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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615874/structural-and-molecular-properties-of-insect-type-ii-motor-axon-terminals
#1
Bettina Stocker, Christina Bochow, Christine Damrau, Thomas Mathejczyk, Heike Wolfenberg, Julien Colomb, Claudia Weber, Niraja Ramesh, Carsten Duch, Natalia M Biserova, Stephan Sigrist, Hans-Joachim Pflüger
A comparison between the axon terminals of octopaminergic efferent dorsal or ventral unpaired median neurons in either desert locusts ( Schistocerca gregaria ) or fruit flies ( Drosophila melanogaster ) across skeletal muscles reveals many similarities. In both species the octopaminergic axon forms beaded fibers where the boutons or varicosities form type II terminals in contrast to the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) or type I terminals. These type II terminals are immunopositive for both tyramine and octopamine and, in contrast to the type I terminals, which possess clear synaptic vesicles, only contain dense core vesicles...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615771/uptake-of-plant-derived-specific-alkaloids-allows-males-of-a-butterfly-to-copulate
#2
Keiichi Honda, Junya Matsumoto, Ken Sasaki, Yoshiaki Tsuruta, Yasuyuki Honda
Certain butterflies utilize plant-acquired alkaloids for their own chemical defense and/or for producing male sex pheromone; a trait known as pharmacophagy. Males of the danaine butterfly, Parantica sita, have been reported to ingest pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) as adults to produce two PA-derived sex pheromone components, viz. danaidone (major) and 7R-hydroxydanaidal. We found, however, that not all PAs that can be precursors for the pheromone serve for mating success of males. Here we show that although the sex pheromone is regarded as a requisite for successful mating, uptake of specific PA(s) (lycopsamine-type PAs) is also imperative for the males to achieve copulation...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577066/aim-interneurons-mediate-feeding-suppression-through-the-tyra-2-receptor-in-c-elegans
#3
Jiajun Fu, Haining Zhang, Wenming Huang, Xinyu Zhu, Yi Sheng, Eli Song, Tao Xu
Feeding behavior is the most fundamental behavior in C. elegans . Our previous results have dissected the central integration circuit for the regulation of feeding, which integrates opposing sensory inputs and regulates feeding behavior in a nonlinear manner. However, the peripheral integration that acts downstream of the central integration circuit to modulate feeding remains largely unknown. Here, we find that a Gαi/o-coupled tyramine receptor, TYRA-2, is involved in peripheral feeding suppression. TYRA-2 suppresses feeding behavior via the AIM interneurons, which receive tyramine/octopamine signals from RIM/RIC neurons in the central integration circuit...
2018: Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559549/visual-discrimination-transfer-and-modulation-by-biogenic-amines-in-honeybees
#4
Amanda Rodrigues Vieira, Nayara Salles, Marco Borges, Theo Mota
For more than a century, visual learning and memory has been studied in the honeybee Apis mellifera using operant appetitive conditioning. Although honeybees show impressive visual learning capacities in this well-established protocol, operant training of free-flying animals can hardly be combined with invasive protocols for studying the neurobiological basis of visual learning. In view of that, different efforts have been made to develop new classical conditioning protocols for studying visual learning in harnessed honeybees, though learning performances remain considerably poorer than those obtained in free-flying animals...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557447/colorimetric-detection-of-iron-and-fluorescence-detection-of-zinc-and-cadmium-by-a-chemosensor-containing-a-bio-friendly-octopamine
#5
Ji Hye Kang, Cheal Kim
Chemosensor 1 was synthesized by the reaction of octopamine with 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde. Sensor 1 determined iron with an obvious color change from pale yellow to brown in nearly-pure water. The detection limits (0.55 and 0.25 μM) for Fe2+ and Fe3+, respectively, were far lower than the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) guideline concentration for drinking water (5.37 μM). In addition, 1 could be employed to quantify iron in environmental water samples. Moreover, sensor 1 exhibited different fluorescence emissions in response to zinc (green) and cadmium (blue)...
March 20, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538302/how-tyramine-%C3%AE-hydroxylase-controls-the-production-of-octopamine-modulating-the-mobility-of-beetles
#6
Li Xu, Hong-Bo Jiang, Xiao-Feng Chen, Ying Xiong, Xue-Ping Lu, Yu-Xia Pei, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
Biogenic amines perform many kinds of important physiological functions in the central nervous system (CNS) of insects, acting as neuromodulators, neurotransmitters, and neurohormones. The five most abundant types of biogenic amines in invertebrates are dopamine, histamine, serotonin, tyramine, and octopamine (OA). However, in beetles, an important group of model and pest insects, the role of tyramine β-hydroxylase (TβH) in the OA biosynthesis pathway and the regulation of behavior remains unknown so far...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526717/biogenic-amine-signaling-systems-in-the-red-imported-fire-ant-solenopsis-invicta-possible-contributors-to-worker-division-of-labor
#7
Yi-Xiang Qi, Tian Zeng, Lei Wang, Yong-Yue Lu
The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, is a dangerous invasive pest in the United States, China and other countries. Efficient division of labor is one of the main reasons for the success of this social insect. Biogenic amines are important regulators of worker division of labor in this eusocial insect, but the related molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we identified 10 candidate biogenic amine synthetic enzyme genes and 17 candidate biogenic amine receptor genes in the genome of S...
