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Biomedical chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098453/surface-engineered-multifunctional-eu-gd2o3-nanoplates-for-targeted-and-ph-responsive-drug-delivery-and-imaging-applications
#1
Arindam Saha, Subas Chandra Mohanta, Kashmiri Deka, Pritam Deb, Parukuttyamma Sujatha Devi
In this paper, we report the synthesis of surface-engineered multifunctional Eu:Gd2O3 triangular nanoplates with small size and uniform shape via a high-temperature solvothermal technique. Surface engineering has been performed by a one-step polyacrylate coating, followed by controlled conjugation chemistry. This creates the desired number of surface functional groups that can be used to attach folic acid as a targeting ligand on the nanoparticle surface. To specifically deliver the drug molecules in the nucleus, the folate density on the nanoparticle surface has been kept low...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095847/the-biomedical-piglet-establishing-reference-intervals-for-haematology-and-clinical-chemistry-parameters-of-two-age-groups-with-and-without-iron-supplementation
#2
Domenico Ventrella, Francesco Dondi, Francesca Barone, Federica Serafini, Alberto Elmi, Massimo Giunti, Noemi Romagnoli, Monica Forni, Maria L Bacci
BACKGROUND: The similarities between swine and humans in physiological and genomic patterns, and the great correlation in size and anatomy, make pigs extremely useful in preclinical studies. New-born piglets can represent a model for congenital and genetic diseases in new-born children. It is known that piglets may have significant differences in clinicopathological results compared to adult pigs. Therefore, adult laboratory reference intervals cannot be applied to piglets. The aim of this study was to compare haematological and chemical variables in piglets of two ages and determinate age-related reference intervals for commercial hybrid young pigs...
January 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094261/beyond-the-margins-real-time-detection-of-cancer-using-targeted-fluorophores
#3
REVIEW
Ray R Zhang, Alexandra B Schroeder, Joseph J Grudzinski, Eben L Rosenthal, Jason M Warram, Anatoly N Pinchuk, Kevin W Eliceiri, John S Kuo, Jamey P Weichert
Over the past two decades, synergistic innovations in imaging technology have resulted in a revolution in which a range of biomedical applications are now benefiting from fluorescence imaging. Specifically, advances in fluorophore chemistry and imaging hardware, and the identification of targetable biomarkers have now positioned intraoperative fluorescence as a highly specific real-time detection modality for surgeons in oncology. In particular, the deeper tissue penetration and limited autofluorescence of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging improves the translational potential of this modality over visible-light fluorescence imaging...
January 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094081/emerging-human-fetuin-a-assays-for-biomedical-diagnostics
#4
REVIEW
Sandeep Kumar Vashist, E Marion Schneider, A G Venkatesh, John H T Luong
Human fetuin A (HFA) plays a prominent pathophysiological role in numerous diseases and pathophysiological conditions with considerable biomedical significance; one example is the formation of calciprotein particles in osteoporosis and impaired calcium metabolisms. With impressive advances in in vitro diagnostic assays during the last decade, ELISAs have become a workhorse in routine clinical diagnostics. Recent diagnostic formats involve high-sensitivity immunoassay procedures, surface plasmon resonance, rapid immunoassay chemistries, signal enhancement, and smartphone detection...
January 13, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093367/effect-of-construction-of-tio2-nanotubes-on-platelet-behaviors-structure-property-relationships
#5
Qiaoling Huang, Yun Yang, Dajiang Zheng, Ran Song, Yanmei Zhang, Pinliang Jiang, Erwin A Vogler, Changjian Lin
: Blood compatibility of TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) has been assessed in rabbit platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which combines activation of both blood plasma coagulation and platelets. We find that (i) amorphous TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) with relatively larger outer diameters led to reduced platelet adhesion/activation, (ii) TNTs with relatively smaller outer diameters in a predominately rutile phase also inhibited platelet adhesion and activation, and (iii) a pervasive fibrin network formed on larger outer diameter TNTs in a predominately anatase phase...
January 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092430/optimal-reactivity-and-improved-self-healing-capability-of-structurally-dynamic-polymers-grafted-on-janus-nanoparticles-governed-by-chain-stiffness-and-spatial-organization
#6
Guoxi Xu, Zihan Huang, Pengyu Chen, Tianqi Cui, Xinghua Zhang, Bing Miao, Li-Tang Yan
Structurally dynamic polymers are recognized as a key potential to revolutionize technologies ranging from design of self-healing materials to numerous biomedical applications. Despite intense research in this area, optimizing reactivity and thereby improving self-healing ability at the most fundamental level pose urgent issue for wider applications of such emerging materials. Here, the authors report the first mechanistic investigation of the fundamental principle for the dependence of reactivity and self-healing capabilities on the properties inherent to dynamic polymers by combining large-scale computer simulation, theoretical analysis, and experimental discussion...
