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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542163/two-extended-haplotype-blocks-are-associated-with-adaptation-to-high-altitude-habitats-in-east-african-honey-bees
#1
Andreas Wallberg, Caspar Schöning, Matthew T Webster, Martin Hasselmann
Understanding the genetic basis of adaption is a central task in biology. Populations of the honey bee Apis mellifera that inhabit the mountain forests of East Africa differ in behavior and morphology from those inhabiting the surrounding lowland savannahs, which likely reflects adaptation to these habitats. We performed whole genome sequencing on 39 samples of highland and lowland bees from two pairs of populations to determine their evolutionary affinities and identify the genetic basis of these putative adaptations...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484377/activity-dependent-synaptic-refinement-new-insights-from-drosophila
#2
REVIEW
Fernando Vonhoff, Haig Keshishian
During development, neurons establish inappropriate connections as they seek out their synaptic partners, resulting in supernumerary synapses that must be pruned away. The removal of miswired synapses usually involves electrical activity, often through a Hebbian spike-timing mechanism. A novel form of activity-dependent refinement is used by Drosophila that may be non-Hebbian, and is critical for generating the precise connectivity observed in that system. In Drosophila, motoneurons use both glutamate and the biogenic amine octopamine for neurotransmission, and the muscle fibers receive multiple synaptic inputs...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450080/weak-involvement-of-octopamine-in-aversive-taste-learning-in-a-snail
#3
Hitoshi Aonuma, Mugiho Kaneda, Dai Hatakeyama, Takayuki Watanabe, Ken Lukowiak, Etsuro Ito
The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is capable of learning taste aversion by pairing presentations of a sucrose solution and an electric shock and consolidating it into long-term memory (LTM), which is referred to as conditioned taste aversion (CTA). We asked here if the neurotransmitter octopamine is involved in CTA. We first determined the levels of octopamine and its catabolites in the central nervous system (CNS) of snails with varying degrees of food deprivation, because CTA grades are correlated with degrees of food deprivation...
April 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440594/identification-of-a-hypertrehalosemic-factor-in-spodoptera-exigua
#4
Youngjin Park, Yonggyun Kim
Trehalose is a major blood sugar in insects with a range of physiological functions, including an energy source and a cryoprotectant. Hemolymph trehalose concentrations are tightly regulated according to physiological conditions. An insulin-like peptide, SeILP1, downregulates hemolymph trehalose concentrations in Spodoptera exigua. Here, we identified a factor that upregulates hemolymph trehalose concentration in S. exigua. Hemolymph trehalose concentrations were significantly increased after immune challenge or under starvation in a time-dependent manner...
May 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389217/supplementation-with-a-low-dose-of-octopamine-does-not-influence-endurance-cycling-performance-in-recreationally-active-men
#5
Ross E Beaumont, Philip Cordery, Lewis J James, Phillip Watson
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of octopamine supplementation on endurance performance and exercise metabolism. DESIGN: Double-blind cross-over study. METHODS: Ten healthy, recreationally active men (Mean±SD; age: 24±2 years; body mass: 78.4±8.7kg; VO2peak: 50.5±6.8 mLkg(-1)min(-1)) completed one VO2peak test, one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials. After an overnight fast, participants ingested either a placebo or 150mg of octopamine 60min prior to exercise...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381994/losing-without-fighting-simple-aversive-stimulation-induces-submissiveness-typical-for-social-defeat-via-the-action-of-nitric-oxide-but-only-when-preceded-by-an-aggression-priming-stimulus
#6
Jan Rillich, Paul A Stevenson
Losing a fight (social defeat) induces submissiveness and behavioral depression in many animals, but the mechanisms are unclear. Here we investigate how the social defeat syndrome can be established as a result of experiencing aversive stimuli and the roles of neuromodulators in the process. While biogenic amines and nitric oxide (NO) are associated with reduced aggression in mammals and insects, their specific actions during conflict are unknown. Although the social defeat syndrome normally results from complex interactions, we could induce it in male crickets simply by applying aversive stimuli (AS) in an aggressive context...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355883/thalassiolin-d-a-new-flavone-o-glucoside-sulphate-from-the-seagrass-thalassia-hemprichii
#7
Usama W Hawas, Lamia T Abou El-Kassem
Thalassiolin D, a new flavone O-glucoside sulphate along with three flavonoids, two steroids, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone and nitrogen compound, octopamine were isolated from the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii, collected from the Saudi Red Sea coast. By extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR and MS data, the structure of the new compound was elucidated as diosmetin 7-O-β-glucosyl-2″-sulphate. The new compound displayed moderately in vitro antiviral HCV protease activity with IC50 value 16 μM...
