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Biomedical chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917020/recent-approaches-in-designing-bioadhesive-materials-inspired-by-mussel-adhesive-protein
#1
REVIEW
Pegah Kord Forooshani, Bruce P Lee
Marine mussels secret protein-based adhesives, which enable them to anchor to various surfaces in a saline, intertidal zone. Mussel foot proteins (Mfps) contain a large abundance of a unique, catecholic amino acid, Dopa, in their protein sequences. Catechol offers robust and durable adhesion to various substrate surfaces and contributes to the curing of the adhesive plaques. In this article, we review the unique features and the key functionalities of Mfps, catechol chemistry, and strategies for preparing catechol-functionalized polymers...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915023/anisotropic-noble-metal-nanoparticles-synthesis-surface-functionalization-and-applications-in-biosensing-bioimaging-drug-delivery-and-theranostics
#2
REVIEW
Gokul Paramasivam, Namitharan Kayambu, Arul Maximus Rabel, Ashok K Sundramoorthy, Anandhakumar Sundaramurthy
Anisotropic nanoparticles have fascinated scientists and engineering communities for over a century because of their unique physical and chemical properties. In recent years, continuous advances in design and fabrication of anisotropic nanoparticles have opened new avenues for application in various areas of biology, chemistry and physics. Anisotropic nanoparticles have the plasmon absorption in the visible as well as near-infrared (NIR) region, which enable them to be used for crucial applications such as biological imaging, medical diagnostics and therapy ("theranostics")...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892593/dual-mode-refractive-index-and-charge-sensing-to-investigate-complex-surface-chemistry-on-nanostructures
#3
Nikhil Bhalla, Doojin Lee, Shivani Sathish, Amy Q Shen
This work presents a novel dual-mode charge and refractive index sensitive device integrated with nanoplasmonic islands, for the first time, on insulator-semiconductor junctions. The developed nano-metal-insulator semiconductor (nMIS) sensor facilitates simultaneous detection of charge and mass changes on the nanoislands due to the binding of biomolecules. The charging of the nanoislands is traced by using the capacitive field-effect electrolyte-metal-insulator-semiconductor structure and the refractive index changes are quantified by measuring the change in the localized surface plasmon resonances of the nanoislands...
November 28, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882624/fluorographene-modified-by-grignard-reagents-broad-range-of-functional-nanomaterials
#4
Vlastimil Mazanek, Alena Libanska, Jiri Sturala, Daniel Bouša, David Sedmidubský, Martin Pumera, Zbynek Janousek, Jan Plutnar, Zdenek Sofer
Fluorographene is the youngest stoichiometric derivative of graphene, thus, its reactivity is just poorly explored. Compared to graphene, a significantly higher reactivity of C-F bonds makes this material a suitable platform for a large number of chemical modifications. Fluorographene is also the only member of halogengraphenes family, which can be prepared in stoichiometric composition C1F1. Here, we present the chemical modification of fluorographene with Grignard reagents which are well known in organic chemistry for the formation of new C-C bonds...
November 23, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876144/in-tip-nanoreactors-for-cancer-cells-proteome-profiling
#5
Ling Yan, Liang Qiao, Ji Ji, Yixin Li, Xuefei Yin, Ling Lin, Xiaohui Liu, Jun Yao, Yi Wang, Bin Liu, Kun Qian, Baohong Liu, Pengyuan Yang
Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteome profiling is essential for molecular diagnostics in modern biomedical study. To date, sample preparation including protein extraction and proteolysis is still very challenging and lack of efficiency. Recently tips-based sample preparation protocols exhibit strong potentials to achieve the goal of "a proteome in an hour". However, in-tip proteolysis is still rarely reported and far from ideal for dealing with complex bio-samples. In this work, nanoreactors encapsulated micropipette tips were demonstrated as high performance devices for fast (∼minutes) and multiplexing proteolysis to assist the profiling of cancer cells proteome...
January 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863681/combinatorial-nanodiamond-in-pharmaceutical-and-biomedical-applications
#6
Dae Gon Lim, Racelly Ena Prim, Ki Hyun Kim, Eunah Kang, Kinam Park, Seong Hoon Jeong
One of the newly emerging carbon materials, nanodiamond (ND), has been exploited for use in traditional electric materials and this has extended into biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Recently, NDs have attained significant interests as a multifunctional and combinational drug delivery system. ND studies have provided insights into granting new potentials with their wide ranging surface chemistry, complex formation with biopolymers, and combination with biomolecules. The studies that have proved ND inertness, biocompatibility, and low toxicity have made NDs much more feasible for use in real in vivo applications...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863264/synergistic-effect-of-polyaniline-coverage-and-surface-microstructure-on-the-inhibition-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilm-formation
#7
L A Gallarato, L E Mulko, M S Dardanelli, C A Barbero, D F Acevedo, E I Yslas
Biofilm Formation is a survival strategy for microorganisms to adapt to their environment. Microbial cells in biofilm become tolerant and resistant to antibiotics and immune responses, increasing the difficulties for the clinical treatment of microbial infections. The surface chemistry and the micro/nano-topography of solid interfaces play a major role in mediating microorganism activity and adhesion. The effect of the surface chemical composition and topography on the adhesion and viability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied...
