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Biomedical chemistry

Haeree Park, Yeongkyu Choi, M T Jeena, Eungjin Ahn, Yuri Choi, Myeong-Gyun Kang, Chae Gyu Lee, Tae-Hyuk Kwon, Hyun-Woo Rhee, Ja-Hyoung Ryu, Byeong-Su Kim
Owing to the unique advantages of combining the characteristics of hydrogels and nanoparticles, nanogels are actively investigated as a promising platform for advanced biomedical applications. In this work, a self-cross-linked hyperbranched polyglycerol nanogel is synthesized using the thiol-disulfide exchange reaction based on a novel disulfide-containing polymer. A series of structural analyses confirm the tunable size and cross-linking density depending on the type of polymer (homo- or copolymer) and the amount of reducing agent, dithiothreitol, used in the preparation of the nanogels...
March 15, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Wei Li, Zehua Liu, Flavia Fontana, Yaping Ding, Dongfei Liu, Jouni T Hirvonen, Hélder A Santos
In the past two decades, porous silicon (PSi) has attracted increasing attention for its potential biomedical applications. With its controllable geometry, tunable nanoporous structure, large pore volume/high specific surface area, and versatile surface chemistry, PSi shows significant advantages over conventional drug carriers. Here, an overview of recent progress in the use of PSi in drug delivery and cancer immunotherapy is presented. First, an overview of the fabrication of PSi with various geometric structures is provided, with particular focus on how the unique geometry of PSi facilitates its biomedical applications, especially for drug delivery...
March 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
Marwa M Azab, Rédha Cherif, Aryanne L Finnie, Maha M Abou El-Alamin, Maha A Sultan, Alastair W Wark
Gold nanorods (NRs) have attracted a great deal of interest for a variety of biomedical and sensing applications. However, developing robust methods for biofunctionalizing NRs has continued to be challenging, especially for NR-DNA conjugates. This is due to the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which plays an essential role in controlling the anisotropic particle growth. In this article, we systematically explore the growth of a polydopamine (PDA) layer on a range of NR surfaces, comparing different polyelectrolyte and alkanethiol coatings as well as direct CTAB displacement...
March 13, 2018: Analyst
Chuanrui Chen, Emil Karshalev, Jianguo Guan, Joseph Wang
The new capabilities and functionalities of synthetic micro/nanomotors open up considerable opportunities for diverse environmental and biomedical applications. Water-powered micromachines are particularly attractive for realizing many of these applications. Magnesium-based motors directly use water as fuel to generate hydrogen bubbles for their propulsion, eliminating the requirement of common toxic fuels. This Review highlights the development of new Mg-based micromotors and discusses the chemistry that makes it extremely attractive for micromotor applications...
March 9, 2018: Small
Hang Zhang, Jinlong Chen, Chunsheng Xiao, Youhua Tao, Xianhong Wang
The growing application of quantum dots (QDs) in biomedical research necessitates, in turn, continuous development of surface functionalizing ligands to optimize their performance for ever more challenging and diverse biological applications. Here, we demonstrate the novel multifunctional polypeptide ligands for compact and biocompatible QDs. The target ligand preparation exploits the efficient, activating agent-free Ugi reaction of four functional components to incorporate lipoic acid, pyridine, zwitterion motifs, and reactive functionalities in a one-pot procedure under mild conditions...
March 5, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Hatice Ceylan Koydemir, Aydogan Ozcan
Mobile health technologies offer great promise for reducing healthcare costs and improving patient care. Wearable and implantable technologies are contributing to a transformation in the mobile health era in terms of improving healthcare and health outcomes and providing real-time guidance on improved health management and tracking. In this article, we review the biomedical applications of wearable and implantable medical devices and sensors, ranging from monitoring to prevention of diseases, as well as the materials used in the fabrication of these devices and the standards for wireless medical devices and mobile applications...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Dalong Ni, Dawei Jiang, Emily B Ehlerding, Peng Huang, Weibo Cai
As one of the most biocompatible and well-tolerated inorganic nanomaterials, silica-based nanoparticles (SiNPs) have received extensive attention over the last several decades. Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of radiolabeled SiNPs has provided a highly sensitive, noninvasive, and quantitative readout of the organ/tissue distribution, pharmacokinetics, and tumor targeting efficiency in vivo, which can greatly expedite the clinical translation of these promising NPs. Encouraged by the successful PET imaging of patients with metastatic melanoma using124 I-labeled ultrasmall SiNPs (known as Cornell dots or C dots) and their approval as an Investigational New Drug (IND) by the United States Food and Drug Administration, different radioisotopes (64 Cu,89 Zr,18 F,68 Ga,124 I, etc...