March 8, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488014/tyraminergic-modulation-of-agonistic-outcomes-in-crayfish
#8
Yuto Momohara, Hitoshi Aonuma, Toshiki Nagayama
Octopamine, a biogenic amine, modulates various behaviors, ranging from locomotion and aggression to learning and memory in invertebrates. Several studies recently demonstrated that tyramine, the biological precursor of octopamine, also affects behaviors independent of octopamine. Here we investigated the involvement of tyramine in agonistic interaction of the male crayfish Procambarus clarkii. When male crayfish fight, larger animals (3-7% difference in body length) are more likely to win. By contrast, direct injection of tyramine or octopamine counteracted the physical advantage of larger animals...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474932/profiling-g-protein-coupled-receptors-of-fasciola-hepatica-identifies-orphan-rhodopsins-unique-to-phylum-platyhelminthes
#9
Paul McVeigh, Erin McCammick, Paul McCusker, Duncan Wells, Jane Hodgkinson, Steve Paterson, Angela Mousley, Nikki J Marks, Aaron G Maule
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are established drug targets. Despite their considerable appeal as targets for next-generation anthelmintics, poor understanding of their diversity and function in parasitic helminths has thwarted progress towards GPCR-targeted anti-parasite drugs. This study facilitates GPCR research in the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, by generating the first profile of GPCRs from the F. hepatica genome. Our dataset describes 147 high confidence GPCRs, representing the largest cohort of GPCRs, and the largest set of in silico ligand-receptor predictions, yet reported in any parasitic helminth...
February 5, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473996/octopamine-modulates-the-activity-of-motoneurons-related-to-calling-behavior-in-the-gypsy-moth-lymantria-dispar
#10
Paolo Solari, Giorgia Sollai, Carla Masala, Riccardo Maccioni, Roberto Crnjar, Anna Liscia
A morpho-functional investigation of the different neuronal subpopulations projecting through each of the nerves IV to VI emerging bilaterally from the terminal abdominal ganglion (TAG) was correlated with the octopaminergic activity in the ganglion that controls the ovipositor movements associated with calling behavior in the female gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. Tetramethylrodamine-dextran backfills from nerve stumps resulted in a relatively low number of TAG projections, ranging from 12-13 for nerve pair IV, 12-14 for nerve pair V and 8-9 for nerve pair VI...
February 23, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453438/altered-immunity-in-crowded-mythimna-separata-is-mediated-by-octopamine-and-dopamine
#11
Hailong Kong, Chuanlei Dong, Zhen Tian, Nian Mao, Cheng Wang, Yunxia Cheng, Lei Zhang, Xingfu Jiang, Lizhi Luo
Similar to pathogenic infection, high population density alters insects' prophylactic immunity. Density-dependent prophylaxis has been reported in many polyphenic insects, but the regulatory mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. The biogenic monoamines are known to play critical roles in mediating insect immune responses. In the current study, the immune capacity and the levels of three biogenic monoamines were investigated in the polyphenic larvae of Mythimna separata, reared at the densities of 1, 2, 5, 10, and 30 larvae per 650-mL jar...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424688/a-sleep-state-in-drosophila-larvae-required-for-neural-stem-cell-proliferation
#12
Milan Szuperak, Matthew A Churgin, Austin J Borja, David M Raizen, Christopher Fang-Yen, Matthew S Kayser
Sleep during development is involved in refining brain circuitry, but a role for sleep in the earliest periods of nervous system elaboration, when neurons are first being born, has not been explored. Here we identify a sleep state in Drosophila larvae that coincides with a major wave of neurogenesis. Mechanisms controlling larval sleep are partially distinct from adult sleep: octopamine, the Drosophila analog of mammalian norepinephrine, is the major arousal neuromodulator in larvae, but dopamine is not required...
