa-receptor-trafficking-in-pyramidal-neurons
#15
Akiko Sumitomo, Hiroshi Yukitake, Kazuko Hirai, Kouta Horike, Keisho Ueta, Youjin Chung, Eiji Warabi, Toru Yanagawa, Shiho Kitaoka, Tomoyuki Furuyashiki, Shuh Narumiya, Tomoo Hirano, Minae Niwa, Etienne Sibille, Takatoshi Hikida, Takeshi Sakurai, Koko Ishizuka, Akira Sawa, Toshifumi Tomoda
Autophagy plays an essential role in intracellular degradation and maintenance of cellular homeostasis in all cells, including neurons. Although a recent study reported a copy number variation of Ulk2, a gene essential for initiating autophagy, associated with a case of schizophrenia (SZ), it remains to be studied whether Ulk2 dysfunction could underlie the pathophysiology of the disease. Here we show that Ulk2 heterozygous (Ulk2+/-) mice have upregulated expression of sequestosome-1/p62, an autophagy-associated stress response protein, predominantly in pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and exhibit behavioral deficits associated with the PFC functions, including attenuated sensorimotor gating and impaired cognition...
June 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893049/autophagy-inducers-restore-impaired-autophagy-reduce-apoptosis-and-attenuate-blunted-alveolarization-in-hyperoxia-exposed-newborn-rats
#16
Dan Zhang, Linlin Wu, Yanna Du, Yuting Zhu, Bingting Pan, Xindong Xue, Jianhua Fu
AIM: Autophagy is a common process during development. Abnormal autophagy can impact cell apoptosis. Previous studies have shown that apoptosis is present during bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). However, there is no consensus on the level of coexisting autophagy. This study was designed to investigate the role of autophagy and the effects of autophagy inducers in a BPD model. METHOD: A total of 100 newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to model and control groups...
June 12, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892821/pharmacological-inhibition-of-lysosomal-activity-as-a-method-for-monitoring-thyroid-hormone-induced-autophagic-flux-in-mammalian-cells-in-vitro
#17
Jin Zhou, Rohit A Sinha, Ronny Lesmana, Winifred W Y Yau, Paul M Yen
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular catabolic process that is essential for cellular housekeeping and nutrient homeostasis. Recently, we provided evidence that thyroid hormone (TH) is a major inducer of autophagy in mammalian cells. Here, we describe a method for detecting TH-induced autophagic flux in hepatic, muscle, and brown adipocyte cells using lysosomal inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) and conventional Western blot techniques.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891447/-changes-in-autophagy-during-maturation-and-differentiation-of-hepa1-6-cells-induced-by-all-trans-retinoic-acid
#18
Shu-Yu Fang, Jie-Jie Cui, Meng-Jia Gong, Yun He, Jing-Fang Zhang, Yang Bi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different concentrations of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on the maturation, differentiation and autophagy of Hepa1-6 cells. MONTHOD: Hepa1-6 cells were treated with 0.1, 1, and 10 µmol/L ATRA, and the changes in the expressions of hepatic specific markers were detected using real-time PCR and Western blotting. Indocyanine green (ICG) and periodic acid-schiff (PAS) staining was used to assess the functional maturation of Hepa1-6 cells, and the cell-cell junction and autophagy were observed under transmission electron microscopy to determine the optimal concentration of ATRA for treatment...
May 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890411/analysis-of-proautophagic-activities-of-citrus-flavonoids-in-liver-cells-reveals-the-superiority-of-a-natural-polyphenol-mixture-over-pure-flavones
#19
Antonella Lascala, Concetta Martino, Maddalena Parafati, Raffaele Salerno, Manuela Oliverio, Daniela Pellegrino, Vincenzo Mollace, Elzbieta Janda
Autophagy dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Natural compounds present in bergamot polyphenol fraction (BPF) prevent NAFLD and induce autophagy in rat livers. Here, we employed HepG2 cells expressing DsRed-LC3-GFP, a highly sensitive model system to screen for proautophagic compounds present in BPF. BPF induced autophagy in a time- and dose-dependent fashion and the effect was amplified in cells loaded with palmitic acid. Autophagy was mediated by the hydrophobic fraction of acid-hydrolyzed BPF (A-BPF), containing six flavanone and flavone aglycones as identified by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888266/using-drosophila-models-of-amyloid-toxicity-to-study-autophagy-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Louise O'Keefe, Donna Denton
Autophagy is a conserved catabolic pathway that involves the engulfment of cytoplasmic components such as large protein aggregates and organelles that are delivered to the lysosome for degradation. This process is important in maintaining neuronal function and raises the possibility of a role for autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of these diseases and is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the brain which arise due to the misfolding and aggregation of toxic peptides, including amyloid beta (A β )...
2018: BioMed Research International
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