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Sean A P Clouston, Jack M Guralnik, Roman Kotov, Evelyn J Bromet, Benjamin J Luft
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with self-reported difficulties navigating the social and physical world and may also be associated with risk of functional limitations. The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), an objective functional assessment, was administered during monitoring exams between January and December 2015 to a consecutive sample of 1,268 rescue workers, volunteers, and other responders who had aided in response, recovery, and cleanup efforts at the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York after the September 11, 2011 attacks...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
William H Herman, Qing Pan, Sharon L Edelstein, Kieren J Mather, Leigh Perreault, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Dana M Dabelea, Edward Horton, Steven E Kahn, William C Knowler, Carlos Lorenzo, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Elizabeth Venditti, Wen Ye
OBJECTIVE: Both lifestyle and metformin interventions can delay or prevent progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in people with impaired glucose regulation, but there is considerable interindividual variation in the likelihood of receiving benefit. Understanding an individual's 3-year risk of progressing to DM and regressing to normal glucose regulation (NGR) might facilitate benefit-based tailored treatment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used the values of 19 clinical variables measured at the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) baseline evaluation and Cox proportional hazards models to assess the 3-year risk of progression to DM and regression to NGR separately for DPP lifestyle, metformin, and placebo participants who were adherent to the interventions...
October 11, 2017: Diabetes Care
Luis Carlos Saiz, Javier Gorricho, Javier Garjón, Mª Concepción Celaya, Lourdes Muruzábal, Mª Del Mar Malón, Rodolfo Montoya, Antonio López
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a prominent preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality. People with hypertension and established cardiovascular disease are at particularly high risk, so reducing blood pressure below standard targets may be beneficial. This strategy could reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity but could also increase adverse events. The optimal blood pressure target in people with hypertension and established cardiovascular disease remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine if 'lower' blood pressure targets (≤ 135/85 mmHg) are associated with reduction in mortality and morbidity as compared with 'standard' blood pressure targets (≤ 140 to 160/ 90 to 100 mmHg) in the treatment of people with hypertension and a history of cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, peripheral vascular occlusive disease)...
October 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Dino Cancemi, Alessandra Iannuzzi, Angela Perucatti, Luigi Montano, Oronzo Capozzi, Carmine Spampanato, Maria Luisa Ventruto, Maria Urciuoli, Leopoldo Iannuzzi, Valerio Ventruto
Duplications of Yq arm (and AZF) seems to be tolerated by fertile males, while mutations, deletions, duplications or haploinsufficiency of SHOX can originate a wide range of phenotypes, including short stature and skeletal abnormalities. We report a case of non-obstructive azoospermia in a young man with short stature, skeletal anomalies, normal intelligence and hormonal parameters. This male showed a very singular Y-chromosome aberration, consisting of a duplication of Yq and proximal regions of Yp, with a deletion of almost all PAR1 in Yptel, including SHOX...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
Humphrey D Mazigo, Stella Kepha, Godfrey M Kaatano, Safari M Kinung'hi
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are co-existence in sub-Saharan Africa and co-infection is common among humans population. The immunological responses characterized with Th2-immune responses for S. mansoni and Th1-immune responses for HCV are responsible for development hepatic morbidities in infected individuals. However, the co-occurrences of S. mansoni and HCV infection, their related ultrasound detectable morbidities and associated risk factors at community levels have not been examined in fishing communities, north-western Tanzania...
October 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Kohei Ogawa, Kevin Y Urayama, Shinji Tanigaki, Haruhiko Sago, Shoji Sato, Shigeru Saito, Naho Morisaki
BACKGROUND: While several studies have demonstrated the increased risk of pregnancy complications for women of advanced age, few studies have focused on women with very advanced age (≥ 45), despite the increasing rate of pregnancy among such women. Furthermore, how such risks of increase in age differ by maternal characteristics are also poorly understood. Thus, we aimed to clarify pregnant outcomes among women with very advanced age and how the effect of age differs by method of conception and parity...