January 16, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078979/biotechnological-patents-applications-of-the-deuterium-oxide-in-human-health
#7
Alexsandro S Galdino, Reysla M da S Mariano, Wendell C Bila, Maria Jaciara F Trindade, Joel Alves Lamounier
BACKGROUND: Deuterium oxide is a molecule that has been used for decades in several studies related to human health. Currently, studies on D2O have mobilized a "Race for Patenting" worldwide. Several patents have been registered from biomedical and technological studies of D2O showing the potential of this stable isotope in industry and health care ecosystems. METHODS: Most of the patents relating to applications of the deuterium oxide in human health have been summarized in this review...
January 12, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078952/recent-advances-in-green-nanoparticulate-systems-for-drug-delivery-efficient-delivery-and-safety-concern
#8
Pik-Ling Lam, Wai-Yeung Wong, Zhaoxiang Bian, Chung-Hin Chui, Roberto Gambari
Nanotechnology manipulates therapeutic agents at the nanoscale for the development of nanomedicines. However, there are current concerns over nanomedicines, mainly related to the possible toxicity of nanomaterials used for health medications. Due to their small size, they can enter the human body more readily than larger sized particles. Green chemistry encompasses the green synthesis of drug-loaded nanoparticles by reducing the use of hazardous materials in the synthesis process, thus reducing the adverse health impacts of pharmaceutics...
January 12, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075405/the-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-ros-in-the-biological-activities-of-metallic-nanoparticles
#9
REVIEW
Ahmed Abdal Dayem, Mohammed Kawser Hossain, Soo Bin Lee, Kyeongseok Kim, Subbroto Kumar Saha, Gwang-Mo Yang, Hye Yeon Choi, Ssang-Goo Cho
Nanoparticles (NPs) possess unique physical and chemical properties that make them appropriate for various applications. The structural alteration of metallic NPs leads to different biological functions, specifically resulting in different potentials for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The amount of ROS produced by metallic NPs correlates with particle size, shape, surface area, and chemistry. ROS possess multiple functions in cellular biology, with ROS generation a key factor in metallic NP-induced toxicity, as well as modulation of cellular signaling involved in cell death, proliferation, and differentiation...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069502/synthesis-and-characterization-of-citrate-based-fluorescent-small-molecules-and-biodegradable-polymers
#10
Zhiwei Xie, Jimin P Kim, Qing Cai, Yi Zhang, Jinshan Guo, Ranjodh S Dhami, LiLi, Bin Kong, Yixue Su, Kevin A Schug, Jian Yang
Novel citric acid based photoluminescent dyes and degradable polymers are synthesized via a facile "one-pot" reaction. A comprehensive understanding of the fluorescence mechanisms of the resulting citric acid-based fluorophores is reported. Two distinct types of fluorophores are identified: a thiozolopyridine family with high quantum yield, long lifetime, and exceptional photostability, and a dioxopyridine family with relatively lower quantum yield, multiple lifetimes, and solvent-dependent band shifting behavior...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069023/in-vitro-biological-responses-to-nanofibrillated-cellulose-by-human-dermal-lung-and-immune-cells-surface-chemistry-aspect
#11
Viviana R Lopes, Carla Sanchez-Martinez, Maria Strømme, Natalia Ferraz
BACKGROUND: Nanocellulose, and particularly nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), has been proposed for a diversity of applications in industry and in the biomedical field. Its unique physicochemical and structural features distinguish nanocellulose from traditional materials and enable its use as an advance nanomaterial. However, its nanoscale features may induce unknown biological responses. Limited studies with NFC are available and the biological impacts of its use have not been thoroughly explored...
January 10, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060268/a-facile-and-efficient-approach-for-the-production-of-reversible-disulfide-cross-linked-micelles
#12
Yuanpei Li, Gaurav Bharadwaj, Joyce S Lee
Nanomedicine is an emerging form of therapy that harnesses the unique properties of particles that are nanometers in scale for biomedical application. Improving drug delivery to maximize therapeutic outcomes and to reduce drug-associated side effects are some of the cornerstones of present-day nanomedicine. Nanoparticles in particular have found a wide application in cancer treatment. Nanoparticles that offer a high degree of flexibility in design, application, and production based on the tumor microenvironment are projected to be more effective with rapid translation into clinical practice...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053064/scientific-knowledge-and-technology-animal-experimentation-and-pharmaceutical-development
#13
Lewis B Kinter, Joseph J DeGeorge
Human discovery of pharmacologically active substances is arguably the oldest of the biomedical sciences with origins >3500 years ago. Since ancient times, four major transformations have dramatically impacted pharmaceutical development, each driven by advances in scientific knowledge, technology, and/or regulation: (1) anesthesia, analgesia, and antisepsis; (2) medicinal chemistry; (3) regulatory toxicology; and (4) targeted drug discovery. Animal experimentation in pharmaceutical development is a modern phenomenon dating from the 20th century and enabling several of the four transformations...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026933/thiazolidine-masked-%C3%AE-oxo-aldehyde-functionality-for-peptide-and-protein-modification
#14
Xiaobao Bi, Kalyan Kumar Pasunooti, Julien Lescar, Chuan-Fa Liu
α-Oxo aldehyde-based bioconjugation chemistry has been widely explored in peptide and protein modifications for various applications in biomedical research during the past decades. The generation of α-oxo aldehyde via sodium periodate oxidation is usually limited to the N-terminus of a target protein. Internal-site functionalization of proteins with the α-oxo aldehyde handle has not been achieved yet. Herein we report a novel method for site-specific peptide and protein modification using synthetically or genetically incorporated thiazolidine-protected α-oxo aldehyde...