November 9, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863166/validating-metal-organic-framework-nanoparticles-for-their-nanosafety-in-diverse-biomedical-applications
#8
Stefan Wuttke, Andreas Zimpel, Thomas Bein, Simone Braig, Katharina Stoiber, Angelika Vollmar, Dominik Müller, Kirsten Haastert-Talini, Jörn Schaeske, Meike Stiesch, Gesa Zahn, Alexander Mohmeyer, Peter Behrens, Oliver Eickelberg, Deniz A Bölükbas, Silke Meiners
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising platforms for the synthesis of nanoparticles for diverse medical applications. Their fundamental design principles allow for significant control of the framework architecture and pore chemistry, enabling directed functionalization for nanomedical applications. However, before applying novel nanomaterials to patients, it is imperative to understand their potential health risks. In this study, the nanosafety of different MOF nanoparticles is analyzed comprehensively for diverse medical applications...
November 15, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826005/comparative-evaluation-of-polycyanoacrylates
#9
Yoav Barkan, Mira Levinman, Ilana Veprinsky-Zuzuliya, Tsadok Tsach, Emmanuelle Merqioul, Galia Blum, Abraham J Domb, Arijit Basu
: Cyanoacrylate esters (CA) and their corresponding polymers (PolyCA) are used as general and medical adhesives, biodegradable carriers for controlled drug delivery, and as agents for fingerprint development in forensic science. Most reports of cyanoacrylate are on ethyl or 2-octyl cyanoacrylate ester with little attention to other esters. It is the objective of this study to determine the differences amongst cyanoacrylate esters regarding their synthesis, chemical characterization, hydrolytic degradation, and thermal and mechanical properties...
November 4, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806579/cerium-oxide-based-nanozymes-redox-phenomenon-at-biointerfaces
#10
Sanjay Singh
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are known to exhibit enzymelike activity, such as biological catalase, oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase enzymelike activities. Catalytically active nanoceria offer several advantages over natural enzymes, such as controlled synthesis at low cost, tunable catalytic activities, as well as high stability against stringent physiological conditions. Exploiting these properties, several biomedical applications, such as biosensing, immunoassay, drug delivery, radiation protection, and tissue engineering, have been maneuvered...
November 2, 2016: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806444/engineering-specific-chemical-modification-sites-into-a-collagen-like-protein-from-streptococcus-pyogenes
#11
Violet Stoichevska, Yong Y Peng, Aditya V Vashi, Jerome A Werkmeister, Geoff J Dumsday, John A M Ramshaw
Recombinant bacterial collagens provide a new opportunity for safe biomedical materials. They are readily expressed in E. coli in good yield and can be readily purified by simple approaches. However, recombinant proteins are limited in that direct secondary modification during expression is generally not easily achieved. Thus, inclusion of unusual amino acids, cyclic peptides, sugars, lipids and other complex functions generally needs to be achieved chemically after synthesis and extraction. In the present study we have illustrated that bacterial collagens that have had their sequences modified to include cysteine residue(s), which are not normally present in bacterial collagen-like sequences, enable a range of specific chemical modification reactions to be produced...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805747/recent-developments-and-optimization-of-lipase-catalyzed-lactone-formation-and-ring-opening-polymerization
#12
Elyse Champagne, Satu Strandman, Xiao-Xia Zhu
To obtain materials useful for the biomedical field, toxic catalysts should be removed from the synthetic route of polymerization reactions and of their precursors. Lipase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization and the synthesis of cyclic precursors can be performed with the same catalyst under different conditions. Here, we highlight the use of lipases as catalysts and optimization of their performance for both ring-closing and ring-opening polymerization, via varying parameters such as ring size, concentration, substrate molar ratio, temperature, and solvent...
November 2, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793756/dual-drug-loaded-biofunctionalized-amphiphilic-chitosan-nanoparticles-enhanced-synergy-between-cisplatin-and-demethoxycurcumin-against-multidrug-resistant-stem-like-lung-cancer-cells
#13
Wei-Ting Huang, Mikael Larsson, Yi-Chi Lee, Dean-Mo Liu, Guang-Yuh Chiou
Lung cancer kills more humans than any other cancer and multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer stem-like cells (CSC) is emerging as a reason for failed treatments. One concept that addresses this root cause of treatment failure is the utilization of nanoparticles to simultaneously deliver dual drugs to cancer cells with synergistic performance, easy to envision - hard to achieve. (1) It is challenging to simultaneously load drugs of highly different physicochemical properties into one nanoparticle, (2) release kinetics may differ between drugs and (3) general requirements for biomedical nanoparticles apply...