February 28, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Xingyu Jiang, Yunlei Xianyu, Jing Wu, Yiping Chen, Wenshu Zheng, Mengxia Xie
Multiplexed analysis of molecules with different concentrations requires assays with a tunable detection range. Herein, we outline a strategy that uses click chemistry to controllably assemble horseradish peroxidase to generate enzyme assemblies as probes for multiplexed bioassays. This controllable assembly of enzymes on detection antibodies allows for lab-on-a-chip immunoassays with a tunable detection range from pg/mL to µg/mL. Simultaneous, multiplexed bioassays of clinically relevant inflammatory biomarkers in serum are demonstrated in one lab-on-a-chip format, with a limit of detection of 0...
February 26, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Luciana D Trino, Erika S Bronze-Uhle, Amsaveni Ramachandran, Paulo N Lisboa-Filho, Mathew T Mathew, Anne George
Titanium (Ti) is widely used in biomedical devices due to its recognized biocompatibility. However, implant failures and subsequent clinical side effects are still recurrent. In this context, improvements can be achieved by designing biomaterials where the bulk and the surface of Ti are independently tailored. The conjugation of biomolecules onto the Ti surface can improve its bioactivity, thus accelerating the osteointegration process. Ti was modified with TiO2 , two different spacers, 3-(4-aminophenyl) propionic acid (APPA) or 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) peptides...
February 21, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Jan Hynek, Jaroslav Zelenka, Jiri Rathousky, Pavel Kubát, Tomáš Ruml, Jan Demel, Kamil Lang
Microbial colonization of biomedical devices is a recognized complication contributing to healthcare-associated infections. One of the possible approaches to prevent surfaces from the biofilm formation is antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation, based on the cytotoxic effect of singlet oxygen, O2 (1 Δg ), a short-lived, highly oxidative species, produced by energy transfer between excited photosensitizers and molecular oxygen. We synthesized porphyrin-based covalent organic frameworks (COFs) by the Schiff-base chemistry...
February 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Michael M Lerch, Wiktor Szymański, Ben L Feringa
Molecular photoswitches comprise chromophores that can be interconverted reversibly with light between two states with different photochemical and physicochemical properties. This feature renders them useful for diverse applications, ranging from materials science, biology (specifically photopharmacology) to supramolecular chemistry. With new and more challenging systems to control, especially extending towards biomedical applications, using visible or near-infrared light for photoswitch activation becomes vital...
February 22, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Qinqin Hu, Hua Li, Lihua Wang, Hongzhou Gu, Chunhai Fan
Over the past decade, we have seen rapid advances in applying nanotechnology in biomedical areas including bioimaging, biodetection, and drug delivery. As an emerging field, DNA nanotechnology offers simple yet powerful design techniques for self-assembly of nanostructures with unique advantages and high potential in enhancing drug targeting and reducing drug toxicity. Various sequence programming and optimization approaches have been developed to design DNA nanostructures with precisely engineered, controllable size, shape, surface chemistry, and function...
February 21, 2018: Chemical Reviews
B Dumontel, M Canta, H Engelke, A Chiodoni, L Racca, A Ancona, T Limongi, G Canavese, V Cauda
The widespread use of ZnO nanomaterials for biomedical applications, including therapeutic drug delivery or stimuli-responsive activation, as well as imaging, imposes a careful control over the colloidal stability and long-term behaviour of ZnO in biological media. Moreover, the effect of ZnO nanostructures on living cells, in particular cancer cells, is still under debate. This paper discusses the role of surface chemistry and charge of zinc oxide nanocrystals, of around 15 nm in size, which influence their behaviour in biological fluids and effect on cancer cells...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
Wolfgang Tremel, Karsten Korschelt, Muhammad Nawaz Tahir
We describe elementary concepts, up-to-date developments, and per-spectives of the emerging field of nanoparticle enzyme mimics (so-called "nanozymes") at the interface of chemistry, biology, materials, and nanotechnology. The design and synthesis of functional enzyme mimics is a long-standing goal of biomimetic chemistry. Metal com-plexes, polymers and engineered biomolecules capturing the structure of natural enzymes or their active centers have been made to achieve high rates and enhanced selectivities...