October 10, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Ok Hyung Nam, Mi Sun Kim, Gyu-Tae Kim, Sung Chul Choi
Atypical root resorption (ARR) is the condition of a superficial and circumferential resorption process along the lateral and/or apical root surface of a primary maxillary incisor. This case series demonstrates longitudinal observations of six patients with atypical root resorption following root-fractured primary incisors. The characteristics of atypical root resorption were different from pathologic root resorption.
October 6, 2017: Quintessence International
Elizabeth Wall-Wieler, Leslie L Roos, James Bolton, Marni Brownell, Nathan C Nickel, Dan Chateau
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether mothers experience changes to their health and social situation after having a child taken into care by child protection services, then compared these outcomes with those found in mothers whose children were not taken into care. METHODS: The cohort includes mothers whose first child was born in Manitoba between 1 April 1998 and 31 March 2011. Mothers whose children were taken into care after age 2 (n=1591) were compared with a matched group of women whose children were not taken into care (n=1591)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
James Kapisi, Abel Kakuru, Prasanna Jagannathan, Mary K Muhindo, Paul Natureeba, Patricia Awori, Miriam Nakalembe, Richard Ssekitoleko, Peter Olwoch, John Ategeka, Patience Nayebare, Tamara D Clark, Gabrielle Rizzuto, Atis Muehlenbachs, Diane V Havlir, Moses R Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Stephanie L Gaw
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy has been associated with maternal morbidity, placental malaria, and adverse birth outcomes. However, data are limited on the relationships between longitudinal measures of malaria during pregnancy, measures of placental malaria, and birth outcomes. METHODS: This is a nested observational study of data from a randomized controlled trial of intermittent preventive therapy during pregnancy among 282 participants with assessment of placental malaria and delivery outcomes...
October 5, 2017: Malaria Journal
Yamel Rito, Jesus Flores, Angeles Fernández-Aguilar, Carmen Escalante-Membrillo, Miguel A Barboza, Lilyana Amezcua, Teresa Corona
Previous studies of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have reported an inverse correlation between disability, the number of relapses and vitamin D levels in mostly white patients. It is unclear if this relationship has the same behavior in individuals with Hispanic backgrounds. To determine the relationship between vitamin D serum levels and disability in a sample of Hispanics of a Mexican background with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 RRMS individuals of Mexican background...
October 3, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Bin Li, Jane S Hocking, Peng Bi, Charlotte Bell, Christopher K Fairley
OBJECTIVE: To investigate treatment efficacy of two treatments for rectal chlamydial infection. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with rectal chlamydial infection between 2009 and 2015 in Adelaide, Australia. Patients were treated with either azithromycin (1 g single dose) or doxycycline (100 mg twice a day for 10 days) and returned for repeat testing 14 to 180 days after treatment commenced. Log binomial models were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of recurrent rectal chlamydia associated with the treatment with azithromycin versus doxycycline...
October 2, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
H L Wilson, K J Kennedy, Crm Moffatt
AIM: Describe the epidemiology of non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) infection in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), including factors associated with hospitalisation. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive and observational study of culture-confirmed NTS infections using data collected from ACT public health, public pathology and hospital services, 2003-2012. Outcome measures include incidence and NTS serotype for total reported and hospitalised cases; and focus of infection, complications and antibiotic susceptibility for hospitalised cases...
October 2, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
Po-Wen Ku, Yi-Te Liu, Ming-Kuei Lo, Li-Jung Chen, Brendon Stubbs
BACKGROUND: A number of cross-sectional studies have suggested that higher levels of sedentary behavior (SB) are associated with worse cognitive abilities in older age. There is a paucity of longitudinal studies investigating this relationship utilizing objectively assessed SB. This study investigated the relationship between objectively assessed SB and future cognitive abilities in a cohort of older adults. METHODS: A longitudinal study over 22.12±1.46months including 285 community-dwelling older adults across 14 regions in Taiwan was undertaken...
