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Human microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822770/regulation-of-autoimmune-myocarditis-by-host-responses-to-the-microbiome
#1
Jobert G Barin, Monica V Talor, Nicola L Diny, SuFey Ong, Julie A Schaub, Elizabeth Gebremariam, Djahida Bedja, Guobao Chen, Hee Sun Choi, Xuezhou Hou, Lei Wu, Ashley B Cardamone, Daniel A Peterson, Noel R Rose, Daniela Čiháková
The extensive, diverse communities that constitute the microbiome are increasingly appreciated as important regulators of human health and disease through inflammatory, immune, and metabolic pathways. We sought to elucidate pathways by which microbiota contribute to inflammatory, autoimmune cardiac disease. We employed an animal model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM), which results in inflammatory and autoimmune pathophysiology and subsequent maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Antibiotic dysbiosis protected mice from EAM and fibrotic cardiac dysfunction...
August 16, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821301/space-type-radiation-induces-multimodal-responses-in-the-mouse-gut-microbiome-and-metabolome
#2
David Casero, Kirandeep Gill, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Igor Koturbash, Gregory Nelson, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Marjan Boerma, Jonathan Braun, Amrita K Cheema
BACKGROUND: Space travel is associated with continuous low dose rate exposure to high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. Pathophysiological manifestations after low dose radiation exposure are strongly influenced by non-cytocidal radiation effects, including changes in the microbiome and host gene expression. Although the importance of the gut microbiome in the maintenance of human health is well established, little is known about the role of radiation in altering the microbiome during deep-space travel...
August 18, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821012/multidomain-analyses-of-a-longitudinal-human-microbiome-intestinal-cleanout-perturbation-experiment
#3
Julia Fukuyama, Laurie Rumker, Kris Sankaran, Pratheepa Jeganathan, Les Dethlefsen, David A Relman, Susan P Holmes
Our work focuses on the stability, resilience, and response to perturbation of the bacterial communities in the human gut. Informative flash flood-like disturbances that eliminate most gastrointestinal biomass can be induced using a clinically-relevant iso-osmotic agent. We designed and executed such a disturbance in human volunteers using a dense longitudinal sampling scheme extending before and after induced diarrhea. This experiment has enabled a careful multidomain analysis of a controlled perturbation of the human gut microbiota with a new level of resolution...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819919/the-microbial-mother-meets-the-independent-organ-cultural-discourses-of-reproductive-microbiomes
#4
Jessica R Houf
The human microbiome is changing the way experts and non-experts think about germs and microorganisms. This essay is a gender analysis of contemporary discourses surrounding the human reproductive microbiome, specifically the vaginal microbiota and the penile microbiota. I first historically situate the human reproductive microbiome within the germ theory of disease. Then, I draw on Heather Paxson's Foucauldian and Latourian concept of microbiopolitics to argue that microbiopolitics is not only about how humans should live with microorganisms; but it also impacts how humans and microbes live together as gendered beings...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819242/the-saliva-microbiome-profiles-are-minimally-affected-by-collection-method-or-dna-extraction-protocols
#5
Yenkai Lim, Makrina Totsika, Mark Morrison, Chamindie Punyadeera
Saliva has attracted attention as a diagnostic fluid due to the association of oral microbiota with systemic diseases. However, the lack of standardised methods for saliva collection has led to the slow uptake of saliva in microbiome research. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the potential effects on salivary microbiome profiles using different methods of saliva collection, storage and gDNA extraction. Three types of saliva fractions were collected from healthy individuals with or without the gDNA stabilising buffer...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818754/daily-thanatomicrobiome-changes-in-soil-as-an-approach-of-postmortem-interval-estimation-an-ecological-perspective
#6
Joe Adserias-Garriga, Marta Hernández, Narciso M Quijada, David Rodríguez Lázaro, Dawnie Steadman, Jesús Garcia-Gil
Understanding human decomposition is critical for its use in postmortem interval (PMI) estimation, having a significant impact on forensic investigations. In recognition of the need to establish the scientific basis for PMI estimation, several studies on decomposition have been carried out in the last years. The aims of the present study were: (i) to identify soil microbiota communities involved in human decomposition through high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of DNA sequences from the different bacteria, (ii) to monitor quantitatively and qualitatively the decay of such signature species, and (iii) to describe succesional changes in bacterial populations from the early putrefaction state until skeletonization...
