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Human gut microbiota

Neha M Sahasrabudhe, Martin Beukema, Lingmin Tian, Berit Troost, Jan Scholte, Erik Bruininx, Geert Bruggeman, Marco van den Berg, Anton Scheurink, Henk A Schols, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
Dietary carbohydrate fibers are known to prevent immunological diseases common in Western countries such as allergy and asthma but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Until now beneficial effects of dietary fibers are mainly attributed to fermentation products of the fibers such as anti-inflammatory short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Here, we found and present a new mechanism by which dietary fibers can be anti-inflammatory: a commonly consumed fiber, pectin, blocks innate immune receptors. We show that pectin binds and inhibits, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and specifically inhibits the proinflammatory TLR2-TLR1 pathway while the tolerogenic TLR2-TLR6 pathway remains unaltered...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Khurram Muaz, Muhammad Riaz, Saeed Akhtar, Sungkwon Park, Amir Ismail
Poultry production is among the most rapidly growing industries around the globe, and poultry is one of the major sources of meat. Poultry farmers use disease preventive and growth promoter antibiotics for faster growth of chickens in the shortest possible time to increase the rate of feed assimilation and to lower the incidence of mortality caused by a pathogen attack. Antibiotics may result in dysfunctionality of beneficial gut microbiota and increase resistance among microbial pathogens in poultry. Residues of these antibiotics in poultry meat have been determined in many of the studies globally and are considered one of the possible causes of antibacterial resistance in human pathogens...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Rebekah C Kennedy, Russell R Fling, Michael S Robeson, Arnold M Saxton, Liesel G Schneider, John L Darcy, David A Bemis, Ling Zhao, Jiangang Chen
Widely used as an antimicrobial in antibacterial bar soaps, triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC) is effective against Gram-positive bacteria but shows little efficacy against Gram-negative strains, potentially altering the composition of indigenous microflora within and on the human body. To date, the consequence of continuous or previous nonprescription antimicrobial exposure from compounds in personal care products on commensal microflora is still elusive. Previous research has shown that TCC exposure during gestation and lactation induced dysbiosis of gut microbial communities among exposed dams and neonates...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Winnie-Pui-Pui Liew, Sabran Mohd-Redzwan
The secondary metabolites produced by fungi known as mycotoxins, are capable of causing mycotoxicosis (diseases and death) in human and animals. Contamination of feedstuffs as well as food commodities by fungi occurs frequently in a natural manner and is accompanied by the presence of mycotoxins. The occurrence of mycotoxins' contamination is further stimulated by the on-going global warming as reflected in some findings. This review comprehensively discussed the role of mycotoxins (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and aflatoxins) toward gut health and gut microbiota...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Amy N Jacobson, Biswa P Choudhury, Michael A Fischbach
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a cell-associated glycolipid that makes up the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is a canonical mediator of microbe-host interactions. The most prevalent Gram-negative gut bacterial taxon, Bacteroides , makes up around 50% of the cells in a typical Western gut; these cells harbor ~300 mg of LPS, making it one of the highest-abundance molecules in the intestine. As a starting point for understanding the biological function of Bacteroides LPS, we have identified genes in Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI 5482 involved in the biosynthesis of its lipid A core and glycan, generated mutants that elaborate altered forms of LPS, and used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry to interrogate the molecular features of these variants...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Ilias Kounatidis, Lauren Ames, Rupal Mistry, Hsueh-Lui Ho, Ken Haynes, Petros Ligoxygakis
Candida glabrata ( C. glabrata ) forms part of the normal human gut microbiota but can cause life-threatening invasive infections in immune-compromised individuals. C. glabrata displays high resistance to common azole antifungals, which necessitates new treatments. In this investigation, we identified five C. glabrata deletion mutants ( Δada2 , Δbas1 , Δhir3, Δino2 and Δmet31 ) from a library of 196 transcription factor mutants that were unable to grow and activate an immune response in Drosophila larvae...
