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Giulia M Muraca, Sarka Lisonkova, Amanda Skoll, Rollin Brant, Geoffrey W Cundiff, Yasser Sabr, K S Joseph
BACKGROUND: Increased use of operative vaginal delivery (use of forceps, vacuum or other device) has been recommended to address high rates of cesarean delivery. We sought to determine the association between rates of operative vaginal delivery and obstetric trauma and severe birth trauma. METHODS: We carried out an ecological analysis of term, singleton deliveries in 4 Canadian provinces (2004-2014) using data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information...
June 18, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Ethan Morgan, Sam Hohmann, Jessica Ridgeway, Robert Daum, Michael Z David
Introduction: The incidence of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), for which HIV is a significant risk factor, in United States emergency departments (EDs) increased dramatically after 2000 with the emergence of CA-MRSA. Few studies have examined SSTI incidence among U.S. HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected patients after 2010. Methods: Data were obtained for patient encounters at all academic medical center EDs affiliated with the Vizient clinical data warehouse who had an SSTI-associated ICD-9 code between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Mary G Bowring, Lauren M Kucirka, Allan B Massie, Tanveen Ishaque, Sunjae Bae, Ashton A Shaffer, Jacqueline Garonzik Wang, Mark Sulkowski, Niraj Desai, Dorry L Segev, Christine M Durand
BACKGROUND: The availability of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy might have impacted use of HCV-infected (HCV+) deceased-donor kidneys for transplantation. METHODS: We used 2005-2018 SRTR data to identify 18 936 candidates willing to accept HCV+ kidneys and 3348 HCV+ recipients of HCV+ kidneys. We compared willingness to accept, utilization, discard, and posttransplant outcomes associated with HCV+ kidneys between 2 treatment eras (Interferon [IFN] era: 1/1/2005-12/5/2013 versus DAA era: 12/6/2013-8/2/2018)...
June 13, 2018: Transplantation
Patrizio Pezzotti, Alessandro Miglietta, Arianna Neri, Cecilia Fazio, Paola Vacca, Fabio Voller, Giovanni Rezza, Paola Stefanelli
INTRODUCTION: In Tuscany, Italy, where a universal immunization program with monovalent meningococcal C conjugate vaccine (MCC) was introduced in 2005, an outbreak of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) due to the hypervirulent strain of Neisseria meningitidis C/cc11 occurred in 2015-2016, leading to an immunization reactive campaign using either the tetravalent (ACWY) meningococcal conjugate or the MCC vaccine. During the outbreak, IMD serogroup C (MenC) cases were also reported among vaccinated individuals...
June 9, 2018: Vaccine
Kieran Dalton, Gary O'Brien, Denis O'Mahony, Stephen Byrne
Background: computerised interventions have been suggested as an effective strategy to reduce potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) for hospitalised older adults. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the evidence for efficacy of computerised interventions designed to reduce PIP in this patient group. Methods: an electronic literature search was conducted using eight databases up to October 2017. Included studies were controlled trials of computerised interventions aiming to reduce PIP in hospitalised older adults (≥65 years)...
June 8, 2018: Age and Ageing
Bisola O Ojikutu, Sumeeta Srinivasan, Laura M Bogart, S V Subramanian, Kenneth H Mayer
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of prison release on HIV incidence in the southern region of the United States, the region with the highest rates of both incarceration and new HIV diagnoses nationwide. METHODS: 5-year HIV diagnoses rates were calculated at the ZIP code level for nine cities and metropolitan statistical areas in the US South (ZIP codes, N = 600). Multilevel regression models were constructed and adjusted rate ratios (ARRs) were estimated for overall, male and female HIV diagnoses rates...
2018: PloS One
Audun Brunes, Trond Heir
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of sexual assaults among individuals with visual impairment (VI) compared with the general population and to investigate the association between sexual assault and outcomes of self-efficacy and life satisfaction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional interview-based study conducted between February and May 2017. PARTICIPANTS: A probability sample of adults with VI (≥18 years) who were members of the Norwegian Association of the Blind and Partially Sighted...
