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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453438/altered-immunity-in-crowded-mythimna-separata-is-mediated-by-octopamine-and-dopamine
#1
Hailong Kong, Chuanlei Dong, Zhen Tian, Nian Mao, Cheng Wang, Yunxia Cheng, Lei Zhang, Xingfu Jiang, Lizhi Luo
Similar to pathogenic infection, high population density alters insects' prophylactic immunity. Density-dependent prophylaxis has been reported in many polyphenic insects, but the regulatory mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. The biogenic monoamines are known to play critical roles in mediating insect immune responses. In the current study, the immune capacity and the levels of three biogenic monoamines were investigated in the polyphenic larvae of Mythimna separata, reared at the densities of 1, 2, 5, 10, and 30 larvae per 650-mL jar...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424688/a-sleep-state-in-drosophila-larvae-required-for-neural-stem-cell-proliferation
#2
Milan Szuperak, Matthew A Churgin, Austin J Borja, David M Raizen, Christopher Fang-Yen, Matthew S Kayser
Sleep during development is involved in refining brain circuitry, but a role for sleep in the earliest periods of nervous system elaboration, when neurons are first being born, has not been explored. Here we identify a sleep state in Drosophila larvae that coincides with a major wave of neurogenesis. Mechanisms controlling larval sleep are partially distinct from adult sleep: octopamine, the Drosophila analog of mammalian norepinephrine, is the major arousal neuromodulator in larvae, but dopamine is not required...
February 9, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413984/detection-and-quantification-of-phenethylamines-in-sports-dietary-supplements-by-nmr-approach
#3
Jianping Zhao, Mei Wang, Bharathi Avula, Ikhlas A Khan
Phenethylamines (PEAs) are popular substances found in weight-loss and sports nutrition supplements. They are generally pharmacologically active and primarily affect the sympathetic nervous system. Many PEAs are synthetic chemicals and are on the prohibited list of the World Anti-Doping Agency. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was applied to detect and identify the presence of PEAs in sports dietary supplements without the need for chromatographic separation or pre-knowledge on formulation...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411967/drosophila-as-a-model-system-for-neurotransmitter-measurements
#4
Mimi Shin, Jeffrey M Copeland, B Jill Venton
Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly, is an important, simple model organism for studying the effects of genetic mutations on neuronal activity and behavior. Biologists use Drosophila for neuroscience studies because of its genetic tractability, complex behaviors, well-known and simple neuroanatomy, and many orthologs to human genes. Neurochemical measurements in Drosophila are challenging due to the small size of the central nervous system. Recently, methods have been developed to measure real-time neurotransmitter release and clearance in both larvae and adults using electrochemistry...
February 7, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402941/eis-a-novel-family-of-arylalkylamine-n-acetyltransferase-ec-2-3-1-87
#5
Qian Pan, Feng-Lan Zhao, Bang-Ce Ye
Enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) proteins were found to enhance the intracellular survival of mycobacteria in macrophages by acetylating aminoglycoside antibiotics to confer resistance to these antibiotics and by acetylating DUSP16/MPK-7 to suppress host innate immune defenses. Eis homologs composing of two GCN5 N-acetyltransferase regions and a sterol carrier protein fold are found widely in gram-positive bacteria. In this study, we found that Eis proteins have an unprecedented ability to acetylate many arylalkylamines, are a novel type of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase AANAT (EC 2...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391447/aminergic-signaling-controls-ovarian-dormancy-in-drosophila
#6
Gabriele Andreatta, Charalambos P Kyriacou, Thomas Flatt, Rodolfo Costa
In response to adverse environmental conditions many organisms from nematodes to mammals deploy a dormancy strategy, causing states of developmental or reproductive arrest that enhance somatic maintenance and survival ability at the expense of growth or reproduction. Dormancy regulation has been studied in C. elegans and in several insects, but how neurosensory mechanisms act to relay environmental cues to the endocrine system in order to induce dormancy remains unclear. Here we examine this fundamental question by genetically manipulating aminergic neurotransmitter signaling in Drosophila melanogaster...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382341/stress-induced-reproductive-arrest-in-drosophila-occurs-through-eth-deficiency-mediated-suppression-of-oogenesis-and-ovulation
#7
Matthew R Meiselman, Timothy G Kingan, Michael E Adams
BACKGROUND: Environmental stressors induce changes in endocrine state, leading to energy re-allocation from reproduction to survival. Female Drosophila melanogaster respond to thermal and nutrient stressors by arresting egg production through elevation of the steroid hormone ecdysone. However, the mechanisms through which this reproductive arrest occurs are not well understood. RESULTS: Here we report that stress-induced elevation of ecdysone is accompanied by decreased levels of ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH)...
