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Biomedical chemistry

Julie Baillet, Valérie Desvergnes, Aladin Hamoud, Laurent Latxague, Philippe Barthélémy
Hybrid synthetic amphiphilic biomolecules are emerging as promising supramolecular materials for biomedical and technological applications. Herein, recent progress in the field of nucleic acid based lipids is highlighted with an emphasis on their molecular design, synthesis, supramolecular properties, physicochemical behaviors, and applications in the field of health science and technology. In the first section, the design and the study of nucleolipids are in focus and then the glyconucleolipid family is discussed...
January 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Ashish Tiwari, S J Dhoble
Chemiluminescence (CL) techniques are extensively utilized for detection of analytes due to their high sensitivity, rapidity and selectivity. With the advent of nanotechnology and incorporation of the nanoparticles in the CL system has revolutionized the assays due to their unique optical and mechanical properties. Several CL-based reactions have been developed where these nanoparticle based CL sensors have evolved as excellent prospects for sensing in various analytical applications. This review article addresses the nanoparticles based CL detection system that are recently developed, the mechanisms has been summarized and the role of luminophors have been discussed...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
Dario Neri, Richard A Lerner
The discovery of organic ligands that bind specifically to proteins is a central problem in chemistry, biology, and the biomedical sciences. The encoding of individual organic molecules with distinctive DNA tags, serving as amplifiable identification bar codes, allows the construction and screening of combinatorial libraries of unprecedented size, thus facilitating the discovery of ligands to many different protein targets. Fundamentally, one links powers of genetics and chemical synthesis. After the initial description of DNA-encoded chemical libraries in 1992, several experimental embodiments of the technology have been reduced to practice...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Joanna Gałęzowska
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are well established, widely used first-choice drugs for bone-related diseases and are one of the few classes of molecules for selective bone-targeting. Their binding to calcium cations within hydroxyapatite (HA) is a key physico-chemical event taking place on the bone surface. It is the starting point for a cascade of biochemical reactions and cellular effects that lead to the pharmacological activity of BPs. The phenomenon is known for years, yet still its physicochemical nature is not fully understood...
January 11, 2018: ChemMedChem
Xueshu Li, Erika B Holland, Wei Feng, Jing Zheng, Yao Dong, Isaac N Pessah, Michael W Duffel, Larry W Robertson, Hans-Joachim Lehmler
Toxicological studies use "specialty chemicals" and, thus, should assess and report both identity and degree of purity (homogeneity) of the chemicals (or toxicants) under investigation to ensure that other scientists can replicate experimental results. Although detailed reporting criteria for the synthesis and characterization of organic compounds have been established by organic chemistry journals, such criteria are inconsistently applied to the chemicals used in toxicological studies. Biologically active trace impurities may lead to incorrect conclusions about the chemical entity responsible for a biological response, which in turn may confound risk assessment...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jiacheng Zhao, Mingxia Lu, Haiwang Lai, Hongxu Lu, Jacques Lalevée, Christopher Barner-Kowollik, Martina H Stenzel, Pu Xiao
Introducing a strategy towards polymer/nanodiamond hybrids with high polymer grafting density and accessible polymer structural characterisation is of critical importance for nanodiamonds surface modification and bioagent attachment for their biomedical application. Here, we report a glycopolymer/nanodiamond hybrid drug delivery system, which was prepared by grafting amonafide-conjugated glycopolymers onto the surface of nanodiamonds via oxime ligation. Poly(1-O-methacryloyl-2,3:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-β-D-fructopyranose)-b-poly(3-vinylbenzaldehyde-co-methyl methacrylate), featuring pendant aldehyde groups, is prepared via RAFT polymerization...
January 9, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Laurent Latxague, Alexandra Gaubert, Philippe Barthélémy
Glyconanoparticles essentially result from the (covalent or noncovalent) association of nanometer-scale objects with carbohydrates. Such glyconanoparticles can take many different forms and this mini review will focus only on soft materials (colloids, liposomes, gels etc.) with a special emphasis on glycolipid-derived nanomaterials and the chemistry involved for their synthesis. Also this contribution presents Low Molecular Weight Gels (LMWGs) stabilized by glycoconjugate amphiphiles. Such soft materials are likely to be of interest for different biomedical applications...
