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Biomedical chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423951/preparation-characterization-and-dynamical-mechanical-properties-of-dextran-coated-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-dionps
#1
Hatice Kaplan Can, Serap Kavlak, Shahed ParviziKhosroshahi, Ali Güner
Dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (DIONPs) with appropriate surface chemistry exhibit many interesting properties that can be exploited in a variety of biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement, tissue repair, hyperthermia, drug delivery and in cell separation. This paper reports the experimental detail for preparation, characterization and investigation of thermal and dynamical mechanical characteristics of the dextran-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles. In our work, DIONPs were prepared in a 1:2 ratio of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salt in the HCl solution with NaOH at given temperature...
April 20, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403790/molecular-design-and-medicinal-applications-of-nano-nitric-oxide-delivery-systems
#2
Kim Truc Nguyen, Zhouran Wu, Tiantian Huang, Chor Yong Tay
Nitric oxide (NO) regulates numerous biological processes that are important in the maintenance of homeostatic balance in the human body. Due to its innate biological significance, much effort has been vested to exploit NO as a pharmaceutical agent in recent years. The key to fully harness NO's therapeutic potential will require the innovative integration of the NO releasing molecules (NORMs) with cytocompatible nano-scale carriers so that controlled spatiotemporal delivery of NO to targeted diseases sites can be attained...
April 7, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382206/using-chemical-biology-to-assess-and-modulate-mitochondria-progress-and-challenges
#3
REVIEW
Angela Logan, Michael P Murphy
Our understanding of the role of mitochondria in biomedical sciences has expanded considerably over the past decade. In addition to their well-known metabolic roles, mitochondrial are also central to signalling for various processes through the generation of signals such as ROS and metabolites that affect cellular homeostasis, as well as other processes such as cell death and inflammation. Thus, mitochondrial function and dysfunction are central to the health and fate of the cell. Consequently, there is considerable interest in better understanding and assessing the many roles of mitochondria...
April 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381719/practice-of-regulatory-science-drug-development
#4
Toru Kawanishi
 The practice of regulatory science (RS) for drug development is described. In the course material for education in pharmaceutical sciences drafted by the RS Division of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, RS for pharmaceuticals is defined as the science of predicting, assessing, and judging the quality, efficacy, and safety of pharmaceutical products throughout their lifespan. RS is also described as an integrated science based on basic and applied biomedical sciences, including analytical chemistry, biochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, genetics, biostatistics, epidemiology, and clinical trial methodology, and social sciences such as decision science, risk assessment, and communication science...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380333/synthesis-and-characterization-of-a-biocompatible-chitosan-based-hydrogel-cross-linked-via-click-chemistry-for-controlled-drug-release
#5
O Guaresti, C García-Astrain, T Palomares, A Alonso-Varona, A Eceiza, N Gabilondo
A chemically cross-linked chitosan-based hydrogel was successfully synthesized through Diels-Alder (DA) reaction and characterized. The final product was obtained after different steps; on the one hand, furan-modified chitosan (Cs-Fu) was synthesized by the reaction of furfural with the free amino groups of chitosan. On the other hand, highlighting the novelty of the present research, maleimide-functionalized chitosan (Cs-AMI) was prepared by the reaction of a maleimide-modified aminoacid with the amino groups of chitosan through amide coupling...
April 2, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369134/low-cost-feedback-controlled-syringe-pressure-pumps-for-microfluidics-applications
#6
John R Lake, Keith C Heyde, Warren C Ruder
Microfluidics are widely used in research ranging from bioengineering and biomedical disciplines to chemistry and nanotechnology. As such, there are a large number of options for the devices used to drive and control flow through microfluidic channels. Commercially available syringe pumps are probably the most commonly used instruments for this purpose, but are relatively high-cost and have inherent limitations due to their flow profiles when they are run open-loop. Here, we present a low-cost ($110) syringe pressure pump that uses feedback control to regulate the pressure into microfluidic chips...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368852/biomedical-applications-of-nanodiamond-review
#7
Kostiantyn Turcheniuk, Vadym Mochalin
The interest to applications of nanodiamond in biology and medicine is on the rise over the recent years. This is due to the unique combination of properties that nanodiamond provides. Small size (~ 5 nm), low cost, scalable production, negligible toxicity, chemical inertness of diamond core and rich chemistry of nanodiamond surface, as well as bright and robust fluorescence resistant to photobleaching are the distinct parameters that render nanodiamond superior to any other nanomaterial when it comes to biomedical applications...