January 30, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361592/stress-decreases-pollen-foraging-performance-in-honeybees
#8
Célia Bordier, Simon Klein, Yves Le Conte, Andrew B Barron, Cédric Alaux
For honeybees, foraging is energetically demanding. Here we examined whether stressors, which increase metabolic demands, can impair foraging performance. A controlled non-pathogenic stressor (immune challenge) resulted in a change in foraging preferences of bees. It reduced pollen foraging, and increased the duration of trips in pollen foragers. Stress also reduced the amount of octopamine in the brain of pollen foragers (a biogenic amine involved in the regulation of foraging and flight behaviour in insects)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361577/nosema-ceranae-parasitism-impacts-olfactory-learning-and-memory-and-neurochemistry-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#9
Stephanie L Gage, Catherine Kramer, Samantha Calle, Mark Carroll, Michael Heien, Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman
Nosema sp. is an internal parasite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, and one of the leading contributors to colony losses worldwide. This parasite is found in the honey bee midgut, and has profound consequences on the host's physiology. Nosema sp. impairs foraging performance in honey bees, yet, it is unclear whether this parasite affects the bee's neurobiology. In this study, we examine whether Nosema sp. affects odor learning and memory and whether the brains of parasitized bees show differences in amino acids and biogenic amines...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297293/various-wolbachia-genotypes-differently-influence-host-drosophila-dopamine-metabolism-and-survival-under-heat-stress-conditions
#10
Nataly Е Gruntenko, Yury Yu Ilinsky, Natalya V Adonyeva, Elena V Burdina, Roman A Bykov, Petr N Menshanov, Inga Yu Rauschenbach
BACKGROUND: One of the most widespread prokaryotic symbionts of invertebrates is the intracellular bacteria of Wolbachia genus which can be found in about 50% of insect species. Wolbachia causes both parasitic and mutualistic effects on its host that include manipulating the host reproductive systems in order to increase their transmission through the female germline, and increasing the host fitness. One of the mechanisms, promoting adaptation in biological organisms, is a non-specific neuroendocrine stress reaction...
December 28, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295521/molecular-targets-for-components-of-essential-oils-in-the-insect-nervous-system-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Milena Jankowska, Justyna Rogalska, Joanna Wyszkowska, Maria Stankiewicz
Essential oils (EOs) are lipophilic secondary metabolites obtained from plants; terpenoids represent the main components of them. A lot of studies showed neurotoxic actions of EOs. In insects, they cause paralysis followed by death. This feature let us consider components of EOs as potential bioinsecticides. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the one of the most investigated mechanisms of action in EOs. However, EOs are rather weak inhibitors of AChE. Another proposed mechanism of EO action is a positive allosteric modulation of GABA receptors (GABArs)...
December 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250542/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-related-regulatory-mechanisms-of-androgenic-gland-in-eriocheir-sinensis
#12
Chunpeng Fu, Qifan Zeng, Fajun Li, Huicui Wang, Jian Sun, Hui Wang
Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is one of the most commercially important aquaculture species in China. The androgenic gland (AG) of crustaceans plays pivotal roles in the regulation of male differentiation and in maintaining the male sexual characteristics. In order to reveal related mechanisms in AG, we compared transcriptomes of AG between proliferation and secretion phase. A total of 72,000 unigenes and 4,027 differentially expressed genes were obtained. Gene ontology enrichment analysis indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to protein synthesis and secretion such as transcription, translation, and signal transduction were significantly enriched...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247240/genetic-and-neurobiological-analyses-of-the-noradrenergic-like-system-in-vulnerability-to-sugar-overconsumption-using-a-drosophila-model
#13
Audrey Branch, Yiwen Zhang, Ping Shen
Regular overconsumption of sugar is associated with obesity and type-2 diabetes, but how genetic factors contribute to variable sugar preferences and intake levels remains mostly unclear. Here we provide evidence for the usefulness of a Drosophila larva model to investigate genetic influence on vulnerability to sugar overconsumption. Using genetic and RNA interference approaches, we show that the activity of the Oamb gene, which encodes a receptor for octopamine (OA, the invertebrate homologue of norepinephrine), plays a major role in controlled sugar consumption...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186788/neurotoxic-effects-of-linalool-and-%C3%AE-pinene-on-tribolium-castaneum-herbst
#14
(no author information available yet)
Effective, ethical pest control requires the use of chemicals that are highly specific, safe, and ecofriendly. Linalool and β-pinene occur naturally as major constituents of the essential oils of many plant species distributed throughout the world, and thus meet these requirements. These monoterpenes were tested as repellents against Tribolium castaneum, using the area preference method, after four hours of exposure and the effect transcriptional of genes associated with neurotransmission. Changes in gene expression of acetylcholinesterase (Ace1), GABA-gated anion channel splice variant 3a6a (Rdl), GABA-gated ion channel (Grd), glutamate-gated chloride channel (Glucl), and histamine-gated chloride channel 2 (Hiscl2) were assessed and the interaction with proteins important for the insect using in silico methods was also studied...
