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Biomedical chemistry

M Hrubý, J Kučka, J Pánek, P Štěpánek
For many important research topics in polymer science the use of radionuclides brings significant benefits concerning nanotechnology, polymer drug delivery systems, tissue engineering etc. This contribution describes important achievements of the radionuclide laboratory at Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (IMC) in the area of polymers for biomedical applications. Particular emphasis will be given to water-soluble polymer carriers of radionuclides, thermoresponsive polymer radionuclide carriers, thermoresponsive polymers for local brachytherapy, polymer scaffolds modified with (radiolabeled) peptides and polymer copper chelators for the therapy of Wilson´s disease...
October 20, 2016: Physiological Research
Ting Wei, Wenjun Zhan, Limin Cao, Changming Hu, Yangcui Qu, Qian Yu, Hong Chen
Development of a versatile strategy for antibacterial surfaces is of great scientific interest and practical significance. However, few methods can be used to fabricate antibacterial surfaces on substrates of different chemistries and structures. In addition, traditional antibacterial surfaces may suffer problems related to the attached dead bacteria. Herein, antibacterial surfaces with multifunctionality and regenerability are fabricated by a universal strategy. Various substrates are firstly deposited with multilayered films containing guest moieties, which further serve as binding sites for incorporation of biocidal "host" molecules, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) derivatives modified with quaternary ammonium salt groups (CD-QAS)...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Dae-Young Kim, Min Kim, Surendra Shinde, Jung-Suk Sung, Gajanan Ghodake
Cytotoxicity of nanoparticles needs to be examined for their biocompatibility and suitability in biomedical applications. Gallic acid method was used for the high concentration synthesis (1mM) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) having narrow size-distribution at ambient temperature (25°C). Gallic acid capped AuNPs were characterized by different techniques such as, UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, EDAX, SAED, and XPS. In-vitro stability of AuNPs with biomolecules, such as glucose and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was explored at different concertation ranges...
October 12, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Luis M De Leon-Rodriguez, Yacine Hemar, Guang Mo, Alok K Mitra, Jillian Cornish, Margaret A Brimble
We report the synthesis and characterization of multifunctional peptides comprised of a hydrogel forming β-sheet peptide segment and a matrix metalloproteinase 2 substrate containing a propargylglycinyl linker that is further derivatized with a RGD peptide sequence via "click" chemistry. In contrast to currently known systems, these multifunctional peptides formed gels that are stiffer than those formed by their respective precursors. All the peptides showed reversible thermoresponsive properties, which render them as suitable lead systems for a variety of possible biomedical applications...
October 12, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Sarwar Beg, Mahfoozur Rahman, Atul Jain, Sumant Saini, Patrick Midoux, Chantal Pichon, Farhan Jalees Ahmad, Sohail Akhter
Metal organic frameworks (MOFs), porous hybrid polymer-metal composites at the nanoscale, are recent innovations in the field of chemistry; they are novel polymeric materials with diverse biomedical applications. MOFs are nanoporous materials, consisting of metal ions linked together by organic bridging ligands. The unique physical and chemical characteristics of MOFs have attracted wider attention from the scientific community, exploring their utility in the field of material science, biology, nanotechnology and drug delivery...
October 11, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
Suhee Song, Joonhee Lee, Songa Kweon, Jaeeun Song, Kyuseok Kim, Byeong-Su Kim
Functional hyperbranched polyglycerols (PGs) have recently garnered considerable interest due to their potential in biomedical applications. Here, we present a one-pot synthesis of hyperbranched PGs possessing amine functionality using a novel amino glycidyl ether monomer. A Boc-protected butanolamine glycidyl ether (BBAG) monomer was designed and polymerized with glycidol (G) through anionic ring-opening multibranching polymerization to yield a series of hyperbranched P(G-co-BBAG) with controlled molecular weights (4800-16700 g/mol) and relatively low molecular weight distributions (1...
October 14, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Daniel P Bondeson, Craig M Crews
Protein homeostasis networks are highly regulated systems responsible for maintaining the health and productivity of cells. Whereas therapeutics have been developed to disrupt protein homeostasis, more recently identified techniques have been used to repurpose homeostatic networks to effect degradation of disease-relevant proteins. Here, we review recent advances in the use of small molecules to degrade proteins in a selective manner. First, we highlight all-small-molecule techniques with direct clinical application...