March 13, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Yi Lyu, Lei Wu, Fang Wang, Xinchun Shen, Dingbo Lin
Dysbiosis, a broad spectrum of imbalance of the gut microbiota, may progress to microbiota dysfunction. Dysbiosis is linked to some human diseases, such as inflammation-related disorders and metabolic syndromes. However, the underlying mechanisms of the pathogenesis of dysbiosis remain elusive. Recent findings suggest that the microbiome and gut immune responses, like immunoglobulin A production, play critical roles in the gut homeostasis and function, and the progression of dysbiosis. In the past two decades, much progress has been made in better understanding of production of immunoglobulin A and its association with commensal microbiota...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Markus Arnoldini, Jonas Cremer, Terence Hwa
The human gut microbiota is highly dynamic, and the host has a strong influence on its composition. In our recent study, we integrated new quantitative measurements on bacterial growth physiology with a reanalysis of published data on human physiology to build a comprehensive modeling framework to generate predictions of how changes in different host factors influence microbiota composition. We show that hydrodynamics forces in the colon, along with colonic water absorption that manifests as transit time, exert a major impact on microbiota density and composition through their effect on colonic pH which directly affects microbiota competition for food...
March 13, 2018: Gut Microbes
Shabana, Saleem U Shahid, Uzma Irfan
The human GI tract harbors a diverse and dynamic microbial community comprising bacteria, archaea, viruses and eukaryotic microbes, which varies in composition from individual to individual. A healthy microbiota metabolizes various indigestible dietary components of the host, maintains host immune homeostasis and nutrient intake, but, an imbalanced microbiota has been reported to be associated with many diseases, including obesity. Rodent studies have produced evidence in support of the causal role of the gut microbiota in the development of obesity, however, such causal relationship is lacking in humans...
March 13, 2018: Future Microbiology
Joseph M Awika, Devin J Rose, Senay Simsek
Cereal grains and grain pulses are primary staples often consumed together, and contribute a major portion of daily human calorie and protein intake globally. Protective effects of consuming whole grain cereals and grain pulses against various inflammation-related chronic diseases are well documented. However, potential benefits of combined intake of whole cereals and pulses beyond their complementary amino acid nutrition is rarely considered in literature. There is ample evidence that key bioactive components of whole grain cereals and pulses are structurally different and thus may be optimized to provide synergistic/complementary health benefits...
March 13, 2018: Food & Function
Jocelyn Sietsma Penington, Megan A S Penno, Katrina M Ngui, Nadim J Ajami, Alexandra J Roth-Schulze, Stephen A Wilcox, Esther Bandala-Sanchez, John M Wentworth, Simon C Barry, Cheryl Y Brown, Jennifer J Couper, Joseph F Petrosino, Anthony T Papenfuss, Leonard C Harrison
To optimise fecal sampling for reproducible analysis of the gut microbiome, we compared different methods of sample collection and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes at two centers. Samples collected from six individuals on three consecutive days were placed in commercial collection tubes (OMNIgeneGut OMR-200) or in sterile screw-top tubes in a home fridge or home freezer for 6-24 h, before transfer and storage at -80 °C. Replicate samples were shipped to centers in Australia and the USA for DNA extraction and sequencing by their respective PCR protocols, and analysed with the same bioinformatic pipeline...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sophie A Poeker, Annelies Geirnaert, Laura Berchtold, Anna Greppi, Lukasz Krych, Robert E Steinert, Tomas de Wouters, Christophe Lacroix
Consumption of fermentable dietary fibers (DFs), which can induce growth and/or activity of specific beneficial populations, is suggested a promising strategy to modulate the gut microbiota and restore health in microbiota-linked diseases. Until today, inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are the best studied DFs, while little is known about the gut microbiota-modulating effects of β-glucan, α-galactooligosaccharide (α-GOS) and xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS). Here, we used three continuous in vitro fermentation PolyFermS model to study the modulating effect of these DFs on two distinct human adult proximal colon microbiota, independently from the host...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ziyu Jiang, Joe Antony Jacob, Jianyue Li, Xiahui Wu, Guoli Wei, Vimalanathan ArunPrasanna, Rajesh Mani, Prasannabalaji Nainangu, Uma Maheshwari Rajadurai, Baoan Chen
Human gut comprises of a huge mixture of microorganisms as they had co-existed for millions of years. The change in co-existence of microbial genera leads to dysbiosis, which creates several disorders in humans. Diet and diet associated agents can have a considerable influence on host health by regulating the gut microbiome, which can thereby maintain the homeostasis of the gut. Analysis of the gut microbiome and the agents that can have an influence on the gut need a profound understanding, which is the need of the hour...
