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Biomedical chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144019/pegylated-precision-segments-based-on-sequence-defined-thiolactone-oligomers
#1
Sensu Celasun, Filip E Du Prez, Hans G Börner
A straightforward access route to multifunctional block copolymers, combining a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) block and a monodisperse segment with discrete monomer sequence based on thiolactone chemistry, is described. Exploiting an inverse conjugation strategy on a PEG preloaded poly(styrene) synthesis resin enables the convenient introduction of a predefined PEG-block at the α-terminus of thiolactone-based sequence-defined oligomers. Reaction conditions for the stepwise, submonomer synthesis at polar solid supports are optimized, using sequential synthesis on a model resin that enables to isolate and determine the purity of the oligomer segments by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis...
November 16, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136460/graphitic-nitrogen-triggers-red-fluorescence-in-carbon-dots
#2
Katerina Hola, Mária Sudolská, Sergii Kalytchuk, Dana Nachtigallova, Andrey L Rogach, Michal Otyepka, Radek Zbořil
Carbon dots (CDs) are a stable and highly biocompatible fluorescent material offering great application potential in cell labeling, optical imaging, LED diodes, and optoelectronic technologies. Because their emission wavelengths provide the best tissue penetration, red-emitting CDs are of a particular interest for applications in biomedical technologies. Current synthetic strategies enabling red-shifted emission include increasing the CD particle size (sp2 domain) by a proper synthetic strategy and tuning the surface chemistry of CDs with suitable functional groups (e...
November 14, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129313/physico-chemistry-of-bacterial-transmission-versus-adhesion
#3
REVIEW
Niar Gusnaniar, Henny C van der Mei, Wenwen Qu, Titik Nuryastuti, Johanna M M Hooymans, Jelmer Sjollema, Henk J Busscher
Bacterial adhesion is a main problem in many biomedical, domestic, natural and industrial environments and forms the onset of the formation of a biofilm, in which adhering bacteria grow into a multi-layered film while embedding themselves in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. It is usually assumed that bacterial adhesion occurs from air or by convective-diffusion from a liquid suspension, but often bacteria adhere by transmission from a bacterially contaminated donor to a receiver surface. Therewith bacterial transmission is mechanistically different from adhesion, as it involves bacterial detachment from a donor surface followed by adhesion to a receiver one...
November 5, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125547/salt-assisted-ultrasonicated-de-aggregation-and-advanced-redox-electrochemistry-of-detonation-nanodiamond
#4
Sanju Gupta, Brendan Evans, Alex Henson, Sara B Carrizosa
Nanodiamond particles form agglomerates in the dry powder state and this poses limitation to the accessibility of their diamond-like core thus dramatically impacting their technological advancement. In this work, we report de-agglomeration of nanodiamond (ND) by using a facile technique namely, salt-assisted ultrasonic de-agglomeration (SAUD). Utilizing ultrasound energy and ionic salts (sodium chloride and sodium acetate), SAUD is expected to break apart thermally treated nanodiamond aggregates (~50-100 nm) and produce an aqueous slurry of de-aggregated stable colloidal nanodiamond dispersions by virtue of ionic interactions and electrostatic stabilization...
November 10, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075005/exploratory-testing-of-diatom-silica-to-map-the-role-of-material-attributes-on-cell-fate
#5
Pamela J Walsh, Susan A Clarke, Matthew Julius, Phillip B Messersmith
Porous silica is an attractive biomaterial in many applications, including drug-delivery systems, bone-graft fillers and medical devices. The issue with porous silica biomaterials is the rate at which they resorb and the significant role played by interfacial chemistry on the host response in vivo. This paper explores the potential of diatom-biosilica as a model tool to assist in the task of mapping and quantifying the role of surface topography and chemical cues on cell fate. Diatoms are unicellular microalgae whose cell walls are composed of, amorphous nanopatterned biosilica that cannot be replicated synthetically...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071192/the-biocompatibility-studies-of-polymer-dots-on-pregnant-mice-and-fetuses
#6
Na Wu, Zheng Zhang, Jie Zhou, Zezhou Sun, Yueyue Deng, Guimiao Lin, Ming Ying, Xiaomei Wang, Ken-Tye Yong, Changfeng Wu, Gaixia Xu
Semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots) are small nanoparticles consisting primarily of fluorescent pi-conjugated polymers which show superior optical properties for biological imaging and biosensors. It is necessary to explore systematically the toxicity of Pdots on animals before extensive biomedical applications. The reproductive system is very sensitive to the external invasion and essential for species reproduction as well. In this work, we used the pregnant mice to investigate the reproductive toxicity of Pdots...