February 9, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413984/detection-and-quantification-of-phenethylamines-in-sports-dietary-supplements-by-nmr-approach
#13
Jianping Zhao, Mei Wang, Bharathi Avula, Ikhlas A Khan
Phenethylamines (PEAs) are popular substances found in weight-loss and sports nutrition supplements. They are generally pharmacologically active and primarily affect the sympathetic nervous system. Many PEAs are synthetic chemicals and are on the prohibited list of the World Anti-Doping Agency. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was applied to detect and identify the presence of PEAs in sports dietary supplements without the need for chromatographic separation or pre-knowledge on formulation...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411967/drosophila-as-a-model-system-for-neurotransmitter-measurements
#14
Mimi Shin, Jeffrey M Copeland, B Jill Venton
Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly, is an important, simple model organism for studying the effects of genetic mutations on neuronal activity and behavior. Biologists use Drosophila for neuroscience studies because of its genetic tractability, complex behaviors, well-known and simple neuroanatomy, and many orthologs to human genes. Neurochemical measurements in Drosophila are challenging due to the small size of the central nervous system. Recently, methods have been developed to measure real-time neurotransmitter release and clearance in both larvae and adults using electrochemistry...
February 7, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402941/eis-a-novel-family-of-arylalkylamine-n-acetyltransferase-ec-2-3-1-87
#15
Qian Pan, Feng-Lan Zhao, Bang-Ce Ye
Enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) proteins were found to enhance the intracellular survival of mycobacteria in macrophages by acetylating aminoglycoside antibiotics to confer resistance to these antibiotics and by acetylating DUSP16/MPK-7 to suppress host innate immune defenses. Eis homologs composing of two GCN5 N-acetyltransferase regions and a sterol carrier protein fold are found widely in gram-positive bacteria. In this study, we found that Eis proteins have an unprecedented ability to acetylate many arylalkylamines, are a novel type of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase AANAT (EC 2...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391447/aminergic-signaling-controls-ovarian-dormancy-in-drosophila
#16
Gabriele Andreatta, Charalambos P Kyriacou, Thomas Flatt, Rodolfo Costa
In response to adverse environmental conditions many organisms from nematodes to mammals deploy a dormancy strategy, causing states of developmental or reproductive arrest that enhance somatic maintenance and survival ability at the expense of growth or reproduction. Dormancy regulation has been studied in C. elegans and in several insects, but how neurosensory mechanisms act to relay environmental cues to the endocrine system in order to induce dormancy remains unclear. Here we examine this fundamental question by genetically manipulating aminergic neurotransmitter signaling in Drosophila melanogaster...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382341/stress-induced-reproductive-arrest-in-drosophila-occurs-through-eth-deficiency-mediated-suppression-of-oogenesis-and-ovulation
#17
Matthew R Meiselman, Timothy G Kingan, Michael E Adams
BACKGROUND: Environmental stressors induce changes in endocrine state, leading to energy re-allocation from reproduction to survival. Female Drosophila melanogaster respond to thermal and nutrient stressors by arresting egg production through elevation of the steroid hormone ecdysone. However, the mechanisms through which this reproductive arrest occurs are not well understood. RESULTS: Here we report that stress-induced elevation of ecdysone is accompanied by decreased levels of ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH)...
January 30, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361592/stress-decreases-pollen-foraging-performance-in-honeybees
#18
Célia Bordier, Simon Klein, Yves Le Conte, Andrew B Barron, Cédric Alaux
Foraging in honeybees is energetically demanding. Here, we examined whether stressors, which generally increase metabolic demands, can impair foraging performance. A controlled non-pathogenic stressor (immune challenge) resulted in a change in the foraging preferences of bees. It reduced pollen foraging and increased the duration of trips in pollen foragers. Stress also reduced the amount of octopamine in the brain of pollen foragers (a biogenic amine involved in the regulation of foraging and flight behaviour in insects)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361577/-nosema-ceranae-parasitism-impacts-olfactory-learning-and-memory-and-neurochemistry-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#19
Stephanie L Gage, Catherine Kramer, Samantha Calle, Mark Carroll, Michael Heien, Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman
Nosema sp. is an internal parasite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera , and one of the leading contributors to colony losses worldwide. This parasite is found in the honey bee midgut and has profound consequences for the host's physiology. Nosema sp. impairs foraging performance in honey bees, yet, it is unclear whether this parasite affects the bee's neurobiology. In this study, we examined whether Nosema sp. affects odor learning and memory and whether the brains of parasitized bees show differences in amino acids and biogenic amines...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297293/various-wolbachia-genotypes-differently-influence-host-drosophila-dopamine-metabolism-and-survival-under-heat-stress-conditions
#20
Nataly Е Gruntenko, Yury Yu Ilinsky, Natalya V Adonyeva, Elena V Burdina, Roman A Bykov, Petr N Menshanov, Inga Yu Rauschenbach
BACKGROUND: One of the most widespread prokaryotic symbionts of invertebrates is the intracellular bacteria of Wolbachia genus which can be found in about 50% of insect species. Wolbachia causes both parasitic and mutualistic effects on its host that include manipulating the host reproductive systems in order to increase their transmission through the female germline, and increasing the host fitness. One of the mechanisms, promoting adaptation in biological organisms, is a non-specific neuroendocrine stress reaction...
December 28, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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