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Frederick-Anthony Farrugia, Nicolaos Zavras, Georgios Martikos, Panagiotis Tzanetis, Anestis Charalampopoulos, Evangelos P Misiakos, Dimitrios Sotiropoulos, Nikolaos Koliakos
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to present up to date information concerning the diagnosis and treatment of primary aldosteronism (PA). PA is the most common cause of endocrine hypertension. It has been reported up to 24% of selective referred hypertensive patients. METHODS: We did a search in Pub-Med and Google Scholar using the terms: PA, hyperaldosteronism, idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia, diagnosis of PA, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, adrenalectomy, and surgery...
January 1, 2018: Endocrine Regulations
Raymond B T Lim, Olive N Y Cheung, Bee Choo Tai, Mark I-C Chen, Roy K W Chan, Mee Lian Wong
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the efficacy of a multicomponent culturally tailored HIV/STI prevention intervention programme on consistent condom use and STI incidence among foreign Thai and Vietnamese female entertainment workers (FEWs) in Singapore. METHODS: We conducted a quasi-experimental pretest and post-test intervention trial with a comparison group. We recruited 220 participants (115 Vietnamese and 105 Thai) for the comparison group, followed by the intervention group (same number) from the same sites which were purposively selected after a 3-month interval period...
February 14, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Ah Young Leem, Boram Park, Young Sam Kim, Ji Ye Jung, Sungho Won
Purpose: COPD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have used spirometry to investigate its incidence, especially in Asia. In the present study, we analyzed the incidence and risk factors of COPD using a community cohort database in Korea. Patients and methods: The study included 6,517 subjects aged 40-69 years from the Ansung-Ansan cohort database I-III (2001-2006). We calculated the crude incidence rate and the standardized incidence rate corrected for the Korean general population and the world population with COPD...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
F Esposito, L Ferrè, F Clarelli, M A Rocca, G Sferruzza, L Storelli, M Radaelli, F Sangalli, L Moiola, B Colombo, F Martinelli Boneschi, G Comi, M Filippi, V Martinelli
BACKGROUND: Treatment choice in multiple sclerosis (MS) is crucial for optimizing risk-benefit profile. OBJECTIVE: To assess fingolimod (FTY) effectiveness and identify baseline features associated to disease activity in a large Italian cohort of Relapsing-Remitting (RR) MS patients. METHODS: Three-hundred sixty-seven RRMS patients starting FTY treatment at San Raffaele Hospital (Milan-Italy) underwent clinical and MRI evaluations for 2 years...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Signoriello Elisabetta, Landi Doriana, Monteleone Fabrizia, Saccà Francesco, Nicoletti Carolina Gabri, Buttari Fabio, Sica Francesco, Marfia Girolama Alessandra, Di Iorio Giuseppe, Lus Giacomo, Centonze Diego
BACKGROUND: Fingolimod is a modulator of Central and peripheral sphingosine pathways, which is currently approved for treatment of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In animal models it reduces inflammation, but it is also able to potentiate glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity. We aimed to explore whether Fingolimod is able to modify the clinical expression of new demyelinating lesions with respect to IFNβ-1a in relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients suboptimal responders to IFNβ-1a...
February 5, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Douglas E Levy, Yuchiao Chang, Susan Regan, Hilary A Tindle, Daniel E Singer, Nancy A Rigotti
Few rigorous longitudinal assessments have examined health-related quality of life (HRQoL) changes after smoking cessation, especially among recently-hospitalized smokers. We compared the change in HRQoL between those who did or did not quit smoking 6 months after hospital discharge. Participants were 1357 smokers recruited for a cessation trial between 2012 and 2014 while hospitalized at two hospitals in Massachusetts and one in Pennsylvania. Cessation was defined as biochemically confirmed 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 6 months or as self-reported continuous abstinence at 1, 3, or 6 months post discharge...