August 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818344/the-2016-espen-arvid-wretlind-lecture-the-gut-in-stress
#7
REVIEW
Stephen A McClave, Cynthia C Lowen, Robert G Martindale
The gut has a major influence on the course of the human stress response in critical illness for several reasons; the quantity of its immune tissue, the extent of interface with the external environment, the expanse of the microbiome, and its access to the systemic circulation. In critical illness, it is not uncommon to lose mucosal barrier function, which exposes the host to the downside effects of luminal contents and epithelial cell regulation. In that setting, the microbiome is converted to a pathobiome, upregulation of metabolic and immune responses occurs, and homeostatic defense systems are compromised...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817707/microbiome-mediated-neutrophil-recruitment-via-cxcr2-and-protection-from-amebic-colitis
#8
Koji Watanabe, Carol A Gilchrist, Md Jashim Uddin, Stacey L Burgess, Mayuresh M Abhyankar, Shannon N Moonah, Zannatun Noor, Jeffrey R Donowitz, Brittany N Schneider, Tuhinur Arju, Emtiaz Ahmed, Mamun Kabir, Masud Alam, Rashidul Haque, Patcharin Pramoonjago, Borna Mehrad, William A Petri
The disease severity of Entamoeba histolytica infection ranges from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Recent human and animal data implicate the gut microbiome as a modifier of E. histolytica virulence. Here we have explored the association of the microbiome with susceptibility to amebiasis in infants and in the mouse model of amebic colitis. Dysbiosis occurred symptomatic E. histolytica infection in children, as evidenced by a lower Shannon diversity index of the gut microbiota. To test if dysbiosis was a cause of susceptibility, wild type C57BL/6 mice (which are innately resistant to E...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816579/application-of-the-distance-based-f-test-in-an-mgwas-investigating-beta-diversity-of-intestinal-microbiota-identifies-variants-in-slc9a8-nhe8-and-three-other-loci
#9
Malte C Rühlemann, Frauke Degenhardt, Louise B Thingholm, Jun Wang, Jurgita Skiecevičienė, Philipp Rausch, Johannes R Hov, Wolfgang Lieb, Tom H Karlsen, Matthias Laudes, John F Baines, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Andre Franke
Factors shaping the human intestinal microbiota range from environmental influences, like smoking and exercise, over dietary patterns and disease to the host's genetic variation. Recently, we could show in a microbiome genome-wide association study (mGWAS) targeting genetic variation influencing the beta diversity of gut microbial communities, that approximately 10% of the overall gut microbiome variation can be explained by host genetics. Here, we report on the application of a new method for genotype-beta-diversity association testing, the distance-based F (DBF) test...
August 17, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815268/temporal-stability-of-the-healthy-human-skin-microbiome-following-dead-sea-climatotherapy
#10
Michael Brandwein, Garold Fuks, Avigail Israel, Ashraf Al-Ashhab, Deborah Rosenberg-Nejman, Ravid Straussman, Emmilia Hodak, Marco Harari, Doron Steinberg, Zvi Bentwich, Noam Shental, Shiri Meshner
Dead Sea climatotherapy (DSC) is a therapeutic modality for a variety of chronic skin conditions, yet there has been scarce research on the relationship between the cutaneous microbiota and disease states in response to DSC. We characterized the skin bacterial and fungal microbiome of healthy volunteers who underwent DSC. Bacterial community diversity remained similar before and after treatment, while fungal diversity was significantly reduced as a result of the treatment. Individuals showed greater inter-individual than temporal bacterial community variance, yet the opposite was true for fungal community composition...
August 17, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813450/oral-microbial-community-assembly-under-the-influence-of-periodontitis
#11
Hongju Chen, Shuting Peng, Lin Dai, Quan Zou, Bin Yi, Xianghong Yang, Zhanshan Sam Ma
Several ecological hypotheses (e.g., specific plaque, non-specific plaque and keystone pathogen) regarding the etiology of periodontitis have been proposed since the 1990s, most of which have been centered on the concept of dysbiosis associated with periodontitis. Nevertheless, none of the existing hypotheses have presented mechanistic interpretations on how and why dysbiosis actually occurs. Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity offers a powerful null model to test hypothesis regarding the mechanism of community assembly and diversity maintenance from the metagenomic sequencing data, which can help to understand the forces that shape the community dynamics such as dysbiosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811583/bacterial-diversity-among-four-healthcare-associated-institutes-in-taiwan
#12
Chang-Hua Chen, Yaw-Ling Lin, Kuan-Hsueh Chen, Wen-Pei Chen, Zhao-Feng Chen, Han-Yueh Kuo, Hsueh-Fen Hung, Chuan Yi Tang, Ming-Li Liou
Indoor microbial communities have important implications for human health, especially in health-care institutes (HCIs). The factors that determine the diversity and composition of microbiomes in a built environment remain unclear. Herein, we used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to investigate the relationships between building attributes and surface bacterial communities among four HCIs located in three buildings. We examined the surface bacterial communities and environmental parameters in the buildings supplied with different ventilation types and compared the results using a Dirichlet multinomial mixture (DMM)-based approach...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810737/identification-of-the-colicin-v-bacteriocin-gene-cluster-by-functional-screening-of-a-human-microbiome-metagenomic-library
#13
Louis Cohen, Sun Han, Yun-Han Huang, Sean F Brady
The forces that shape human microbial ecology are complex. It is likely, that human microbiota, similarly to other microbiomes, use antibiotics as one way to establish an ecological niche. In this study, we use functional metagenomics to identify human microbial gene clusters that encode for antibiotic functions. Screening of a metagenomic library prepared from a healthy patient stool sample led to the identification of a family of clones with inserts that are 99% identical to a region of a virulence plasmid found in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli...
