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Human gut microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817707/microbiome-mediated-neutrophil-recruitment-via-cxcr2-and-protection-from-amebic-colitis
#1
Koji Watanabe, Carol A Gilchrist, Md Jashim Uddin, Stacey L Burgess, Mayuresh M Abhyankar, Shannon N Moonah, Zannatun Noor, Jeffrey R Donowitz, Brittany N Schneider, Tuhinur Arju, Emtiaz Ahmed, Mamun Kabir, Masud Alam, Rashidul Haque, Patcharin Pramoonjago, Borna Mehrad, William A Petri
The disease severity of Entamoeba histolytica infection ranges from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Recent human and animal data implicate the gut microbiome as a modifier of E. histolytica virulence. Here we have explored the association of the microbiome with susceptibility to amebiasis in infants and in the mouse model of amebic colitis. Dysbiosis occurred symptomatic E. histolytica infection in children, as evidenced by a lower Shannon diversity index of the gut microbiota. To test if dysbiosis was a cause of susceptibility, wild type C57BL/6 mice (which are innately resistant to E...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816579/application-of-the-distance-based-f-test-in-an-mgwas-investigating-beta-diversity-of-intestinal-microbiota-identifies-variants-in-slc9a8-nhe8-and-three-other-loci
#2
Malte C Rühlemann, Frauke Degenhardt, Louise B Thingholm, Jun Wang, Jurgita Skiecevičienė, Philipp Rausch, Johannes R Hov, Wolfgang Lieb, Tom H Karlsen, Matthias Laudes, John F Baines, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Andre Franke
Factors shaping the human intestinal microbiota range from environmental influences, like smoking and exercise, over dietary patterns and disease to the host's genetic variation. Recently, we could show in a microbiome genome-wide association study (mGWAS) targeting genetic variation influencing the beta diversity of gut microbial communities, that approximately 10% of the overall gut microbiome variation can be explained by host genetics. Here, we report on the application of a new method for genotype-beta-diversity association testing, the distance-based F (DBF) test...
August 17, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816544/animal-inflammation-based-models-of-depression-and-their-application-to-drug-discovery
#3
Li Ma, Konstantin A Demin, Tatyana O Kolesnikova, Sergey L Kharsko, Xiaokang Zhu, Xiaodong Yuan, Cai Song, Darya A Meshalkina, Brian E Leonard, Li Tian, Allan V Kalueff
Depression, anxiety and other affective disorders are globally widespread and severely debilitating human brain diseases. Despite their high prevalence and mental health impact, affective pathogenesis is poorly understood, and often remains recurrent and resistant to treatment. The lack of efficient antidepressants and presently limited conceptual innovation necessitate novel approaches and new drug targets in the field of antidepressant therapy. Areas covered: Herein, the authors discuss the emerging role of neuro-immune interactions in affective pathogenesis, which can become useful targets for CNS drug discovery, including modulating neuroinflammatory pathways to alleviate affective pathogenesis...