November 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141215/octopamine-drives-endurance-exercise-adaptations-in-drosophila
#15
Alyson Sujkowski, Divya Ramesh, Axel Brockmann, Robert Wessells
Endurance exercise is an effective therapeutic intervention with substantial pro-healthspan effects. Male Drosophila respond to a ramped daily program of exercise by inducing conserved physiological responses similar to those seen in mice and humans. Female flies respond to an exercise stimulus but do not experience the adaptive training response seen in males. Here, we use female flies as a model to demonstrate that differences in exercise response are mediated by differences in neuronal activity. The activity of octopaminergic neurons is specifically required to induce the conserved cellular and physiological changes seen following endurance training...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133063/octopamine-enhances-the-immune-responses-of-freshwater-giant-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii-via-octopamine-receptors
#16
Hsin-Wei Kuo, Winton Cheng
Octopamine (OA) is known to play an important role in regulating insect immune responses. In Macrobrachium rosenbergii (18.0 ± 1.7 g), OA at 25.0 and 250.0 pmol/prawn significantly increased THC, semigranular cells (SGCs) and PO activity in hemocytes per 50 μL hemolymph, hyaline cells, granular cells (GCs) and RBs in hemocytes per 10 μL hemolymph, and RBs per hemocyte, and however, significantly decreased PO activity per granulocyte (GC + SGC), which returned to control levels after 4 h of injection...
November 10, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114209/the-biogenic-amine-tyramine-and-its-receptor-amtyr1-in-olfactory-neuropils-in-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-brain
#17
Irina T Sinakevitch, Sasha M Daskalova, Brian H Smith
This article describes the cellular sources for tyramine and the cellular targets of tyramine via the Tyramine Receptor 1 (AmTyr1) in the olfactory learning and memory neuropils of the honey bee brain. Clusters of approximately 160 tyramine immunoreactive neurons are the source of tyraminergic fibers with small varicosities in the optic lobes, antennal lobes, lateral protocerebrum, mushroom body (calyces and gamma lobes), tritocerebrum and subesophageal ganglion (SEG). Our tyramine mapping study shows that the primary sources of tyramine in the antennal lobe and calyx of the mushroom body are from at least two Ventral Unpaired Median neurons (VUMmd and VUMmx) with cell bodies in the SEG...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103950/genotyping-acaricide-resistance-profiles-of-rhipicephalus-microplus-tick-populations-from-communal-land-areas-of-zimbabwe
#18
Marvelous Sungirai, Samantha Baron, Doreen Zandile Moyo, Patrick De Clercq, Christine Maritz-Olivier, Maxime Madder
Acaricide resistance is one of the greatest threats towards the successful control of vector ticks worldwide. Communal farmers of Zimbabwe use amitraz as the most common acaricide with occasional usage of pyrethroids and organophosphates. As a strategy towards developing an effective acaricide resistance management system in Zimbabwe, screening was done by genotyping Rhipicephalus microplus tick populations using molecular markers associated with resistance to these chemicals. The frequency of the mutant allele for the octopamine/tyramine receptor marker associated with amitraz resistance was high (0...
November 2, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102645/caste-differences-in-the-association-between-dopamine-and-reproduction-in-the-bumble-bee-bombus-ignitus
#19
Ken Sasaki, Hinako Matsuyama, Naruaki Morita, Masato Ono
A society of bumble bees is primitively eusocial, with an annual life cycle, and can be used as a physiological model of social bees for comparative studies with highly eusocial hymenopterans. We investigated the dynamics of biogenic amine levels in the brain, meso-metathoracic ganglia, terminal abdominal ganglion, and hemolymph in queens 1 day after mating (1DAM), during diapause (Dp), and during colony founding (CF) in the bumble bee, Bombus ignitus. Dopamine levels in the brain of CF queens were significantly lower than in 1DAM and Dp queens, and the levels in the thoracic ganglia and hemolymph in CF queens were lower than in 1DAM queens, but did not differ from other groups in the abdominal ganglion...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089641/roles-of-dopamine-neurons-in-mediating-the-prediction-error-in-aversive-learning-in-insects
#20
Kanta Terao, Makoto Mizunami
In associative learning in mammals, it is widely accepted that the discrepancy, or error, between actual and predicted reward determines whether learning occurs. The prediction error theory has been proposed to account for the finding of a blocking phenomenon, in which pairing of a stimulus X with an unconditioned stimulus (US) could block subsequent association of a second stimulus Y to the US when the two stimuli were paired in compound with the same US. Evidence for this theory, however, has been imperfect since blocking can also be accounted for by competitive theories...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
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