February 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Monica A Serban, Aleksander Skardal
Hyaluronan is a ubiquitous constituent of mammalian extracellular matrices and, because of its excellent intrinsic biocompatibility and chemical modification versatility, has been widely employed in a multitude of biomedical applications. In this article, we will survey the approaches used to tailor hyaluronan to specific needs of tissue engineering, regenerative and reconstructive medicine and overall biomedical research. We will also describe recent examples of applications in these broader areas, such as 3D cell culture, bioprinting, organoid biofabrication, and precision medicine that are facilitated by the use of hyaluronan as a biomaterial...
February 10, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Asadullah Madni, Sobia Noreen, Irsah Maqbool, Faizza Rehman, Amna Batool, Prince Muhammad Kashif, Mubashar Rehman, Nayab Tahir, Muhammad Imran Khan
Graphene, the mother of all carbon materials has unlocked a new era of biomedical nanomaterials due to its exceptional biocompatibility, physicochemical and mechanical properties. It is a single atom thick, nanosized, 2-dimensional structure and provides high surface area with adjustable surface chemistry to form hybrids. The present article provides a comprehensive review of ever-expanding application of graphene nanomaterials with different inorganic and organic materials in drug delivery and theranostics...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
Adrianne M Rosales, Christopher Blake Rodell, Minna H Chen, Matthew G Morrow, Kristi S Anseth, Jason A Burdick
Biomimetic hydrogels fabricated from biologically-derived polymers, such as hyaluronic acid (HA), are useful for numerous biomedical applications. Due to the dynamic nature of biological processes, it is of great interest to synthesize hydrogels with dynamically tunable network properties where various functions (e.g., cargo delivery, mechanical signaling) can be changed over time. Among the various stimuli developed to control hydrogel properties, light stands out for its exquisite spatiotemporal control; however, most light-based chemistries are unidirectional in their ability to manipulate network changes...
February 6, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Martin Kögler, Yury V Ryabchikov, Sanna Uusitalo, Alexey Popov, Anton Popov, Gleb Tselikov, Anna-Liisa Välimaa, Ahmed Al-Kattan, Jussi Hiltunen, Riitta Laitinen, Peter Neubauer, Igor Meglinski, Andrei V Kabashin
The ability of noble metal-based nanoparticles (Au, Ag) to drastically enhance Raman scattering from molecules placed near metal surface, termed as Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS), is widely used for identification of trace amounts of biological materials in biomedical, food safety and security applications. However, conventional nanoparticles synthesized by colloidal chemistry are typically contaminated by non-biocompatible by-products (surfactants, anions), which can have negative impacts on many live objects under examination (cells, bacteria) and thus decrease the precision of bioidentification...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Arti Vashist, Ajeet Kaushik, Atul Vashist, Vidya Sagar, Anujit Ghosal, Y K Gupta, Sharif Ahmad, Madhavan Nair
In spite of significant advancement in hydrogel technology, low mechanical strength and lack of electrical conductivity have limited their next-level biomedical applications for skeletal muscles, cardiac and neural cells. Host-guest chemistry based hybrid nanocomposites systems have gained attention as they completely overcome these pitfalls and generate bioscaffolds with tunable electrical and mechanical characteristics. In recent years, carbon nanotube (CNT)-based hybrid hydrogels have emerged as innovative candidates with diverse applications in regenerative medicines, tissue engineering, drug delivery devices, implantable devices, biosensing, and biorobotics...
February 1, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Yuan Zou, Lin Zhang, Lei Yang, Fang Zhu, Mingming Ding, Fei Lin, Zhao Wang, Yiwen Li
Polymeric scaffolds have attracted great interests in recent years, due to their fascination with a large variety of examples with promising utilization. Recently, extensive efforts have been devoted to the exploitation of robust and functional polymer-based biomaterial scaffolds with high efficiency. The recent entry of so-called "click" reactions that include kinds of selective and orthogonal reactions under mild conditions have generated real stimulus not only in preparing elegant bioactive materials of choice but also in making the leap to industrial scale build-up of multifunctional products...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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