August 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814395/fecal-concentrations-of-bacterially-derived-vitamin-k-forms-are-associated-with-gut-microbiota-composition-but-not-plasma-or-fecal-cytokine-concentrations-in-healthy-adults
#4
J Philip Karl, Mohsen Meydani, Junaidah B Barnett, Sally M Vanegas, Kathryn Barger, Xueyan Fu, Barry Goldin, Anne Kane, Helen Rasmussen, Pajau Vangay, Dan Knights, Satya S Jonnalagadda, Edward Saltzman, Susan B Roberts, Simin N Meydani, Sarah L Booth
Background: Emerging evidence suggests novel roles for bacterially derived vitamin K forms known as menaquinones in health and disease, which may be attributable in part to anti-inflammatory effects. However, the relevance of menaquinones produced by gut bacteria to vitamin K requirements and inflammation is undetermined.Objective: This study aimed to quantify fecal menaquinone concentrations and identify associations between fecal menaquinone concentrations and serum vitamin K concentrations, gut microbiota composition, and inflammation...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811841/bacteriophages-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-and-their-implications
#5
Marzanna Łusiak-Szelachowska, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak, Renata Wojciechowska, Andrzej Górski
The gut microbiota plays an essential role in health and disease of humans. Bacteriophages are the most abundant members of the gut virobiota and display great diversity. Phages can translocate through the mucosa to lymph and internal organs and play a role as regulators of the bacterial population in the gut. Increasing abundance of phages in the gut mucosa may reduce colonization by bacteria. Moreover, phages may have an immunomodulatory role in the immune response in the human gut. The role of phages in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unknown...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809607/amoxapine-demonstrates-incomplete-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-glucuronidase-activity-from-human-gut-microbiota
#6
Wei Yang, Bin Wei, Ru Yan
Amoxapine has been demonstrated to be a potent inhibitor of Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase. This study aims to explore the factors causing unsatisfactory efficacy of amoxapine in alleviating CPT-11-induced gastrointestinal toxicity in mice and to predict the outcomes in humans. Amoxapine (100 µM) exhibited poor and varied inhibition on β-glucuronidase activity in gut microbiota from 10 healthy individuals and their pool (pool, 11.9%; individuals, 3.6%-54.4%) with IC50 >100 µM and potent inhibition toward E...
August 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808547/patterns-of-seasonality-and-group-membership-characterize-the-gut-microbiota-in-a-longitudinal-study-of-wild-verreaux-s-sifakas-propithecus-verreauxi
#7
Andrea Springer, Claudia Fichtel, Gabriel A Al-Ghalith, Flávia Koch, Katherine R Amato, Jonathan B Clayton, Dan Knights, Peter M Kappeler
The intestinal microbiota plays a major role in host development, metabolism, and health. To date, few longitudinal studies have investigated the causes and consequences of microbiota variation in wildlife, although such studies provide a comparative context for interpreting the adaptive significance of findings from studies on humans or captive animals. Here, we investigate the impact of seasonality, diet, group membership, sex, age, and reproductive state on gut microbiota composition in a wild population of group-living, frugi-folivorous primates, Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi)...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807046/a-comprehensive-evaluation-of-the-sl1p-pipeline-for-16s-rrna-gene-sequencing-analysis
#8
Fiona J Whelan, Michael G Surette
BACKGROUND: Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed for detailed, molecular-based studies of microbial communities such as the human gut, soil, and ocean waters. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, specific to prokaryotes, using universal PCR primers has become a common approach to studying the composition of these microbiota. However, the bioinformatic processing of the resulting millions of DNA sequences can be challenging, and a standardized protocol would aid in reproducible analyses...
August 14, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806280/integrated-analysis-of-biopsies-from-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-identifies-saa1-as-a-link-between-mucosal-microbes-with-th17-and-th22-cells
#9
Mei San Tang, Rowann Bowcutt, Jacqueline M Leung, Martin J Wolff, Uma M Gundra, David Hudesman, Lisa B Malter, Michael A Poles, Lea Ann Chen, Zhiheng Pei, Antonio G Neto, Wasif M Abidi, Thomas Ullman, Lloyd Mayer, Richard A Bonneau, Ilseung Cho, Pʼng Loke
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are believed to be driven by dysregulated interactions between the host and the gut microbiota. Our goal is to characterize and infer relationships between mucosal T cells, the host tissue environment, and microbial communities in patients with IBD who will serve as basis for mechanistic studies on human IBD. METHODS: We characterized mucosal CD4 T cells using flow cytometry, along with matching mucosal global gene expression and microbial communities data from 35 pinch biopsy samples from patients with IBD...