December 27, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997119/anisotropic-self-assembly-of-hairy-inorganic-nanoparticles
#15
Chenglin Yi, Shaoyi Zhang, Kyle Thomas Webb, Zhihong Nie
Current interest in functional assemblies of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) stems from their collective properties and diverse applications ranging from nanomedicines to optically active metamaterials. Coating the surface of NPs with polymers allows for tailoring of the interactions between NPs to assemble them into hybrid nanocomposites with targeted architectures. This class of building blocks is termed "hairy" inorganic NPs (HINPs). Regiospecific attachment of polymers has been used to achieve directional interactions for HINP assembly...
December 20, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993006/classical-challenges-in-the-physical-chemistry-of-polymer-networks-and-the-design-of-new-materials
#16
Rui Wang, Michelle K Sing, Reginald K Avery, Bruno S Souza, Minkyu Kim, Bradley D Olsen
Polymer networks are widely used from commodity to biomedical materials. The space-spanning, net-like structure gives polymer networks their advantageous mechanical and dynamic properties, the most essential factor that governs their responses to external electrical, thermal, and chemical stimuli. Despite the ubiquity of applications and a century of active research on these materials, the way that chemistry and processing interact to yield the final structure and the material properties of polymer networks is not fully understood, which leads to a number of classical challenges in the physical chemistry of gels...
December 20, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991755/thiol-ol-chemistry-for-grafting-of-natural-polymers-to-form-highly-stable-and-efficacious-antibacterial-coatings
#17
Min Li, Debirupa Mitra, En-Tang Kang, Titus Lau, Edmund Chiong, Koon Gee Neoh
Bacterial contamination of surfaces and the associated infection risk is a significant threat to human health. Some natural antibacterial polymers with low toxicity are promising coating materials for alleviating pathogenic colonization on surfaces. However, widespread application of these polymers as antibacterial coatings is constrained by coating techniques which are not easily scalable due to stringent reaction conditions. Herein, thiol-ol reaction involving oxidative conjugation between thiol and hydroxyl groups is demonstrated as a facile technique to graft two natural polymer derivatives, agarose (AG) and quaternized chitosan (QCS), as antibacterial coatings on polymer and metal substrates...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986633/unraveling-the-interaction-of-hemoglobin-with-a-biocompatible-and-cleavable-oxy-diester-functionalized-gemini-surfactant
#18
Mohd Akram, Sana Anwar, Imtiyaz Ahmad Bhat, Kabir-Ud-Din
Surfactant-protein mixtures have attracted considerable research interest in recent years at the interface of chemical biology and medicinal chemistry. Herein, the interaction between a green gemini surfactant (C16-E2O-C16) and a redox protein hemoglobin was examined through a series of in vitro experimental techniques with an attempt to provide a comprehensive knowledge of the surfactant-protein binding interactions. Quantitative appraisal of the fluorescence/CV data showed that the binding of C16-E2O-C16 to Hb leads to the formation of thermodynamically favorable non-covalent adduct with 1:1 stoichiometry...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965173/clickecm-development-of-a-cell-derived-extracellular-matrix-with-azide-functionalities
#19
S M Ruff, S Keller, D E Wieland, V Wittmann, G E M Tovar, M Bach, P J Kluger
: In vitro cultured cells produce a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) that remains intact after decellularization. The biological complexity derived from the variety of distinct ECM molecules makes these matrices ideal candidates for biomaterials. Biomaterials with the ability to guide cell function are a topic of high interest in biomaterial development. However, these matrices lack specific addressable functional groups, which are often required for their use as a biomaterial. Due to the biological complexity of the cell-derived ECM, it is a challenge to incorporate such functional groups without affecting the integrity of the biomolecules within the ECM...
December 10, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960382/attoliter-chemistry-for-nanoscale-functionalization-of-graphene
#20
Michael Hirtz, Sarah Varey, Harald Fuchs, Aravind Vijayaraghavan
The nanoscale, multiplexed functionalization of graphene in a device array is a critical step to realize graphene-based chemical and biosensors. We demonstrate that graphene can be functionalized with submicron resolution and in well-defined locations and patterns using reaction agents in attoliter quantities, utilizing dip-pen nanolithography or microchannel cantilever spotting. Specifically, we functionalize graphene with a biotin azide using click-chemistry and demonstrate the subsequent binding of fluorescently tagged streptavidin...
December 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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