2017: Nanotheranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065876/nanomaterials-modulate-stem-cell-differentiation-biological-interaction-and-underlying-mechanisms
#7
REVIEW
Min Wei, Song Li, Weidong Le
Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation into more specialized cell types. The chemical and physical properties of surrounding microenvironment contribute to the growth and differentiation of stem cells and consequently play crucial roles in the regulation of stem cells' fate. Nanomaterials hold great promise in biological and biomedical fields owing to their unique properties, such as controllable particle size, facile synthesis, large surface-to-volume ratio, tunable surface chemistry, and biocompatibility...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063928/shell-thickness-effects-on-quantum-dot-brightness-and-energy-transfer
#8
Margaret Chern, Thuy T Nguyen, Andrew H Mahler, Allison M Dennis
Heterostructured core/shell quantum dots (QDs) are prized in biomedical imaging and biosensing applications because of their bright, photostable emission and effectiveness as Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) donors. However, as nanomaterials chemistry has progressed beyond traditional QDs to incorporate new compositions, ultra-thick shells, and alloyed structures, few of these materials have had their optical properties systematically characterized for effective application. For example, thick-shelled QDs, also known as 'giant' QDs (gQDs) are useful in single-particle tracking microscopy because of their reduced blinking, but we know only that CdSe/CdS gQDs are qualitatively brighter than thin-shelled CdSe/CdS in aqueous media...
November 2, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062484/weak-bond-based-injectable-and-stimuli-responsive-hydrogels-for-biomedical-applications
#9
Xiaochu Ding, Yadong Wang
Here we define hydrogels crosslinked by weak bonds as physical hydrogels. They possess unique features including reversible bonding, shear thinning and stimuli-responsiveness. Unlike covalently crosslinked hydrogels, physical hydrogels do not require triggers to initiate chemical reactions for in situ gelation. The drug can be fully loaded in a pre-formed hydrogel for delivery with minimal cargo leakage during injection. These benefits make physical hydrogels useful as delivery vehicles for applications in biomedical engineering...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048439/advancing-porphyrin-s-biomedical-utility-via-supramolecular-chemistry
#10
M A Rajora, J W H Lou, G Zheng
Porphyrins are organic heterocyclic macrocycles with photophysical properties well-suited for clinical phototherapy and cancer imaging. However, their wider application in the clinical management of disease is barred by poor aqueous solubility, bioavailability, tumour accumulation and skin phototoxicity. These limitations instigated the development of supramolecular platforms that improved porphyrin pharmacokinetics and tumour-homing. The supramolecular formulation of porphyrins also facilitates single agent-mediated deeper tissue photoactivation, extended imaging and theranostic multimodality, and synergistic application of multiple therapies...
October 30, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047451/functionalization-of-bacterial-cellulose-wound-dressings-with-the-antimicrobial-peptide-%C3%AE%C2%B5-poly-l-lysine
#11
Marian Fürsatz, Mårten Skog, Petter Sivlér, Eleonor Palm, Christopher Aronsson, Andreas Skallberg, Grzegorz Greczynski, Hazem Khalaf, Torbjörn Bengtsson, Daniel Aili
Wound dressings based on bacterial cellulose (BC) can form a soft and conformable protective layer that can stimulate wound healing while preventing bacteria from entering the wound. Bacteria already present in the wound can, however, thrive in the moist environment created by the BC dressing which can aggravate the healing process. Possibilities to render the BC antimicrobial without affecting the beneficial structural and mechanical properties of the material would hence be highly attractive. Here we present methods for functionalization of BC with ε-Poly-L-Lysine (ε-PLL), a non-toxic biopolymer with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity...
October 19, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046855/specific-binding-of-liposomal-nanoparticles-through-inverse-electron-demand-diels-alder-click-chemistry
#12
Christian Brand, Pasquale Iacono, Carlos Pérez-Medina, Willem J M Mulder, Moritz F Kircher, Thomas Reiner
Here, we report a method to specifically bind liposomal radiopharmaceuticals to a CoCrMo alloy, which can be used in arterial stents, via an irreversible inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction. Inspired by recent accomplishments in pre-targeted imaging using tetrazine-trans-cyclooctene click chemistry, we synthesized (89)Zr-labeled trans-cyclooctene-functionalized liposomal nanoparticles, which were validated on a tetrazine-appended polydopamine-coated CoCrMo surface. In efforts to ultimately translate this new material to biomedical applications, we compared the ability of (89)Zr-TCO-liposomal nanoparticles ((89)Zr-TCO-LNP) to be immobilized on the tetrazine surface to the control suspensions of non-TCO functionalized (89)Zr-liposomal nanoparticles...
October 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046820/bioimaging-of-botulinum-toxin-and-hyaluronate-hydrogels-using-zwitterionic-near-infrared-fluorophores
#13
Ki Su Kim, Yun Seop Kim, Kai Bao, Hideyuki Wada, Hak Soo Choi, Sei Kwang Hahn
BACKGROUND: The injection of botulinum toxin (BTX) to reduce facial wrinkles is one of the most frequently performed plastic surgery procedures. The biocompatible hydrogels are injected with BTX for effective tissue augmentation. However, it is difficult to determine the interval of injection for effective tissue augmentation. METHOD: BTX and hyaluronate (HA) hydrogels were labeled with zwitterionic (ZW) near-infrared (NIR) fluorophores and visualized for 3 weeks after injection to BALB/c nude mice...