January 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Dariusz Dobrzyński, Anna Boguszewska-Czubara, Kenji Sugimori
Germanium is considered to be a non-essential element; however, little is still known about its significance for living organisms. It exerts prophylactic and therapeutic effects in the treatment of serious diseases such as cancer, HIV infection, and others. Germanium does not exhibit acute toxicity, but, as it tends to accumulate in various organs and tissues, undesirable and even dangerous side effects have been reported after prolonged and/or high dosage application. In general, inorganic compounds of germanium are more toxic than its organic compounds...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Akira Matsumoto, Yuji Miyahara
Boronic acids are well known for their ability to reversibly interact with the diol groups, a common motif of biomolecules including sugars and ribose. Due to their ability to interact with carbohydrates, they can be regarded as synthetic mimics of lectins, termed 'borono-lectins'. The borono-lectins can be tailored to elicit a broad profile of binding strength and specificity. This special property has been translated into many creative biomedical applications in a way interactive with biology. This review provides a brief overview of recent efforts of polymeric materials-based engineering taking advantage of such virtue of 'borono-lectins' chemistry, related to the field of biomaterials and drug delivery applications...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Govindhan Maduraiveeran, Manickam Sasidharan, Vellaichamy Ganesan
Introduction of novel functional nanomaterials and analytical technologies signify a foremost possibility for the advance of electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms/devices for a broad series of applications including biological, biomedical, biotechnological, clinical and medical diagnostics, environmental and health monitoring, and food industries. The design of sensitive and selective electrochemical biological sensor platforms are accomplished conceivably by offering new surface modifications, microfabrication techniques, and diverse nanomaterials with unique properties for in vivo and in vitro medical analysis via relating a sensibly planned electrode/solution interface...
December 22, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Nan Zhang, Yi-Fan Ruan, Li-Bin Zhang, Wei-Wei Zhao, Jing-Juan Xu, Hong-Yuan Chen
Nanochannels have brought new opportunities for biosensor development. Herein we present the novel concept of nanochannels photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor based on the integration of a unique CuxO nanopyramid islands (NPIs) photocathode, the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrance, and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) catalytic chemistry. The CuxO NPIs photocathode possessed good performance, and further assembly with AAO will yield the designed architecture composed of vertically-aligned, highly-ordered nanoarrays bottomed with CuxO NPIs film...
December 28, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Bryan Grommersch, Jitendra Pant, Sean P Hopkins, Marcus James Goudie, Hitesh Handa
Diatomaceous earth (DE), a nanoporous silica material comprised of fossilized unicellular marine algae, possesses unique mechanical, molecular transport, optical, and photonic properties exploited across an array of biomedical applications. The utility of DE in these applications stands to be enhanced through the incorporation of nitric oxide (NO) technology shown to modulate a number of essential physiological processes. In this work, the preparation and characterization of a bio-templated diatomaceous earth-based nitric oxide delivery scaffold is described for the first time...
December 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Farideh Badalkhani-Khamseh, Azadeh Ebrahim-Habibi, Nasser L Hadipour
Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have been extensively studied as delivery vectors in biomedical applications. A limited number of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies have investigated the effect of surface chemistry on therapeutic molecules loading, with the aim of providing insights for biocompatibility improvement and increase in drug loading capacity of PAMAM dendrimers. In this work, fully atomistic MD simulations were employed to study the association of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) with amine (NH2)- and hydroxyl (OH)-terminated PAMAM dendrimers of generations 3 and 4 (G3 and G4)...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
Albert A Antolin, Joseph E Tym, Angeliki Komianou, Ian Collins, Paul Workman, Bissan Al-Lazikani
Chemical probes are essential tools for understanding biological systems and for target validation, yet selecting probes for biomedical research is rarely based on objective assessment of all potential compounds. Here, we describe the Probe Miner: Chemical Probes Objective Assessment resource, capitalizing on the plethora of public medicinal chemistry data to empower quantitative, objective, data-driven evaluation of chemical probes. We assess >1.8 million compounds for their suitability as chemical tools against 2,220 human targets and dissect the biases and limitations encountered...