June 9, 2018: BMJ Open
Nosayaba Osazuwa-Peters, Lauren D Arnold, Travis M Loux, Mark A Varvares, Mario Schootman
OBJECTIVES: Cancer diagnosis is considered an independent predictor of suicide. We aimed to determine whether gender and human papillomavirus (HPV)-relatedness are associated with increased risks of suicide in the head and neck cancer (HNC) population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult patients ≥18 years with HNC were selected using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data from 1973 to 2014. Using anatomic sites as proxy, patients were grouped as HPV-related or not HPV-related...
June 2018: Oral Oncology
Rebecca Zash, Denise L Jacobson, Modiegi Diseko, Gloria Mayondi, Mompati Mmalane, Max Essex, Tendani Gaolethe, Chipo Petlo, Shahin Lockman, Lewis B Holmes, Joseph Makhema, Roger L Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Global rollout of dolutegravir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been hampered in part by insufficient safety data in pregnancy. We compared birth outcomes among women initiating dolutegravir-based ART with those among women initiating efavirenz-based ART in pregnancy in Botswana. METHODS: In this observational study, we captured birth outcome data at eight government hospitals throughout Botswana (~45% of all deliveries in the country) in an ongoing study that started on Aug 15, 2014...
June 4, 2018: Lancet Global Health
Eddie Rekoronirina, Justin Rahariniaina, Fanjandrainy Rasoaherinomenjanahary
Introduction: There are very few African and Malagasy literatures on general risk factors among primigravidae. This study aimed to determine the potential risk factors associated with a first pregnancy. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among primigravidae and multigravidae women at the Hospital Sainte Fleur Pavilion between October 2014 and December 2016. The relative risks were adjusted after examinations according to sociodemographic features...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Hikaru Hashimura, Jimmy Shen, Peter J Fuller, Nicholas Y N Chee, James C G Doery, Winston Chong, Kay Weng Choy, Stella May Gwini, Jun Yang
BACKGROUND: The saline suppression test (SST) serves to confirm the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA) while adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is used to determine whether the aldosterone hypersecretion is unilateral or bilateral. An accurate prediction of bilateral PA based on SST results could reduce the need for AVS. AIM: We sought to identify SST parameters that reliably predict bilateral PA. METHODS: The results from 121 patients undergoing SSTs at Monash Health from January 2010 to January 2018 including screening blood tests, imaging, AVS and histopathology results were evaluated...
June 6, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Nagarajkumar Yenugadhati, Alhanouf Naji Albalawi, Aisha Taha Qureshey, Eiman Taha Qureshey, Hamdan Al-Jahdali, Abdul Rahman Jazieh, Anwar E Ahmed
Purpose: Oral health in cancer patients was known to influence the quality of life. However, the knowledge of possible factors associated with oral health in cancer patients is seriously lacking in Saudi Arabia. In this study, we aimed to determine the burden of adverse oral health in cancer patients and identify the associated factors for oral health problems. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study design was used to recruit a total of 375 cancer patients who attended oncology outpatient clinics at King Abdulaziz Medical City - Riyadh (KAMC-R) by using a consecutive sampling technique...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Masao Iwagami, Laurie A Tomlinson, Kathryn E Mansfield, Ian J Douglas, Liam Smeeth, Dorothea Nitsch
AIM: To estimate the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding associated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) by level of kidney function. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to Hospital Episode Statistics. We identified patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73m2 for ≥3 months), and a comparison group of patients without it. Patients with CKD were further classified as stage 3a (eGFR 45-59 mL/min/1...