August 9, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805460/case-study-of-homeopathic-bowel-nosode-remedies-for-dysbiotic-japanese-patients
#10
Yoko Uchiyama-Tanaka
BACKGROUND: The composition of intestinal microbiota is very important in human health. Gastrointestinal disturbances are among the symptoms commonly reported by individuals diagnosed with chronic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, autism, and chronic fatigue syndrome. The effects of probiotics and prebiotics for dysbiosis have been reported in many studies. Bowel nosodes are homeopathic remedies made from human gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: Bowel nosodes made from the intestinal bacteria of European patients from the 1900s were administered to Japanese patients suffering from gastrointestinal disturbances, such as constipation and diarrhea, to determine their therapeutic efficacy...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804508/a-psychology-of-the-human-brain-gut-microbiome-axis
#11
Andrew P Allen, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan
In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis...
April 2017: Social and Personality Psychology Compass
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804483/the-impact-of-western-diet-and-nutrients-on-the-microbiota-and-immune-response-at-mucosal-interfaces
#12
REVIEW
Donjete Statovci, Mònica Aguilera, John MacSharry, Silvia Melgar
Recent findings point toward diet having a major impact on human health. Diets can either affect the gut microbiota resulting in alterations in the host's physiological responses or by directly targeting the host response. The microbial community in the mammalian gut is a complex and dynamic system crucial for the development and maturation of both systemic and mucosal immune responses. Therefore, the complex interaction between available nutrients, the microbiota, and the immune system are central regulators in maintaining homeostasis and fighting against invading pathogens at mucosal sites...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803667/future-prospect-of-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-as-a-potential-therapy-in-asthma
#13
Y Kang, Y Cai
There is convincing evidence from both human and animal studies suggesting that the gut microbiota plays an important role in regulating immune responses associated with the development of asthma. Certain intestinal microbial strains have been demonstrated to suppress or impair immune responsiveness in asthma experimental models, suggesting that specific species among gut commensal microbiota may play either a morbific or phylactic role in the progression of asthma. Evidence to date suggests that the intestinal microbiota represent fertile targets for prevention or management of asthma...
August 10, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802306/ilsi-southeast-asia-region-conference-proceedings-the-gut-its-microbes-and-health-relevance-for-asia
#14
Yuan Kun Lee, Patricia Conway, Sven Pettersson, G Balakrish Nair, Ingrid Surono, Yusra Egayanti, Maria Sofia Amarra
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The human being is a complex entity, involving interaction between microbes and the human host. Evidence shows that the nutritional value of food is influenced in part by the structure and operations of an individual's gut microbial community, and food in turn shapes the individual's microbiome. A conference was held to promote understanding of the intestinal microbiome and its implications for health and disease, particularly among Asian populations. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Papers describing 1) the intestinal ecosystem in Asian populations, 2) changes in intestinal microbiota through life and its effects, 3) the Asian gut microbiota in disease conditions, 4) indigenous probiotics to maintain a healthy gut microbiota, 5) probiotic regulation in an Asian country, and 6) the results of a panel discussion are included in this report...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801639/investigation-into-the-stability-and-culturability-of-chinese-enterotypes
#15
Yeshi Yin, Bin Fan, Wei Liu, Rongrong Ren, Huahai Chen, Shaofeng Bai, Liying Zhu, Gang Sun, Yunsheng Yang, Xin Wang
Although many gut microbial enterotypes have been reported in Europe, Africa and the U.S., their effects on human health are still not yet clear. Culturing gut microbial enterotypes in vitro will be helpful to study their effects and applications. Here, fecal samples from 13 healthy Chinese volunteers were collected and subjected to next-generation sequencing. The results showed that seven of these samples belong to the Bacteroides enterotype and another six to the Prevotella enterotype. Stability of these Chinese gut microbial enterotypes was also evaluated...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801232/nlrp6-and-asc-dependent-inflammasomes-do-not-shape-the-commensal-gut-microbiota-composition
#16
Michail Mamantopoulos, Francesca Ronchi, Filip Van Hauwermeiren, Sara Vieira-Silva, Bahtiyar Yilmaz, Liesbet Martens, Yvan Saeys, Stefan K Drexler, Amir S Yazdi, Jeroen Raes, Mohamed Lamkanfi, Kathy D McCoy, Andy Wullaert
The gut microbiota regulate susceptibility to multiple human diseases. The Nlrp6-ASC inflammasome is widely regarded as a hallmark host innate immune axis that shapes the gut microbiota composition. This notion stems from studies reporting dysbiosis in mice lacking these inflammasome components when compared with non-littermate wild-type animals. Here, we describe microbial analyses in inflammasome-deficient mice while minimizing non-genetic confounders using littermate-controlled Nlrp6-deficient mice and ex-germ-free littermate-controlled ASC-deficient mice that were all allowed to shape their gut microbiota naturally after birth...