March 29, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343964/the-temporal-tuning-of-the-drosophila-motion-detectors-is-determined-by-the-dynamics-of-their-input-elements
#8
Alexander Arenz, Michael S Drews, Florian G Richter, Georg Ammer, Alexander Borst
Detecting the direction of motion contained in the visual scene is crucial for many behaviors. However, because single photoreceptors only signal local luminance changes, motion detection requires a comparison of signals from neighboring photoreceptors across time in downstream neuronal circuits. For signals to coincide on readout neurons that thus become motion and direction selective, different input lines need to be delayed with respect to each other. Classical models of motion detection rely on non-linear interactions between two inputs after different temporal filtering...
April 3, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334024/opposite-effects-of-5-ht-akh-and-octopamine-on-the-crop-contractions-in-adult-drosophila-melanogaster-evidence-of-a-double-brain-gut-serotonergic-circuitry
#9
Paolo Solari, Nicholas Rivelli, Francescaelena De Rose, Lorenzo Picciau, Ludovico Murru, John G Stoffolano, Anna Liscia
This study showed that in adult Drosophila melanogaster, the type of sugar-either present within the crop lumen or in the bathing solution of the crop-had no effect on crop muscle contraction. What is important, however, is the volume within the crop lumen. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that exogenous applications of serotonin on crop muscles increases both the amplitude and the frequency of crop contraction rate, while adipokinetic hormone mainly enhances the crop contraction frequency. Conversely, octopamine virtually silenced the overall crop activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314750/octopamine-and-tyramine-modulate-the-thermoregulatory-fanning-response-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-l
#10
Chelsea N Cook, Colin S Brent, Michael D Breed
Biogenic amines regulate the proximate mechanisms underlying most behavior, including those that contribute to the overall success of complex societies. For honey bees, one critical set of behaviors contributing to the welfare of a colony is involved with nest thermoregulation. Worker honeybees cool the colony by performing a fanning behavior, the expression of which is largely influenced by response thresholds modulated by the social environment. Here, we examined how changes in biogenic amines affect this group-performed thermoregulatory fanning behavior in honeybees...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300536/hydroxylation-of-4-hydroxyphenylethylamine-derivatives-by-r263-variants-of-the-oxygenase-component-of-p-hydroxyphenylacetate-3-hydroxylase
#11
Pirom Chenprakhon, Taweesak Dhammaraj, Rattikan Chantiwas, Pimchai Chaiyen
p-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase from Acinetobacter baumannii catalyzes the hydroxylation of p-hydroxyphenylacetate (HPA) to yield 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate (DHPA). In this study, we investigated whether variants of the oxygenase component (C2) could catalyze hydroxylation of 4-hydroxyphenylethylamines to synthesize catecholamine derivatives. Single turnover product analysis showed that the R263D variant can catalyze hydroxylation of tyramine to form dopamine with the highest yield (57%). The enzyme was also found to have dual substrate charge specificity because it can also maintain reasonable hydroxylation efficiency of HPA (86%)...
April 15, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279025/identification-of-multiple-functional-receptors-for-tyramine-on-an-insect-secretory-epithelium
#12
Haiying Zhang, Edward M Blumenthal
The biogenic amine tyramine (TA) regulates many aspects of invertebrate physiology and development. Although three TA receptor subtypes have been identified (TAR1-3), specific receptors have not been linked to physiological responses in native tissue. In the Malpighian (renal) tubule of Drosophila melanogaster, TA activates a transepithelial chloride conductance, resulting in diuresis and depolarization of the transepithelial potential. In the current work, mutation or RNAi-mediated knockdown in the stellate cells of the tubule of TAR2 (tyrR, CG7431) resulted in a dramatic reduction, but not elimination, of the TA-mediated depolarization...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235907/octopamine-and-tyramine-regulate-the-activity-of-reproductive-visceral-muscles-in-the-adult-female-blood-feeding-bug-rhodnius-prolixus
#13
Sam Hana, Angela B Lange
The role of octopamine and tyramine in regulating spontaneous contractions of reproductive tissues was examined in the female Rhodnius prolixus Octopamine decreased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of the oviducts and reduced RhoprFIRFa-induced contractions in a dose-dependent manner, whereas tyramine only reduced the RhoprFIRFa-induced contractions. Both octopamine and tyramine decreased the frequency of spontaneous bursal contractions and completely abolished the contractions at 5×10(-7) M and above...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188220/cannabinoids-activate-monoaminergic-signaling-to-modulate-key-c-elegans-behaviors
#14
Mitchell D Oakes, Wen Jing Law, Tobias Clark, Bruce A Bamber, Richard Komuniecki