October 12, 2016: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Parvin Abraham, Tessy Thomas Maliekal
Research of the past two decades has proved the relevance of single cell biology in basic research and translational medicine. Successful detection and isolation of specific subsets is the key to understand their functional heterogeneity. Antibodies are conventionally used for this purpose, but their relevance in certain contexts is limited. In this review, we discuss some of these contexts, posing bottle neck for different fields of biology including biomedical research. With the advancement of chemistry, several methods have been introduced to overcome these problems...
October 6, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Meiying Liu, Guangjian Zeng, Ke Wang, Qing Wan, Lei Tao, Xiaoyong Zhang, Yen Wei
After more than four billion years of evolution, nature has created a large number of fascinating living organisms, which show numerous peculiar structures and wonderful properties. Nature can provide sources of plentiful inspiration for scientists to create various materials and devices with special functions and uses. Since Messersmith proposed the fabrication of multifunctional coatings through mussel-inspired chemistry, this field has attracted considerable attention for its promising and exiciting applications...
September 29, 2016: Nanoscale
Carlos Caravaca, Liu Shi, Sandra Balvay, Pascaline Rivory, Emmanuelle Laurenceau, Yann Chevolot, Daniel Hartmann, Laurent Gremillard, Jérôme Chevalier
: High-performance bioinert ceramics such as zirconia have been used for biomedical devices since the early seventies. In order to promote osseointegration, the historical solution has been to increase the specific surface of the implant through roughness. Nevertheless these treatments on ceramics may create defects at the surface, exposing the material to higher chances of early failure. In zirconia, such treatments may also affect the stability of the surface. More recently, the interest of improving osseointegration of implants has moved the research focus towards the actual chemistry of the surface...
September 26, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Nidhi Nath, Becky Godat, Marjeta Urh
Antibodies labeled with small molecules like fluorescent dyes, cytotoxic drugs, and radioactive tracers are essential tools in biomedical research, immunodiagnostics and more recently as therapeutic agents. Traditional methods for labeling antibodies with small molecules require purified antibodies at relatively high concentration, involve multiple dialysis steps and have limited throughput. However, several applications, including the field of Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs), will benefit from new methods that will allow labeling of antibodies directly from cell media...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kui Yang, Xianlin Han
Lipidomics is a newly emerged discipline that studies cellular lipids on a large scale based on analytical chemistry principles and technological tools, particularly mass spectrometry. Recently, techniques have greatly advanced and novel applications of lipidomics in the biomedical sciences have emerged. This review provides a timely update on these aspects. After briefly introducing the lipidomics discipline, we compare mass spectrometry-based techniques for analysis of lipids and summarize very recent applications of lipidomics in health and disease...
September 20, 2016: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Alena Gábelová, Naouale El Yamani, Tamara Iglesias Alonso, Barbora Buliaková, Annamária Srančíková, Andrea Bábelová, Elise Runden Pran, Lise Marie Fjellsbø, Elisabeth Elje, Mazyar Yazdani, Maria João Silva, Mária Dušinská
Nowadays engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly used in a wide range of commercial products and biomedical applications. Despite this, the knowledge of human potential health risk as well as comprehensive biological and toxicological information is still limited. We have investigated the capacity of two frequently used metallic ENMs, nanosilver and magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs), to induce thymidine kinase (Tk (+/-)) mutations in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells and transformed foci in Bhas 42 cells. Two types of nanosilver, spherical nanoparticles (AgNM300) and fibrous (AgNM302) nanorods/wires, and MNPs differing in surface modifications [MNPs coated with sodium oleate (SO-MNPs), MNPs coated with SO + polyethylene glycol (SO-PEG-MNPs) and MNPs coated with SO + PEG + poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) SO-PEG-PLGA-MNPs] were included in this study...
September 22, 2016: Mutagenesis
Bauke Albada, Nils Metzler-Nolte
Peptides are important biological molecular entities in biomedical research. They can be prepared in a large variety of shapes, with a host of chemical functions, and tailored for specific applications. Organometallic medicinal chemistry is a relatively young field that explores biomedical and bioanalytical applications of organometallic complexes, that is, metal compounds with at least one direct, covalent metal-carbon bond. The conjugation of peptides to such medicinally active organometallic moieties started only about 20 years ago, and it has been very beneficial for the development of bioorganometallic chemistry in general...