April 3, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366850/antioxidant-and-ion-induced-gelation-functions-of-pectins-enabled-by-polyphenol-conjugation
#8
Soohwan Ahn, Kantappa Halake, Jonghwi Lee
The development of antioxidant polymers through the chemical conjugation of natural polyphenols onto polysaccharides has important applications in biomedical, pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic fields. Due to their labile characteristics, the covalent conjugation of polyphenols while retaining antioxidant properties has been a challenging task. Herein, four structurally different polyphenols, three with and one without a catechol group, were conjugated onto pectin macromolecules via a simple and efficient preparation method involving epichlorohydrin chemistry...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365985/two-dimensional-correlation-spectroscopy-for-multimodal-analysis-of-ft-ir-raman-and-maldi-tof-ms-hyperspectral-images-with-hamster-brain-tissue
#9
Peter Lasch, Isao Noda
Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) techniques are useful for obtaining very detailed structural and compositional information from biomedical, pharmaceutical, or clinical samples, among others. The informative value of these methods can be further increased through the application of different HSI techniques and joint analysis of the data. However, interpretation and understanding of multimodal HSI have been impeded by difficulties in registration of the different HSI data sets and by the lack of integrative analysis concepts...
April 11, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364954/sol-gel-processing-of-bioactive-glass-nanoparticles-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Kai Zheng, Aldo R Boccaccini
Silicate-based bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGN) are gaining increasing attention in various biomedical applications due to their unique properties. Controlled synthesis of BGN is critical to their effective use in biomedical applications since BGN characteristics, such as morphology and composition, determining the properties of BGN, are highly related to the synthesis process. In the last decade, numerous investigations focusing on BGN synthesis have been reported. BGN can mainly be produced through the conventional melt-quench approach or by sol-gel methods...
March 21, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359891/synthesis-characterization-and-antibacterial-activity-of-hybrid-chitosan-cerium-oxide-nanoparticles-as-a-bionanomaterials
#11
R P Senthilkumar, V Bhuvaneshwari, R Ranjithkumar, S Sathiyavimal, V Malayaman, B Chandarshekar
The hybrid chitosan cerium oxide nanoparticles were prepared for the first time by green chemistry approach using plant leaf extract. The intense peak observed around 292nm in the UV-vis spectrum indicate the formation of cerium oxide nanoparticles. The XRD pattern revealed that the hybrid chitosan-cerium oxide nanoparticles have a polycrystalline structure with cubic fluorite phase. The FTIR spectrum of prepared samples showed the formation of Ce-O bonds and chitosan main chains COC and CO. The FESEM image of hybrid chitosan cerium oxide nanoparticles revealed that the particles are spherical in shape with grains size varying from 23...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359859/raman-spectroscopy-of-biomedical-polyethylenes
#12
REVIEW
Giuseppe Pezzotti
With the development of three-dimensional Raman algorithms for local mapping of oxidation and plastic strain, and the ability to resolve molecular orientation patterns with microscopic spatial resolution, there is an opportunity to re-examine many of the foundations on which our understanding of biomedical grade ultra-high molecular weight polyethylenes (UHMWPEs) are based. By implementing polarized Raman spectroscopy into an automatized tool with an improved precision in non-destructively resolving Euler angles, oxidation levels, and microscopic strain, we become capable to make accurate and traceable measurements of the in vitro and in vivo tribological responses of a variety of commercially available UHMWPE bearings for artificial hip and knee joints...
March 27, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349785/inflammatory-cell-findings-in-the-female-rabbit-heart-and-stress-associated-exacerbation-with-handling-and-procedures-used-in-nonclinical-studies
#13
Rani S Sellers, Ingrid Pardo, George Hu, K Nasir Khan, Richard Perry, Victoria Markiewicz, Cynthia Rohde, Jennifer Colangelo, William Reagan, David Clarke
Despite the use of rabbits in biomedical research, including regulatory toxicology and cardiovascular studies, little data exist on heart findings in this species. This study was designed to document myocardial findings in female rabbits and the impact of study-related procedures typical for vaccine toxicology studies. One hundred and forty 6- to 8-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits were divided equally into 2 groups, high and low study procedure groups (group 1 and group 2, respectively). All animals received intramuscular (IM) injections of sterile saline every 2 weeks for 5 times and were necropsied 2 days after the final IM injection...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345352/metal-free-photoinduced-electron-transfer-atom-transfer-radical-polymerization-integrated-with-bioinspired-polydopamine-chemistry-as-a-green-strategy-for-surface-engineering-of-magnetic-nanoparticles
#14
Yang Yang, Xuegang Liu, Gang Ye, Shan Zhu, Zhe Wang, Xiaomei Huo, Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, Yuexiang Lu, Jing Chen
Developing green and efficient technologies for surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is of crucial importance for their biomedical and environmental applications. This study reports, for the first time, a novel strategy by integrating metal-free photoinduced electron transfer-atom transfer radical polymerization (PET-ATRP) with the bioinspired polydopamine (PDA) chemistry for controlled architecture of functional polymer brushes from MNPs. Conformal PDA encapsulation layers were initially generated on the surfaces of MNPs, which served as the protective shells while providing an ideal platform for tethering 2-bromo-2-phenylacetic acid (BPA), a highly efficient initiator...