June 4, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
O Mansour, E O Masini, B-S J Kim, M Kamene, M M Githiomi, C L Hanson
SETTING: Undernourishment is prevalent among tuberculosis (TB) patients. Nutritional support is given to TB patients to prevent and treat undernourishment; it is also used to improve treatment outcomes and as an incentive to keep patients on treatment. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether nutritional support is associated with a reduction in the risk of loss to follow-up (LTFU) among TB patients in Kenya. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study using national programmatic data...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Cornelius Nattey, Nelly Jinga, Constance Mongwenyana, Idah Mokhele, Given Mohomi, Matthew P Fox, Dorina Onoya
Effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission benefits from early presentation to antenatal care (ANC). It is, however, unclear whether a previous HIV diagnosis results in earlier initiation of ANC. We estimated the probability of early ANC initiation among women with a previous HIV-positive diagnosis compared to those who first tested for HIV during ANC and explored determinants of early ANC among HIV-positive women. We conducted an analysis of a cross-sectional survey among 411 HIV-positive adult (>18 years) women who gave birth at midwife obstetrics units in Gauteng between October 2016 and May 2017...
June 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Andreas Ronit, Camilla Ingrid Hatleberg, Lene Ryom, Fabrice Bonnet, Wafaa El-Sadr, Peter Reiss, Rainer Weber, Christian Pradier, Stephane De Wit, Matthew Law, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Jens Lundgren, Amanda Mocroft, Andrew N Phillips, Caroline A Sabin
OBJECTIVE: Lower serum albumin (sAlb) has been associated with an increased risk of mortality and AIDS among people living with HIV and may be associated with the development of serious non-AIDS events (SNAEs). We evaluated the long-term association between sAlb and the risk of SNAEs. DESIGN: Prospective multinational cohort study. METHODS: D:A:D participants without SNAEs were followed from first routine sAlb value to the first of a new SNAE [cardiovascular disease (CVD), end-stage liver disease (ESLD), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), non-AIDS malignancy (NADM), death from non-AIDS cause], AIDS-death, 6 months after last visit or 01/02/2016...
May 28, 2018: AIDS
Mohamad N Azra, Jiann-Chu Chen, Mhd Ikhwanuddin, Ambok Bolong Abol-Munafi
Owing to its potential market value, the blue swimmer crab Portunus pelagicus is of great economic importance. The temperature of water significantly affects the physiological function and production efficiency of these crabs. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the critical thermal minimum (CTMin), critical thermal maximum (CTMax), acclimation response ratio (ARR), escaping temperature (Tesc), and locomotor behavior of P. pelagicus instars at 20 °C, 24 °C, 28 °C, 32 °C, and 36 °C...
May 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Lin Ye, Yinwen Ji, Wei Lv, Yining Zhu, Chuncheng Lu, Bo Xu, Yankai Xia
Previous studies from Western country settings had shown correlation between maternal exposure to air pollution and pregnancy outcomes; however, the evidence is difficult to clearly interpret. We aimed to investigate the association of maternal exposure to air pollution expressed as particulate matter (PM2.5 , PM10 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ). The exposure was assessed for the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimester and related to the birth outcomes. During each trimester of gestation, the effect of PM2.5 , PM10 , and NO2 exposure as well as the entire pregnancy on the preterm birth, low birth weight, and term babies' birth weight was explored...
May 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Su Hyun Park, Yazan Al-Ajlouni, Joseph J Palamar, William C Goedel, Anthony Estreet, Brian Elbel, Scott E Sherman, Dustin T Duncan
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of financial hardship as it relates to drug use, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM). As such, this study aimed to investigate potential associations between financial hardship status and drug use among MSM. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 580 MSM in Paris recruited using a popular geosocial-networking smartphone application (GSN apps). Descriptive analyses and multivariate analyses were performed...
May 24, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Richard Ofori-Asenso, Jenni Ilomäki, Ella Zomer, Andrea J Curtis, Sophia Zoungas, Danny Liew
BACKGROUND: Statins have become standard of care in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to examine the trends in statin use among Australians aged ≥ 65 years for the period 2007-2016. METHODS: Data from the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme covering a 10% random sample of the Australian population were analysed. The 1-year prevalence and incidence of statin use were determined for each year, as were the percentage of statin dispensations according to statin type or intensity and the percentage of new users prescribed each statin type or intensity...
May 23, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
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