September 28, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Stephanie A Kujawski, Matthew R Lamb, Maria Lahuerta, Margaret L McNairy, Laurence Ahoua, Fatima Abacassamo, Harriet Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Averie Gachuhi, Wafaa M El-Sadr, Batya Elul
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a prerequisite to maximizing individual and societal benefits of antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: Adults ≥18 years of age testing HIV positive at 10 health facilities in Mozambique and Swaziland received point-of-care CD4(+) cell count testing immediately after diagnosis. We examined median CD4(+) cell count at diagnosis, the proportion diagnosed with advanced HIV disease (CD4(+) cell count ≤350 cells/μL) and severe immunosuppression (CD4(+) cell count ≤100 cells/μL), and determinants of the latter 2 measures...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Damien Denimal, Stéphanie Lemaire, Laurence Duvillard
The biological diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA) is a real challenge in clinical laboratories. First, PA is a major cause of secondary hypertension, and more widespread screening is currently recommended. In addition, the recent development of automated and mass spectrometry tests has made it necessary to determine the most appropriate cutoff values in clinical studies. New French and international guidelines will play an important role in the standardization of PA diagnosis. The first diagnostic step is to measure the aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR), which is widely considered the best screening test...
October 1, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
Elizabeth M Harvey, Saifuddin Ahmed, Susan E Manning, Hafsatou Diop, Cynthia Argani, Donna M Strobino
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) after delivery. We examined the risk of rehospitalization in the first year postpartum among deliveries to women with and without SMM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the Pregnancy to Early Life Longitudinal data system, in which vital birth/fetal death records were linked with hospital delivery discharge data and subsequent nondelivery hospitalization data, including observational stays (OSs) and in-patient stays (hospital discharge [HD]) for Massachusetts residents during 2002-2011...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
Treerin Yingyongwatthanawitthaya, Watcharin Chirdchim, Chanya Thamrongwuttikul, Panya Sananpanichkul
Objective: To investigate the risk factors related to incomplete excision after loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) in abnormal cervical cytology. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed during September 2010 to February 2017. The study population was patients with abnormal cervical cytology who treated by LEEP at Prapokklao hospital, Chanthaburi. From the medical records, data were collected include age, menopausal status, parity, body mass index, HIV infection, history of smoking, cervical cytology and characteristics of LEEP histopathology such as number of specimen, size and glandular involvement...
September 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Natasha Ruth Saunders, Alison Macpherson, Jun Guan, Astrid Guttmann
BACKGROUND: Unintentional injuries are a leading reason for seeking emergency care. Refugees face vulnerabilities that may contribute to injury risk. We aimed to compare the rates of unintentional injuries in immigrant children and youth by visa class and region of origin. METHODS: Population-based, cross-sectional study of children and youth (0-24 years) from immigrant families residing in Ontario, Canada, from 2011 to 2012. Multiple linked health and administrative databases were used to describe unintentional injuries by immigration visa class and region of origin...
September 25, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Lulu Yu, Ryan J Kronen, Laura E Simon, Carolyn R T Stoll, Graham A Colditz, Methodius G Tuuli
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the effect of prophylactic negative-pressure wound therapy on surgical site infections and other wound complications in women after cesarean delivery. DATA SOURCES: We searched Ovid Medline, Embase, SCOPUS, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing prophylactic negative-pressure wound therapy with standard wound dressing for cesarean delivery...
September 23, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Emma L Barber, Emma C Rossi, Paola A Gehrig
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) or primary debulking surgery (PDS) and readmission after surgical hospitalization as well as overall survival among women with stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS: We identified incident cases of stage IIIC EOC treated with both chemotherapy and surgery in the National Cancer Database (NCDB) from 2006 to 2012. 30-day readmissions were categorized as planned or unplanned...
September 20, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
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