October 12, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Sudeshna Patra, Sathyavathi Ravulapalli, Myung Gwan Hahm, Kiran Kumar Tadi, Tharangattu N Narayanan
Highly stable, luminescent, and printable/paintable supramolecular egg white hydrogel-based surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) matrix is created by an in situ synthesis of gold clusters inside a luminescent egg white hydrogel (Au-Gel). The synthesis of stable luminescent egg-white-based hydrogel, where the hydrogel can act as a three dimensional (3D) matrix, using a simple cross-linking chemistry, has promising application in the biomedical field including in 3D cell culturing. Furthermore, this functional hydrogel is demonstrated for micromolar-level detection of Rhodamine 6G using the SERS technique, where Au-Gel is painted over a flexible cellulose pad...
October 14, 2016: Nanotechnology
Waqar Majeed, Shawn Bourdo, Dayton M Petibone, Viney Saini, Kieng Bao Vang, Zeid A Nima, Karrer M Alghazali, Emilie Darrigues, Anindya Ghosh, Fumiya Watanabe, Daniel Casciano, Syed F Ali, Alexandru S Biris
Graphene and its derivative, because of their unique physical, electrical and chemical properties, are an important class of nanomaterials being proposed as foundational materials in nanomedicine as well as for a variety of industrial applications. A major limitation for graphene, when used in biomedical applications, is its poor solubility due to its rather hydrophobic nature. Therefore, chemical functionalities are commonly introduced to alter both its surface chemistry and biochemical activity. Here, we show that surface chemistry plays a major role in the toxicological profile of the graphene structures...
September 4, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Thangavel Muthukumarasamyvel, Raju Baskar, Shanmugam Chandirasekar, Kesavachandran Umamaheswari, Nagappan Rajendiran
A thiol-yne click chemistry approach was adopted for the first time to prepare highly water-soluble bile acid derived dicationic amphiphiles. The synthesized amphiphiles dicationic cysteamine conjugated cholic acid (DCaC), dicationic cysteamine conjugated deoxycholic acid (DCaDC), and dicationic cysteamine conjugated lithocholic acid (DCaLC) exhibited hierarchically self-assembled microstructures at various concentrations in an aqueous medium. Interestingly at below critical micellar concentration (CMC) the amphiphiles showed distinct fractal patterns such as fractal grass, microdendrites and fern leaf like fractals for DCaC, DCaDC and DCaLC respectively...
September 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Alberto Escudero, Carolina Carrillo-Carrión, Mikhail V Zyuzin, Wolfgang J Parak
Rare-earth-based nanoparticles are currently attracting wide research interest in material science, physics, chemistry, medicine, and biology due to their optical properties, their stability, and novel applications. We present in this review a summarized overview of the general and recent developments in their synthesis and functionalization. Their luminescent properties are also discussed, including the latest advances in the enhancement of their emission luminescence. Some of their more relevant and novel biomedical, analytical, and optoelectronic applications are also commented on...
August 2016: Top Curr Chem (J)
Haoxing Wu, Neal K Devaraj
Bioorthogonal reactions have been widely used over the last 10 years for imaging, detection, diagnostics, drug delivery, and biomaterials. Tetrazine reactions are a recently developed class of inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reactions used in bioorthogonal applications. Given their rapid tunable reaction rate and highly fluorogenic properties, tetrazine bioorthogonal reactions have come to be considered highly attractive tools for elucidating biological functions and messages in vitro and in vivo. In this chapter, we present recent advances expanding the scope of precursor reactivity and we introduce new biomedical methodology based on bioorthogonal tetrazine chemistry...
February 2016: Top Curr Chem (J)
Sabra Botch-Jones, Jamie Foss, David Barajas, Frank Kero, Craig Young, Jason Weisenseel
New psychoactive substances (NPS) have been associated with fatalities and severe injuries in a number of cases in the United States and have led investigators to rethink traditional drug monitoring protocols. Of particular interest are the variable phenethylamine chemical structures known as 'NBOMes', which pose an emerging threat to public health with incidence steadily growing over the past decade. In this study, direct sample analysis (DSA)-time of flight mass spectrometry was employed to leverage rapid and sensitive ambient ionization mass spectrometry without chromatographic separation as verified with an authentic case sample...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
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