February 7, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Mary C Kennedy, Thomas H Kerr, Evan Wood, Jeannie A Shoveller, Julio S G Montaner, M-J Milloy
OBJECTIVES: Although previous cross-sectional studies have identified correlates of detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) among HIV-positive people who use drugs (PWUD), longitudinal factors associated with heightened HIV transmission potential have not been well described. Therefore, we longitudinally examined factors associated with amount of person-time spent above log10(1500) copies/ml plasma among HIV-positive PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. DESIGN: Data were derived from a long-running prospective cohort of HIV-positive PWUD linked to comprehensive clinical records including systematic VL monitoring...
February 8, 2018: AIDS
Jonathan E Creeth, Charles R Parkinson, Gary R Burnett, Susmita Sanyal, Frank Lippert, Domenick T Zero, Anderson T Hara
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to evaluate effects of a dentifrice containing sodium fluoride (1150 ppm F) and the organic polyphosphate phytate (0.85% w/w of the hexa-sodium salt) on in situ remineralisation of early enamel erosive lesions and resistance to subsequent demineralisation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects (n = 62) wore palatal appliances holding eight bovine enamel specimens with pre-formed erosive lesions. They brushed their natural teeth with the phytate test dentifrice (TD); a positive control dentifrice (PC, 1150 ppm fluoride as NaF); a reference dentifrice (RD, disodium pyrophosphate + 1100 ppm fluoride as NaF) or a negative control dentifrice (NC, fluoride-free) in a randomised, double-blind, crossover design...
February 8, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Beata Aleksiūnienė, Egle Preiksaitiene, Aušra Morkūnienė, Laima Ambrozaitytė, Algirdas Utkus
Many studies have shown that molecular karyotyping is an effective diagnostic tool in individuals with developmental delay/intellectual disability. We report on a de novo interstitial 1q22q23.1 microdeletion, 1.6 Mb in size, detected in a patient with short stature, microcephaly, hypoplastic corpus callosum, cleft palate, minor facial anomalies, congenital heart defect, camptodactyly of the 4-5th fingers, and intellectual disability. Chromosomal microarray analysis revealed a 1.6-Mb deletion in the 1q22q23...
February 9, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Kelly D Getz, Tamara P Miller, Alix E Seif, Yimei Li, Yuan-Shung V Huang, Brian T Fisher, Richard Aplenc
PURPOSE: A cohort of pediatric patients with AML treated at hospitals contributing to the Pediatric Health Information System was used to evaluate differences in opioid utilization by sex, age, race, and insurance. METHODS: Billing data were used to compute the prevalence of opioid exposure and to quantify rates of utilization among those exposed to opioids as days of use per 1000 inpatient days. Multivariable regressions were used to compare opioid prevalence, and rates of utilization among those exposed...
2018: PloS One
Emily Rowlinson, Samuel Goings, Sydney Minnerly, Karen Surita, Sargis Pogosjans
BACKGROUND: Differences in partner services outcomes in men who have sex with men (MSM) by HIV serostatus have not been explored as a potential driver of differential early syphilis (ES) burden in this population. METHODS: We compared partner services outcomes (number of partners named, notified, tested, diagnosed, and treated) between HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM initiated for ES partner services in Texas from 2013 to 2016 using logistic regression and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests...
March 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Abdool S Yasseen, Kate Bassil, Ann Sprague, Marcelo Urquia, Jonathon L Maguire
BACKGROUND: Late preterm birth (LPB) is increasingly common and associated with higher morbidity and mortality than term birth. Yet, little is known about the influence of previous cesarean section (PCS) and the occurrence of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. We aim to evaluate this association along with the potential mediation by cesarean sections in the current pregnancy. METHODS: We use population based birth registry data (2005-2012) to establish a cohort of live born singleton infants born between 34 and 41 gestational weeks to multiparous mothers...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Rebecca L Wilson, Tina Bianco-Miotto, Shalem Y Leemaqz, Luke E Grzeskowiak, Gustaaf A Dekker, Claire T Roberts
Maternal micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy can have profound effects on fetal development and pregnancy outcome. Plasma trace minerals including copper, zinc, selenium and iron have been shown to be extremely important in supporting reproduction. We sought to determine whether there is an association between maternal trace mineral status in early pregnancy and pregnancy complications using a prospective cohort study of 1065 pregnant Australian women who were recruited as part of the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study in Adelaide...