March 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Liang Lu, Zhiqin Wan, Ting Luo, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin
Microplastic (MP) has become a concerning global environmental problem. It is toxic to aquatic organisms and can spread through the food chain to ultimately pose a threat to humans. In the environment, MP can interact with microbes and act as a microbial habitat. However, effects of polystyrene MP on the gut microbiota in mammals remain unclear. Here, male mice were exposed to two different sizes of polystyrene MP for 5 weeks to explore its effect. We observed that oral exposure to 1000 μg/L of 0.5 and 50 μm polystyrene MP decreased the body, liver and lipid weights in mice...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
W C Wang, F F Yan, J Y Hu, O A Amen, H W Cheng
Probiotics reduce stress-related inflammation and abnormal behaviors in humans and rodents via regulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The objective of this study was to determine if probiotic, Bacillus subtilis, has similar functions in broiler chickens under heat stress (HS). Two hundred forty 1-day-old broiler chicks were assigned to 48 pens with 4 treatments: Thermoneutral (TN)-RD (regular diet), TN-PD (the regular diet mixed with 1×106 CFU/g feed probiotic), HS-RD and HS-PD. Probiotic (Sporulin®) was fed from day 1; and HS at 32 ºC for 10 h daily was initiated at day 15...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Marije J D Huitema, Geert J Schenk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The proportion to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still incompletely understood. An interesting association between MS etiology and obesity has recently been shown although the mechanisms underlying this association are still unknown. We propose deregulated gut microbiota and increased leptin levels as possible mechanisms underlying MS etiology in obese individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: Alterations in the human gut microbiota and leptin levels have recently been established as immune modulators in both MS patients and obese individuals...
March 10, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Lingxiao Gong, Wenyan Cao, Jie Gao, Jing Wang, Huijuan Zhang, Baoguo Sun, Meng Yin
The gut microbiota has recently become a new route for research at the intersection of diet and human health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether whole Tibetan hull-less barley (WHB) and refined Tibetan hull-less barley (RHB) caused differentiation of the fecal microbiota in vitro. The microbiota-accessible ingredients in the 2 barley samples were studied using an in vitro enzymatic digestion procedure. After in vitro digestion, insoluble dietary fiber, phenolic compounds, proteins, and β-glucans were 93...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Pablo Roman, Raquel Abalo, Eva M Marco, Diana Cardona
In recent years, interest in the relationship between gut microbiota and disease states has grown considerably. Indeed, several strategies have been employed to modify the microbiome through the administration of different diets, by the administration of antibiotics or probiotics, or even by transplantation of feces. In the present manuscript, we focus specifically on the potential application of probiotics, which seem to be a safe strategy, in the management of digestive, pain, and emotional disorders. We present evidence from animal models and human studies, notwithstanding that translation to clinic still deserves further investigation...
March 7, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Renyuan Gao, Xiaohui Zhang, Linsheng Huang, Rongrong Shen, Huanlong Qin
Gut microbiota has been proven to be of crucial importance in maintaining human health. However, the microbiota profile changes with aging, while the loss of microbiota diversity and the alterations in the optimal composition and quantity of beneficial microbes are believed to increase the risk of many diseases. Although the short-term modulatory impact of probiotics on gut microbiota has been revealed in various studies, no studies focused on longer time consumption of probiotics have been demonstrated. In this study, we found that microbial diversity in the probiotic group was similar to that in the control...
March 8, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Na Zhao, Supen Wang, Hongyi Li, Shelan Liu, Meng Li, Jing Luo, Wen Su, Hongxuan He
The migration of wild birds plays an important role in the transmission and spread of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, posing a severe risk to animal and human health. Substantial evidence suggests that altered gut microbial community is implicated in the infection of respiratory influenza virus. However, the influence of H5N1 infection in gut microbiota of migratory birds remains unknown. In January 2015, a novel recombinant H5N1 virus emerged and killed about 100 migratory birds, mainly including whooper swans in Sanmenxia Reservoir Area of China...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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