December 14, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
Bheemanagouda N Patil, T C Taranath
Green chemistry is a novel method for the synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles. The present investigation focused on synthesis of biogenic silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles. They were assayed for their antibacterial activities against test bacterial species. The results revealed that the silver nanoparticles showed the maximum zone of inhibition 15.16, 15.5 and 13.33 mm at 400 μg/mL to S. aureus, S. typhi and P. aeruginosa respectively, when compared to the Erythromycin. While zinc oxide nanoparticles showed less activity in comparison to silver nanoparticles owing to the agglomeration of nanoparticles...
December 14, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Lisa J Alcock, Michael V Perkins, Justin M Chalker
Cysteine residues in proteins are subject to diverse redox chemistry. Oxidation of cysteine to S-nitrosocysteine, cysteine sulfenic and sulfinic acids, disulfides and persulfides are a few prominent examples of these oxidative post-translational modifications. In living organisms, these modifications often play key roles in cell signalling and protein function, but a full account of this biochemistry is far from complete. It is therefore an important goal in chemical biology to identify what proteins are subjected to these modifications and understand their physiological function...
December 15, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
M Marín-Barba, H Gavilán, L Gutiérrez, E Lozano-Velasco, I Rodríguez-Ramiro, G N Wheeler, C J Morris, M P Morales, A Ruiz
Multicore superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been proposed as ideal tools for some biomedical applications because of their high magnetic moment per particle, high specific surface area and long term colloidal stability. Through controlled aggregation and packing of magnetic cores it is possible to obtain not only single-core but also multicore and hollow spheres with internal voids. In this work, we compare toxicological properties of single and multicore nanoparticles. Both types of particles showed moderate in vitro toxicity (MTT assay) tested in Hep G2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma) and Caco-2 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma) cells...
December 15, 2017: Nanoscale
Brendan D Stamper, Amber V Buhler, John P Harrelson, Sigrid C Roberts, Ashim Malhotra, Fawzy A Elbarbry, Deepa Rao, Reza Karimi, R Brigg Turner, Catherine Marlow, Leslie L Devaud
OBJECTIVE: Online prerequisite review (OPR) tutorials were designed and implemented to reinforce foundational scientific material in order to protect in-class time, foster self-directed learning, and ensure all students have similar baseline knowledge. METHODS: Twenty-one tutorials covering undergraduate prerequisite material were developed by faculty and organized into six core modules, comprising basic biology, chemistry, and physiology topics. A quiz on this material was given on the first day of each course...
March 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Xingshu Li, Sungsook Yu, Dayoung Lee, Gyoungmi Kim, Buhyun Lee, Yejin Cho, Bi-Yuan Zheng, Mei-Rong Ke, Jian-Dong Huang, Ki Taek Nam, Xiaoyuan Chen, Juyoung Yoon
Supramolecular chemistry provides a "bottom-up" method to fabricate nanostructures for biomedical applications. Herein, we report a facile strategy to directly assemble a phthalocyanine photosensitizer (PcS) with an anticancer drug mitoxantrone (MA) to form uniform nanostructures (PcS-MA), which not only display nanoscale optical properties but also have the capability of undergoing nucleic acid-responsive disassembly. These supramolecular assemblies possess activatable fluorescence emission and singlet oxygen generation associated with the formation of free PcS, mild photothermal heating, and a concomitant chemotherapeutic effect associated with the formation of free MA...
December 12, 2017: ACS Nano
Hernando Curtidor, César Reyes, Adriana Bermúdez, Magnolia Vanegas, Yahson Varela, Manuel E Patarroyo
Synthetic peptides have become invaluable biomedical research and medicinal chemistry tools for studying functional roles, i.e., binding or proteolytic activity, naturally-occurring regions' immunogenicity in proteins and developing therapeutic agents and vaccines. Synthetic peptides can mimic protein sites; their structure and function can be easily modulated by specific amino acid replacement. They have major advantages, i.e., they are cheap, easily-produced and chemically stable, lack infectious and secondary adverse reactions and can induce immune responses via T- and B-cell epitopes...
December 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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