March 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Yang Yang, Chun-Juan Wang, Bao-Jie Wang, Zi-Ling Zeng, Shou-Gang Guo
OBJECTIVE: To observe and compare the efficacy and tolerability of azathioprine (AZA), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and lower dosages of rituximab (RTX) among patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. METHODS: In this prospective cohort, AQP4-IgG-seropositive patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) were enrolled and randomly divided into three groups, using AZA, MMF or lower dosages of RTX (defined as 100mg RTX intravenous injection, once per week for 4 consecutive weeks) respectively...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Shereen Katrak, Patience Nayebare, John Rek, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Joaniter I Nankabirwa, Moses Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Philip J Rosenthal, Bryan Greenhouse
BACKGROUND: Submicroscopic malaria parasitaemia is common in both high- and low-endemicity settings, but its clinical consequences are unclear. METHODS: A cohort of 364 children (0.5-10 years of age) and 106 adults was followed from 2011 to 2016 in Tororo District, Uganda using passive surveillance for malaria episodes and active surveillance for parasitaemia. Participants presented every 90 days for routine visits (n = 9075); a subset was followed every 30 days...
February 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Anne Kristine Lossius, Maria Christine Magnus, Jon Lunde, Ketil Størdal
OBJECTIVES: To study whether the duration of breastfeeding and time for introduction of complementary foods was associated with the risk of childhood asthma. STUDY DESIGN: We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Study, a nationwide prospective cohort study that recruited pregnant women from across Norway between 1999 and 2008. Children with complete data of breastfeeding up to 18 months and current age >7 years were eligible (n = 41 020). Asthma as the primary outcome was defined based on ≥2 dispensed asthma medications at age 7 years registered in the Norwegian Prescription Database...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Julia Chia-Yu Chang, Zih-Han Yuan, I-Hsin Lee, Teh-Fu Hsu, Chorng-Kuang How, David Hung-Tsang Yen
BACKGROUND: To describe the patterns of non-trauma emergency department (ED) resource utilization, cost of visit, acuity level, and admission rate in older adult patients in Taiwan. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational cohort study conducted at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital with an annual ED population of 80,000 patients. Patients aged ≥20 years with non-trauma ED visits from 2005 to 2012 were included in the study. RESULTS: We analyzed 441,665 ED visits...
January 25, 2018: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
A Jain, A J van Hoek, J L Walker, H J Forbes, S M Langan, A Root, L Smeeth, S L Thomas
BACKGROUND: Zoster vaccination was introduced in England in 2013, where tackling health inequalities is a statutory requirement. However, specific population groups with higher zoster burden remain largely unidentified. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate health inequalities in zoster disease burden prior to zoster vaccine introduction in England. METHODS: This population-based cohort study utilised anonymised UK primary care data linked to hospitalisation and deprivation data...
February 1, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Nicholas S Britt, David J Ritchie, Marin H Kollef, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Michael J Durkin, Nicholas B Hampton, Scott T Micek
In a retrospective analysis of 215 patients with carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis, we observed significantly higher risk of mortality associated with respiratory tract infection (risk ratio [RR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.39 P=0.010) and lower risk with urinary tract infection (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.71-0.90; P=0.004). Aminoglycoside monotherapy was associated with increased mortality, even after adjusting for confounders (adjusted RR [aRR], 1.72; 95% CI, 1.03-2.85; P=0.037), consistent across multiple sites of infection...
January 29, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
W Guo, Y Li, N Zhou, G H Wu, W H Chang, X P Huan, S Hui, X Tong, Y Guo, M H Yu, R R Lu, L Ouyang, L F Dong, H Li, J J Li, X Y Liu, Y L Liu, C Luo, X L Wei, X D Huang, Y Cui
Objectives: To analyze and understand the risk factors related to HIV new infections among men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: A longitudinal observational study among MSM was conducted to collect information on HIV related behaviors and sero-conversion. Univariate and multivariate generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to discuss the risk factors for HIV new infection. Results: A total number of 4 305 MSM were followed during 2013-2015. Among those self-reported MSM who are seeking partners on the Interner tended to have higher proportion on receptive anal intercourse and consistent condom use during anal intercourse than the subgroups seeking their partners in gay bars or bathrooms...
January 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
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