August 15, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800135/network-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-literature-an-overview-of-the-research-landscape-in-non-human-animal-studies
#17
Emily L Pascoe, Heidi C Hauffe, Julian R Marchesi, Sarah E Perkins
A wealth of human studies have demonstrated the importance of gut microbiota to health. Research on non-human animal gut microbiota is now increasing, but what insight does it provide? We reviewed 650 publications from this burgeoning field (2009-2016) and determined that animals driving this research were predominantly 'domestic' (48.2%), followed by 'model' (37.5%), with least studies on 'wild' (14.3%) animals. Domestic studies largely experimentally perturbed microbiota (81.8%) and studied mammals (47.9%), often to improve animal productivity...
August 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799899/the-gut-microbiota-food-science-and-human-nutrition-a-timely-marriage
#18
REVIEW
Michael J Barratt, Carlito Lebrilla, Howard-Yana Shapiro, Jeffrey I Gordon
Analytic advances are enabling more precise definitions of the molecular composition of key food staples incorporated into contemporary diets and how the nutrient landscapes of these staples vary as a function of cultivar and food processing methods. This knowledge, combined with insights about the interrelationship between consumer microbiota configurations and biotransformation of food ingredients, should have a number of effects on agriculture, food production, and strategies for improving the nutritional value of foods and health status...
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798125/microbiota-activated-ppar-%C3%AE-signaling-inhibits-dysbiotic-enterobacteriaceae-expansion
#19
Mariana X Byndloss, Erin E Olsan, Fabian Rivera-Chávez, Connor R Tiffany, Stephanie A Cevallos, Kristen L Lokken, Teresa P Torres, Austin J Byndloss, Franziska Faber, Yandong Gao, Yael Litvak, Christopher A Lopez, Gege Xu, Eleonora Napoli, Cecilia Giulivi, Renée M Tsolis, Alexander Revzin, Carlito B Lebrilla, Andreas J Bäumler
Perturbation of the gut-associated microbial community may underlie many human illnesses, but the mechanisms that maintain homeostasis are poorly understood. We found that the depletion of butyrate-producing microbes by antibiotic treatment reduced epithelial signaling through the intracellular butyrate sensor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ). Nitrate levels increased in the colonic lumen because epithelial expression of Nos2, the gene encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase, was elevated in the absence of PPAR-γ signaling...
August 11, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796793/characterizing-the-gut-gallus-gallus-microbiota-following-the-consumption-of-an-iron-biofortified-rwandan-cream-seeded-carioca-phaseolus-vulgaris-l-bean-based-diet
#20
Spenser Reed, Hadar Neuman, Raymond P Glahn, Omry Koren, Elad Tako
Biofortification is a plant breeding method that introduces increased concentrations of minerals in staple food crops (e.g., legumes, cereal grains), and has shown success in alleviating insufficient Fe intake in various human populations. Unlike other strategies utilized to alleviate Fe deficiency, studies of the gut microbiota in the context of Fe biofortification have not yet been reported, although the consumption of Fe biofortified staple food crops has increased significantly over time. Hence, in this study, we performed a 6-week feeding trial in Gallus gallus (n = 14), aimed to investigate the alterations in the gut microbiome following administration of an Fe biofortified bean-based diet (biofortified, BFe) versus a bean based diet with poorly-bioavailable Fe (standard, SFe)...
2017: PloS One
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