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Human gut microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921469/microbial-factors-in-inflammatory-diseases-and-cancers
#1
Hong Sheng Ong, Howard Chi Ho Yim
The intestinal microbes form a symbiotic relationship with their human host to harvest energy for themselves and their host and to shape the immune system of their host. However, alteration of this relationship, which is named as a dysbiosis, has been associated with the development of different inflammatory diseases and cancers. It is found that metabolites, cellular components, and virulence factors derived from the gut microbiota interact with the host locally or systemically to modulate the dysbiosis and the development of these diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920844/identification-of-genes-involved-in-galactooligosaccharide-utilization-in-bifidobacterium-breve-strain-yit-4014t
#2
Hidetsugu Sotoya, Akira Shigehisa, Taeko Hara, Hoshitaka Matsumoto, Hiroshi Hatano, Takahiro Matsuki
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are mixed oligosaccharides that are mainly composed of galactosyllactoses (GLs), which include 3'-GL, 4'-GL, and 6'-GL. Data from numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that GOS selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. Previously, we identified the gene locus responsible for 4'-GL utilization, but the selective routes of uptake and catabolism of 3'- and 6'-GL remain to be elucidated. In this study, we used differential transcriptomics to identify the utilization pathways of these GLs within the Bifidobacterium breve YIT 4014T strain...
September 18, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919884/secretome-of-intestinal-bacilli-a-natural-guard-against-pathologies
#3
REVIEW
Olga N Ilinskaya, Vera V Ulyanova, Dina R Yarullina, Ilgiz G Gataullin
Current studies of human gut microbiome usually do not consider the special functional role of transient microbiota, although some of its members remain in the host for a long time and produce broad spectrum of biologically active substances. Getting into the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with food, water and probiotic preparations, two representatives of Bacilli class, genera Bacillus and Lactobacillus, colonize epithelium blurring the boundaries between resident and transient microbiota. Despite their minor proportion in the microbiome composition, these bacteria can significantly affect both the intestinal microbiota and the entire body thanks to a wide range of secreted compounds...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919341/metabolic-programming-of-the-epigenome-host-and-gut-microbial-metabolite-interactions-with-host-chromatin
#4
REVIEW
Kimberly A Krautkramer, Rashpal S Dhillon, John M Denu, Hannah V Carey
The mammalian gut microbiota has been linked to host developmental, immunologic, and metabolic outcomes. This collection of trillions of microbes inhabits the gut and produces a myriad of metabolites, which are measurable in host circulation and contribute to the pathogenesis of human diseases. The link between endogenous metabolite availability and chromatin regulation is a well-established and active area of investigation; however, whether microbial metabolites can elicit similar effects is less understood...
September 1, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918936/intermittent-fasting-promotes-white-adipose-browning-and-decreases-obesity-by-shaping-the-gut%C3%A2-microbiota
#5
Guolin Li, Cen Xie, Siyu Lu, Robert G Nichols, Yuan Tian, Licen Li, Daxeshkumar Patel, Yinyan Ma, Chad N Brocker, Tingting Yan, Kristopher W Krausz, Rong Xiang, Oksana Gavrilova, Andrew D Patterson, Frank J Gonzalez
While activation of beige thermogenesis is a promising approach for treatment of obesity-associated diseases, there are currently no known pharmacological means of inducing beiging in humans. Intermittent fasting is an effective and natural strategy for weight control, but the mechanism for its efficacy is poorly understood. Here, we show that an every-other-day fasting (EODF) regimen selectively stimulates beige fat development within white adipose tissue and dramatically ameliorates obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis...
September 13, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917929/development-of-carboxymethyl-cellulose-chitosan-hybrid-micro-and-macroparticles-for-encapsulation-of-probiotic-bacteria
#6
P Singh, B Medronho, L Alves, G J da Silva, M G Miguel, B Lindman
Novel carboxymethyl cellulose-chitosan (CMC-Cht) hybrid micro- and macroparticles were successfully prepared in aqueous media either by drop-wise addition or via nozzle-spray methods. The systems were either physically or chemically crosslinked using genipin as the reticulation agent. The macroparticles (ca. 2mm) formed are found to be essentially of the core-shell type, while the microparticles (ca. 5μm) are apparently homogeneous. The crosslinked particles are robust, thermally resistant and less sensitive to pH changes...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916564/modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-a-systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-bariatric-surgery
#7
Yan Guo, Zhi-Ping Huang, Chao-Qian Liu, Lin Qi, Yuan Sheng, Da-Jin Zou
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery is recommended for patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent evidence suggested a strong connection between gut microbiota and bariatric surgery. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: The PubMed and OVID Embase were used and articles concerning bariatric surgery and gut microbiota were screened. The main outcome measures were alterations of gut microbiota after bariatric surgery and correlations between gut microbiota and host metabolism...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916042/urinary-intermediates-of-tryptophan-as-indicators-of-the-gut-microbial-metabolism
#8
Tereza Pavlova, Veronika Vidova, Julie Bienertova-Vasku, Petr Janku, Martina Almasi, Jana Klanova, Zdenek Spacil
While over 10% of the human metabolome is directly associated with the gut microbial metabolism, specific metabolites are largely uncharacterized. Therefore, methods for the identification and quantification of microbiota-associated metabolites in biological fluids such as urine or plasma are necessary in order to elucidate the molecular basis of host-microbiota interaction. In this study, we focused on the tryptophan metabolism, employing quantitative assays by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry, specifically selected reaction monitoring (SRM)...