2017: Biomaterials Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044983/horseradish-peroxidase-catalyzed-hydrogelation-for-biomedical-biopharmaceutical-and-biofabrication-applications
#14
Shinji Sakai, Masaki Nakahata
Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed hydrogelation has attracted much attention due to the ease of handling, high biocompatibility, and processability. This review summarizes recent developments including cutting-edge research using HRP-mediated hydrogelation toward biomedical, biopharmaceutical, and biofabrication applications. From the viewpoint of polymer chemistry, the basic chemistry behind hydrogelation, the structure-property relationship, and hybridization of multiple materials using HRP-catalyzed hydrogelation are summarized...
October 18, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043909/british-journal-of-biomedical-science-in-2017-what-have-we-learned
#15
Andrew Blann
In 2017 the British Journal of Biomedical Science published 35 articles in the various disciplines that comprise biomedical science. These were 6 reviews, 22 original articles, 6 'In Brief' short reports and one guideline. Of these, the majority were in clinical chemistry (one review, six data papers), microbiology (one review, four data papers), cellular pathology (four data papers) and virology (one review, two data papers). There were two data papers in transfusion science, whilst haematology, cytopathology and immunology were each represented by one review and one data paper...
October 18, 2017: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043857/magnetic-carbon-nanotubes-preparation-physical-properties-and-applications-in-biomedicine
#16
Mehrdad Samadishadlou, Masoud Farshbaf, Nasim Annabi, Taras Kavetskyy, Rovshan Khalilov, Siamak Saghfi, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh, Sepideh Mousavi
Magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) have been widely studied for their potential applications in medicine, diagnosis, cell biology, analytical chemistry, and environmental technology. Introduction of MCNTs paved the way for the emergence of new approaches in nanobiotechnology and biomedicine as a result of their multifarious properties embedded within either the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or magnetic parts. Numerous preparation techniques exists for functionalizing CNTs with magnetic nanoparticles, and these versatile strategies lay the ground for the generation of novel and versatile systems which are applicable to many industries and biological areas...
October 18, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038380/integrating-nanomedicine-and-imaging
#17
REVIEW
Carlos Pérez-Medina, Sjoerd Hak, Thomas Reiner, Zahi A Fayad, Matthias Nahrendorf, Willem J M Mulder
Biomedical engineering and its associated disciplines play a pivotal role in improving our understanding and management of disease. Motivated by past accomplishments, such as the clinical implementation of coronary stents, pacemakers or recent developments in antibody therapies, disease management now enters a new era in which precision imaging and nanotechnology-enabled therapeutics are maturing to clinical translation. Preclinical molecular imaging increasingly focuses on specific components of the immune system that drive disease progression and complications, allowing the in vivo study of potential therapeutic targets...
November 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022699/scalable-high-affinity-stabilization-of-magnetic-iron-oxide-nanostructures-by-a-biocompatible-antifouling-homopolymer
#18
Giovanni Luongo, Paola Campagnolo, Jose E Perez, Jürgen Kosel, Theoni K Georgiou, Anna Regoutz, David J Payne, Molly M Stevens, Mary P Ryan, Alexandra E Porter, Iain E Dunlop
Iron oxide nanostructures have been widely developed for biomedical applications because of their magnetic properties and biocompatibility. In clinical applications, stabilization of these nanostructures against aggregation and nonspecific interactions is typically achieved using weakly anchored polysaccharides, with better-defined and more strongly anchored synthetic polymers not commercially adopted because of their complexity of synthesis and use. Here, we show for the first time stabilization and biocompatibilization of iron oxide nanoparticles by a synthetic homopolymer with strong surface anchoring and a history of clinical use in other applications, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) [poly(MPC)]...
November 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990364/synthesis-functionalization-and-design-of-magnetic-nanoparticles-for-theranostic-applications
#19
REVIEW
Jalal Mosayebi, Mehdi Kiyasatfar, Sophie Laurent
In order to translate nanotechnology into medical practice, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been presented as a class of non-invasive nanomaterials for numerous biomedical applications. In particular, MNPs have opened a door for simultaneous diagnosis and brisk treatment of diseases in the form of theranostic agents. This review highlights the recent advances in preparation and utilization of MNPs from the synthesis and functionalization steps to the final design consideration in evading the body immune system for therapeutic and diagnostic applications with addressing the most recent examples of the literature in each section...
October 9, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986377/stenotrophomonas-like-bacteria-are-widespread-symbionts-in-cone-snail-venom-ducts
#20
Joshua P Torres, Ma Diarey Tianero, Jose Miguel D Robes, Jason C Kwan, Jason S Biggs, Gisela P Concepcion, Baldomero M Olivera, Margo G Haygood, Eric W Schmidt
Cone snails are biomedically important sources of peptide drugs, but it is not known whether snail-associated bacteria affect venom chemistry. To begin to answer this question, we performed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of eight cone snail species, comparing their microbiomes with each other and with those from a variety of other marine invertebrates. We show that the cone snail microbiome is distinct from those in other marine invertebrates and conserved in specimens from around the world, including the Philippines, Guam, California, and Florida...
October 6, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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