December 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778400/site-selective-disulfide-modification-of-proteins-expanding-diversity-beyond-the-proteome
#14
REVIEW
Seah Ling Kuan, Tao Wang, Tanja Weil
The synthetic transformation of polypeptides with molecular accuracy holds great promise for providing functional and structural diversity beyond the proteome. Consequently, the last decade has seen an exponential growth of site-directed chemistry to install additional features into peptides and proteins even inside living cells. The disulfide rebridging strategy has emerged as a powerful tool for site-selective modifications since most proteins contain disulfide bonds. In this Review, we present the chemical design, advantages and limitations of the disulfide rebridging reagents, while summarizing their relevance for synthetic customization of functional protein bioconjugates, as well as the resultant impact and advancement for biomedical applications...
November 21, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775829/approved-and-experimental-small-molecule-oncology-kinase-inhibitor-drugs-a-mid-2016-overview
#15
Peter M Fischer
Kinase inhibitor research is a comparatively recent branch of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology and the first small-molecule kinase inhibitor, imatinib, was approved for clinical use only 15 years ago. Since then, 33 more kinase inhibitor drugs have received regulatory approval for the treatment of a variety of cancers and the volume of reports on the discovery and development of kinase inhibitors has increased to an extent where it is now difficult-even for those working in the field-easily to keep an overview of the compounds that are being developed, as currently there are 231 such compounds, targeting 38 different protein and lipid kinases (not counting isoforms), in clinical use or under clinical investigation...
October 24, 2016: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775316/making-silicone-rubber-highly-resistant-to-bacterial-attachment-using-thiol-ene-grafting
#16
E Peter Magennis, Andrew L Hook, Paul Williams, Morgan R Alexander
Biomedical devices are indispensable in modern medicine yet offer surfaces that promote bacterial attachment and biofilm formation, resulting in acute and chronic healthcare-associated infections. We have developed a simple method to graft acrylates to silicone rubber, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a commonly used device material that is often colonized by bacteria. We demonstrate a novel method whereby nontoxic bacteria attachment-resistant polymers can be readily grafted from and grafted to the surface using thiol-ene chemistry, substantially reducing bacterial colonization...
November 2, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768038/the-synthesis-of-rgd-functionalized-hydrogels-as-a-tool-for-therapeutic-applications
#17
Emanuele Mauri, Alessandro Sacchetti, Filippo Rossi
The use of polymers as biomaterials has provided significant advantages in therapeutic applications. In particular, the possibility to modify and functionalize polymer chains with compounds that are able to improve biocompatibility, mechanical properties, or cell viability allows the design of novel materials to meet new challenges in the biomedical field. With the polymer functionalization strategies, click chemistry is a powerful tool to improve cell-compatibility and drug delivery properties of polymeric devices...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762585/seven-years-of-radionuclide-laboratory-at-imc-important-achievements
#18
M Hrubý, J Kučka, J Pánek, P Štěpánek
For many important research topics in polymer science the use of radionuclides brings significant benefits concerning nanotechnology, polymer drug delivery systems, tissue engineering etc. This contribution describes important achievements of the radionuclide laboratory at Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (IMC) in the area of polymers for biomedical applications. Particular emphasis will be given to water-soluble polymer carriers of radionuclides, thermoresponsive polymer radionuclide carriers, thermoresponsive polymers for local brachytherapy, polymer scaffolds modified with (radiolabeled) peptides and polymer copper chelators for the therapy of Wilson´s disease...
October 20, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759376/multifunctional-and-regenerable-antibacterial-surfaces-fabricated-using-a-universal-strategy
#19
Ting Wei, Wenjun Zhan, Limin Cao, Changming Hu, Yangcui Qu, Qian Yu, Hong Chen
Development of a versatile strategy for antibacterial surfaces is of great scientific interest and practical significance. However, few methods can be used to fabricate antibacterial surfaces on substrates of different chemistries and structures. In addition, traditional antibacterial surfaces may suffer problems related to the attached dead bacteria. Herein, antibacterial surfaces with multifunctionality and regenerability are fabricated by a universal strategy. Various substrates are firstly deposited with multilayered films containing guest moieties, which further serve as binding sites for incorporation of biocidal "host" molecules, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) derivatives modified with quaternary ammonium salt groups (CD-QAS)...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756012/cytotoxicity-and-antibacterial-assessment-of-gallic-acid-capped-gold-nanoparticles
#20
Dae-Young Kim, Min Kim, Surendra Shinde, Jung-Suk Sung, Gajanan Ghodake
Cytotoxicity of nanoparticles needs to be examined for their biocompatibility and suitability in biomedical applications. Gallic acid method was used for the high concentration synthesis (1mM) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) having narrow size-distribution at ambient temperature (25°C). Gallic acid capped AuNPs were characterized by different techniques such as, UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, EDAX, SAED, and XPS. In-vitro stability of AuNPs with biomolecules, such as glucose and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was explored at different concertation ranges...
October 12, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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