September 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915922/recent-urbanization-in-china-is-correlated-with-a-westernized-microbiome-encoding-increased-virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#9
Kathryn Winglee, Annie Green Howard, Wei Sha, Raad Z Gharaibeh, Jiawu Liu, Donghui Jin, Anthony A Fodor, Penny Gordon-Larsen
BACKGROUND: Urbanization is associated with an increased risk for a number of diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer, which all also show associations with the microbiome. While microbial community composition has been shown to vary across continents and in traditional versus Westernized societies, few studies have examined urban-rural differences in neighboring communities within a single country undergoing rapid urbanization. In this study, we compared the gut microbiome, plasma metabolome, dietary habits, and health biomarkers of rural and urban people from a single Chinese province...
September 15, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914862/-liver-diseases-the-pathogenetic-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-the-potential-of-treatment-for-its-modulation
#10
K A Aitbaev, I T Murkamilov, V V Fomin
The paper gives an update on the role of the gut microbiome (GM) in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis (LC), and its complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and discusses the possibilities of its correction with prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The pathophysiology of the liver diseases in question demonstrates some common features that are characterized by pathogenic changes in the composition of the gastrointestinal tract microflora, by intestinal barrier impairments, by development of endotoxemia, by increased liver expression of proinflammatory factors, and by development of liver inflammation...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914591/mucosa-associated-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-colitis-associated-cancer
#11
Mathias L Richard, Giuseppina Liguori, Bruno Lamas, Giovanni Brandi, Gregory da Costa, Thomas W Hoffmann, Massimo Pierluigi Di Simone, Carlo Calabrese, Gilberto Poggioli, Philippe Langella, Massimo Campieri, Harry Sokol
Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In colorectal cancer, the gut microbiota has also been recognized as potentially involved in aggravating or favoring the tumor development. However, very little is known on the structure and role of the microbiota in colitis associated cancer (CAC), an important complication of IBD in human. Here we analyzed the bacterial and fungal composition of the mucosa associated microbiota of patients suffering CAC, sporadic cancer (SC) and of healthy subjects (HS) by barcode sequences analysis on the following cohort: 7 CAC patients, 10 SC patients and 10 HS using 16S (MiSeq) and ITS2 (pyrosequencing) sequencing, for bacteria and fungi respectively...
September 15, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912798/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-the-human-gut-microbiome-reveals-a-broad-distribution-of-metabolic-pathways-for-the-degradation-of-host-synthetized-mucin-glycans-and-utilization-of-mucin-derived-monosaccharides
#12
Dmitry A Ravcheev, Ines Thiele
The colonic mucus layer is a dynamic and complex structure formed by secreted and transmembrane mucins, which are high-molecular-weight and heavily glycosylated proteins. Colonic mucus consists of a loose outer layer and a dense epithelium-attached layer. The outer layer is inhabited by various representatives of the human gut microbiota (HGM). Glycans of the colonic mucus can be used by the HGM as a source of carbon and energy when dietary fibers are not sufficiently available. Both commensals and pathogens can utilize mucin glycans...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912045/sulfate-reducing-bacteria-stimulate-gut-immune-responses-and-contribute-to-inflammation-in-experimental-colitis
#13
Vanessa Ribeiro Figliuolo, Liliane Martins Dos Santos, Alessandra Abalo, Hayandra Nanini, Angela Santos, Nilda M Brittes, Claudio Bernardazzi, Heitor Siffert Pereira de Souza, Leda Quercia Vieira, Robson Coutinho-Silva, Claudia Mara Lara Melo Coutinho
The intestinal microbiota is critical for mammalian immune system development and homeostasis. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are part of the normal gut microbiota, but their increased levels may contribute to colitis development, likely in association with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production. Here, we investigated the effects of SRB in the gut immune response in germ-free mice, and in experimental colitis. After 7days of colonization with Desulfovibrio indonesiensis or with a human SRB consortium (from patients with colitis), germ-free mice exhibited alterations in the colonic architecture, with increased cell infiltration in the lamina propria...