August 15, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809449/microbial-communities-as-biosensors-for-monitoring-urban-environments
#14
Fangqiong Ling
The BE microbiome is a naturally embedded biosensor in urban infrastructure that can be used to monitor environmental quality and human activity. There are many potential opportunities for leveraging BE microbial communities to guide urban design and public health policy.
August 15, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808691/fluoride-depletes-acidogenic-taxa-in-oral-but-not-gut-microbial-communities-in-mice
#15
Koji Yasuda, Tiffany Hsu, Carey A Gallini, Lauren J Mclver, Emma Schwager, Andy Shi, Casey R DuLong, Randall N Schwager, Galeb S Abu-Ali, Eric A Franzosa, Wendy S Garrett, Curtis Huttenhower, Xochitl C Morgan
Fluoridation of drinking water and dental products prevents dental caries primarily by inhibiting energy harvest in oral cariogenic bacteria (such as Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis), thus leading to their depletion. However, the extent to which oral and gut microbial communities are affected by host fluoride exposure has been underexplored. In this study, we modeled human fluoride exposures to municipal water and dental products by treating mice with low or high levels of fluoride over a 12-week period...
July 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804508/a-psychology-of-the-human-brain-gut-microbiome-axis
#16
Andrew P Allen, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan
In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis...
April 2017: Social and Personality Psychology Compass
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804485/transcriptional-profiling-of-midguts-prepared-from-trypanosoma-t-congolense-positive-glossina-palpalis-palpalis-collected-from-two-distinct-cameroonian-foci-coordinated-signatures-of-the-midguts-remodeling-as-t-congolense-supportive-niches
#17
Jean M Tsagmo Ngoune, Flobert Njiokou, Béatrice Loriod, Ginette Kame-Ngasse, Nicolas Fernandez-Nunez, Claire Rioualen, Jacques van Helden, Anne Geiger
Our previous transcriptomic analysis of Glossina palpalis gambiensis experimentally infected or not with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense aimed to detect differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with infection. Specifically, we selected candidate genes governing tsetse fly vector competence that could be used in the context of an anti-vector strategy, to control human and/or animal trypanosomiasis. The present study aimed to verify whether gene expression in field tsetse flies (G. p. palpalis) is modified in response to natural infection by trypanosomes (T...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802721/comparison-of-commercially-available-preservatives-for-maintaining-the-integrity-of-bacterial-dna-in-human-milk
#18
Kimberly A Lackey, Janet E Williams, William J Price, Janae M Carrothers, Sarah L Brooker, Bahman Shafii, Mark A McGuire, Michelle K McGuire
BACKGROUND: Inhibiting changes to bacteria in human milk between sample collection and analysis is necessary for unbiased characterization of the milk microbiome. Although cold storage is considered optimal, alternative preservation is sometimes necessary. RESEARCH AIM/QUESTION: The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of several commercially-available preservatives with regard to maintaining bacterial DNA in human milk for delayed microbiome analysis...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802306/ilsi-southeast-asia-region-conference-proceedings-the-gut-its-microbes-and-health-relevance-for-asia
#19
Yuan Kun Lee, Patricia Conway, Sven Pettersson, G Balakrish Nair, Ingrid Surono, Yusra Egayanti, Maria Sofia Amarra
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The human being is a complex entity, involving interaction between microbes and the human host. Evidence shows that the nutritional value of food is influenced in part by the structure and operations of an individual's gut microbial community, and food in turn shapes the individual's microbiome. A conference was held to promote understanding of the intestinal microbiome and its implications for health and disease, particularly among Asian populations. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Papers describing 1) the intestinal ecosystem in Asian populations, 2) changes in intestinal microbiota through life and its effects, 3) the Asian gut microbiota in disease conditions, 4) indigenous probiotics to maintain a healthy gut microbiota, 5) probiotic regulation in an Asian country, and 6) the results of a panel discussion are included in this report...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799244/microbes-and-host-response-a-relationship-in-health-and-disease
#20
Alpdogan Kantarci, Hatice Hasturk
The human body hosts billions of microorganisms. According to one estimate, the ratio of bacterial cells to human cells is 10:1. There are an enormous diversity and specificity based on where the species live and how they interact with each other as well as the host. While bacterial species define how the host lives and adapts to its environment, host-associated factors also determine the microbiome and its components. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 11, 2017: Oral Diseases
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