Cannabis sativa, or marijuana, a popular recreational drug, alters sensory perception and exerts a range of potential medicinal benefits. The present study demonstrates that the endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonists 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA) activate a canonical cannabinoid receptor in Caenorhabditis elegans and also modulate monoaminergic signaling at multiple levels. 2-AG or AEA inhibit nociception and feeding through a pathway requiring the cannabinoid-like receptor NPR-19. 2-AG or AEA activate NPR-19 directly and cannabinoid-dependent inhibition can be rescued in npr-19-null animals by the expression of a human cannabinoid receptor, CB1, highlighting the orthology of the receptors...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167800/learning-gustatory-responsiveness-and-tyramine-differences-across-nurse-and-forager-honeybees
#15
Ricarda Scheiner, Tina Reim, Eirik Søvik, Brian V Entler, Andrew B Barron, Markus Thamm
Honeybees are well known for their complex division of labor. Each bee sequentially performs a series of social tasks during its life. The changes in social task performance are linked to gross differences in behavior and physiology. We tested whether honeybees performing different social tasks (nursing versus foraging) would differ in their gustatory responsiveness and associative learning behavior in addition to their daily tasks in the colony. Further, we investigated the role of the biogenic amine tyramine and its receptors in the behavior of nurse bees and foragers...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167146/are-males-more-scared-of-predators-differential-change-in-metabolic-rate-between-males-and-females-under-predation-risk
#16
Patricio A Lagos, Marie E Herberstein
The non-consumptive effects of predation contribute to reduce preys' fitness. In this way, predation imposes a cost to animals, not only through direct consumption, but also as an energetic cost. One way used to estimate this cost in the past has been to measure the production of CO2 to estimate the change in metabolic rate because of predation. It has been proposed that this change is mediated by the insect stress neurohormone octopamine. Here we study the change in metabolic rate of the black field cricket (Teleogryllus commodus), and how the production of CO2 varies when a chemical cue from a sympatric predator is added...
February 3, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137258/ancient-coexistence-of-norepinephrine-tyramine-and-octopamine-signaling-in-bilaterians
#17
Philipp Bauknecht, Gáspár Jékely
BACKGROUND: Norepinephrine/noradrenaline is a neurotransmitter implicated in arousal and other aspects of vertebrate behavior and physiology. In invertebrates, adrenergic signaling is considered absent and analogous functions are performed by the biogenic amines octopamine and its precursor tyramine. These chemically similar transmitters signal by related families of G-protein-coupled receptors in vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting that octopamine/tyramine are the invertebrate equivalents of vertebrate norepinephrine...
January 30, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117581/tyramine-pathways-in-citrus-plant-defense-glycoconjugates-of-tyramine-and-its-n-methylated-derivatives
#18
Luigi Servillo, Domenico Castaldo, Alfonso Giovane, Rosario Casale, Nunzia D'Onofrio, Domenico Cautela, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
Glucosylated forms of tyramine and some of its N-methylated derivatives are here reported for the first time to occur in Citrus genus plants. The compounds tyramine-O-β-d-glucoside, N-methyltyramine-O-β-d-glucoside, and N,N-dimethyltyramine-O-β-d-glucoside were detected in juice and leaves of sweet orange, bitter orange, bergamot, citron, lemon, mandarin, and pomelo. The compounds were identified by mass spectrometric analysis, enzymatic synthesis, and comparison with extracts of Stapelia hirsuta L., a plant belonging to the Apocynaceae family in which N,N-dimethyltyramine-O-β-d-glucoside was identified by others...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105749/octopamine-enhances-oxidative-stress-resistance-through-the-fasting-responsive-transcription-factor-daf-16-foxo-in%C3%A2-c-%C3%A2-elegans
#19
Haruka Hoshikawa, Masaharu Uno, Sakiko Honjoh, Eisuke Nishida
Dietary restriction regimens lead to enhanced stress resistance and extended life span in many species through the regulation of fasting and/or diet-responsive mechanisms. The fasting stimulus is perceived by sensory neurons and causes behavioral and metabolic adaptations. Octopamine (OA), one of the Caenorhabditis elegans neurotransmitters, is involved in behavioral adaptations, and its levels are increased under fasting conditions. However, it remains largely unknown how OA contributes to the fasting responses...
February 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076467/the-search-for-novel-insecticide-targets-in-the-post-genomics-era-with-a-specific-focus-on-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#20
Michelle Ngai, Mary Ann McDowell
Insects are considered pests globally, implicated in the destruction of agricultural fields and transmission of pathogens that cause deadly human diseases, such as dengue, Zika and malaria. The diversity of the insecticide arsenal has remained stagnant for decades, but the recent rise of insecticide resistance fueled the discovery of novel modes of action, and the power of genomics has reinvigorated this search. This review discusses the importance of comparative and functional insect genomics in the identification of potential gene targets for an insecticidal mode of action with low off-target toxicity...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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