September 11, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906270/microbiota-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#14
Moira Marizzoni, Stefania Provasi, Annamaria Cattaneo, Giovanni B Frisoni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the extensive research carried out in the past decades, the current pathophysiological notions of neurodegenerative disease as well as effective treatments to reduce their progression are largely unknown. Alterations of the human microbiota, the plethora of different microscopic organisms that our body hosts, have been linked to neurodegenerative disease risk, onset and progression. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the possible role of microbiota in neurodegenerative disorders and briefly discusses strategies to restore microbiota homeostasis...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905671/microbiota-derived-uremic-retention-solutes-perpetrators-of-altered-nonrenal-drug-clearance-in-kidney-disease
#15
Alexander J Prokopienko, Thomas D Nolin
Scientific interest in the gut microbiota is increasing due to improved understanding of its implications in human health and disease. In patients with kidney disease, gut microbiota-derived uremic toxins directly contribute to altered nonrenal drug clearance. Microbial imbalances, known as dysbiosis, potentially increase formation of microbiota-derived toxins, and diminished renal clearance leads to toxin accumulation. High concentrations of microbiota-derived toxins such as indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate perpetrate interactions with drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters, which provides a mechanistic link between increases in drug-related adverse events and dysbiosis in kidney disease...
September 14, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904999/linking-spatial-structure-and-community-level-biotic-interactions-through-cooccurrence-and-time-series-modeling-of-the-human-intestinal-microbiota
#16
Eric J de Muinck, Knut E A Lundin, Pål Trosvik
The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome is a densely populated ecosystem where dynamics are determined by interactions between microbial community members, as well as host factors. The spatial organization of this system is thought to be important in human health, yet this aspect of our resident microbiome is still poorly understood. In this study, we report significant spatial structure of the GI microbiota, and we identify general categories of spatial patterning in the distribution of microbial taxa along a healthy human GI tract...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903954/quantity-and-source-of-dietary-protein-influence-metabolite-production-by-gut-microbiota-and-rectal-mucosa-gene-expression-a-randomized-parallel-double-blind-trial-in-overweight-humans
#17
Martin Beaumont, Kevin Joseph Portune, Nils Steuer, Annaïg Lan, Victor Cerrudo, Marc Audebert, Florent Dumont, Giulia Mancano, Nadezda Khodorova, Mireille Andriamihaja, Gheorghe Airinei, Daniel Tomé, Robert Benamouzig, Anne-Marie Davila, Sandrine Paule Claus, Yolanda Sanz, François Blachier
Background: Although high-protein diets (HPDs) are frequently consumed for body-weight control, little is known about the consequences for gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity and for large intestine mucosal homeostasis. Moreover, the effects of HPDs according to the source of protein need to be considered in this context.Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the quantity and source of dietary protein on microbiota composition, bacterial metabolite production, and consequences for the large intestinal mucosa in humans...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903182/molecular-estimation-of-alteration-in-intestinal-microbial-composition-in-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis-patients
#18
Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq, Imran Shair Mohammad, Hui Guo, Muhammad Shahzad, Yin Jian Hou, Chaofeng Ma, Zahid Naseem, Xiaokang Wu, Peijie Shi, Jiru Xu
The gut microbiota has a crucial effect on human health and physiology. Hypothyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune disorder manifested with environmental and genetic factors. However, it is hypothesized that intestinal microbes might play a vital role in the pathogenesis of HT. The aim of current was to investigate and characterize the gut microbial composition of HT patients both quantitatively and qualitatively. The fecal samples from 29 HT patients and 12 healthy individuals were collected...
September 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901784/impact-of-maillard-reaction-products-on-nutrition-and-health-current-knowledge-and-need-to-understand-their-fate-in-the-human-digestive-system
#19
Nesreen ALJahdali, Franck Carbonero
The Maillard Reaction (MR) is a non-enzymatic chemical reaction which results in the linkage between the amino group of amino acids and the carbonyl group of reduced sugars. MR products (MRPs) are common components of processed foods, mainly as a result of heating, especially in the Western diet. MRPs are classified as into three stages: initial, intermediate, and final stages, indicative of increased complexity and size, incurring different flavor, aroma, and texture. MRPs presence is known to reduce the nutritional quality of foods, particularly by reducing protein digestibility...
September 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901279/role-of-physical-exercise-and-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-depressive-illness-in-the-elderly
#20
Stefano Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano Sacchetti, Vittoria Nicolis di Robilant, Debora Cutuli
BACKGROUND: In adulthood, depression is the most common type of mental illness and will be the second leading cause of disease by 2020. Major depression dramatically affects the function of the central nervous system and degrades life quality, especially during aging. Several mechanisms underlie the pathophysiology of depressive illness, given it has a multifactorial etiology. Human and animal studies have demonstrated that depression is mainly associated with imbalances in neurotransmitters and neurotrophins, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis alterations, brain volume changes, neurogenesis dysfunction, and dysregulation of inflammatory pathways...
September 11, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
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