April 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325940/one-pot-synthesis-of-four-coordinate-boron-iii-complexes-by-the-ligand-promoted-organic-group-migration-between-boronic-acids
#15
Venkata S Sadu, Hye-Rin Bin, Do-Min Lee, Kee-In Lee
Multidisciplinary applications of four-coordinate boron(III) complexes make them very attractive and challenging research field in chemistry, biology and material sciences. The dual role played by boron atom in stabilising the chelate ligand and enhancing the π-conjugation makes them very useful as luminescent materials for organic electronics and photonics, and sensing and imaging probes for biomedical purposes. The conventional methods involve the use of diarylborinic acids or anhydrides and triaryl boranes, which are made from organometallic reagents...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319779/supramolecular-biofunctional-materials
#16
REVIEW
Jie Zhou, Jie Li, Xuewen Du, Bing Xu
This review discusses supramolecular biofunctional materials, a novel class of biomaterials formed by small molecules that are held together via noncovalent interactions. The complexity of biology and relevant biomedical problems not only inspire, but also demand effective molecular design for functional materials. Supramolecular biofunctional materials offer (almost) unlimited possibilities and opportunities to address challenging biomedical problems. Rational molecular design of supramolecular biofunctional materials exploit powerful and versatile noncovalent interactions, which offer many advantages, such as responsiveness, reversibility, tunability, biomimicry, modularity, predictability, and, most importantly, adaptiveness...
June 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300769/aptamers-biomedical-interest-and-applications
#17
EDITORIAL
Cristina Romero-López, Alfredo Berzal-Herranz
Aptamers are short DNA or RNA oligonucleotides specialized in the specific and efficient binding to a target molecule. They are obtained by in vitro selection or evolution processes. It was in 1990 that two independent research groups described the bases of a new in vitro technology for the identification of RNA molecules able to specifically bind to a target [1,2]. Tuerk and Gold established the principals of the in vitro selection process that was named SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment), which is based on iterative cycles of binding, partitioning, and amplification of oligonucleotides from a pool of variant sequences [2]...
March 16, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296390/clickable-antifouling-polymer-brushes-for-polymer-pen-lithography
#18
Uwe Bog, Andres de Los Santos Pereira, Summer L Mueller, Shana Havenridge, Viviana Parrillo, Michael Bruns, Andrea E Holmes, Cesar Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Harald Fuchs, Michael Hirtz
Protein-repellent reactive surfaces that promote localized specific binding are highly desirable for applications in the biomedical field. Nonspecific adhesion will compromise the function of bioactive surfaces, leading to ambiguous results of binding assays and negating the binding specificity of patterned cell-adhesive motives. Localized specific binding is often achieved by attaching a linker to the surface, and the other side of the linker is used to bind specifically to a desired functional agent, as e...
March 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287138/biofunctionalized-3-d-carbon-nano-network-platform-for-enhanced-fibroblast-cell-adhesion
#19
A K M Rezaul Haque Chowdhury, Amirhossein Tavangar, Bo Tan, Krishnan Venkatakrishnan
Carbon nanomaterials have been investigated for various biomedical applications. In most cases, however, these nanomaterials must be functionalized biologically or chemically due to their biological inertness or possible cytotoxicity. Here, we report the development of a new carbon nanomaterial with a bioactive phase that significantly promotes cell adhesion. We synthesize the bioactive phase by introducing self-assembled nanotopography and altered nano-chemistry to graphite substrates using ultrafast laser...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280341/a-facile-method-to-prepare-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-and-hydrophobic-drug-encapsulated-biodegradable-polyurethane-nanoparticles
#20
Kuo-Wei Cheng, Shan-Hui Hsu
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) have a wide range of biomedical applications such as in magnetic resonance imaging, targeting, and hyperthermia therapy. Aggregation of SPIO NPs can occur because of the hydrophobic surface and high surface energy of SPIO NPs. Here, we developed a facile method to encapsulate SPIO NPs in amphiphilic biodegradable polymer. Anionic biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles (PU NPs) with ~35 nm size and different chemistry were prepared by waterborne processes...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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