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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332223/long-term-efficacy-of-partial-splenic-embolization-for-the-treatment-of-steroid-resistant-chronic-immune-thrombocytopenia
#1
Emi Togasaki, Naomi Shimizu, Yuhei Nagao, Chika Kawajiri-Manako, Ryoh Shimizu, Nagisa Oshima-Hasegawa, Tomoya Muto, Shokichi Tsukamoto, Shio Mitsukawa, Yusuke Takeda, Naoya Mimura, Chikako Ohwada, Masahiro Takeuchi, Emiko Sakaida, Tohru Iseki, Hideyuki Yoshitomi, Masayuki Ohtsuka, Masaru Miyazaki, Chiaki Nakaseko
Thrombopoietin-receptor agonists have been recently introduced for a second-line treatment of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Splenectomy has tended to be avoided because of its complications, but the response rate of splenectomy is 60-80% and it has still been considered for steroid-refractory ITP. We performed partial splenic embolization (PSE) as an alternative to splenectomy. Between 1988 and 2013, 91 patients with steroid-resistant ITP underwent PSE at our hospital, and we retrospectively analyzed the efficacy and long-term outcomes of PSE...
January 13, 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332184/neurologic-complications-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#2
Avi Fellner, Chen Makranz, Michal Lotem, Felix Bokstein, Alisa Taliansky, Shai Rosenberg, Deborah T Blumenthal, Jacob Mandel, Suzana Fichman, Elena Kogan, Israel Steiner, Tali Siegal, Alexander Lossos, Shlomit Yust-Katz
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) have recently emerged as a novel treatment for cancer. These agents, transforming the field of oncology, are not devoid of toxicity and cause immune-related side effects which can involve any organ including the nervous system. In this study, we present 9 patients (7 men and 2 women) with neurologic complications secondary to ICPI treatment. These included meningoencephalitis, limbic encephalitis, polyradiculitis, cranial polyneuropathy, myasthenic syndrome and myositis...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331888/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-ido-and-pdl1-expression-during-immune-or-targeted-therapy-in-advanced-melanoma
#3
Lukas Krähenbühl, Simone M Goldinger, Joanna Mangana, Katrin Kerl, Ines Chevolet, Liève Brochez, Christine Horak, Mitch Levesque, Reinhard Dummer, Phil F Cheng
A deepened understanding of the cellular and molecular processes in the tumor microenvironment is necessary for the development of precision immunotherapy (IT). We simultaneously investigated CD3, PDL1, and IDO by immunohistochemistry in paired biopsies from various organs of 43 metastatic melanoma patients treated with IT and targeted therapy (TT). Intraindividual biopsies taken after a period of weeks to months demonstrate discordant results in 30% of the cases. Overlap of IDO and PDL1 increased after therapy...
January 11, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331869/dietary-naringenin-supplementation-attenuates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-modulating-autoimmune-inflammatory-responses-in-mice
#4
Junpeng Wang, Ying Qi, Xinli Niu, Hua Tang, Simin Nikbin Meydani, Dayong Wu
Autoimmune disease is highly prevalent in humans. Since conventional therapies have limited efficacy and often come with significant side effects, nutrition may provide an alternative and complementary approach to improving autoimmune disorders. Naringenin, a flavonoid found in citrus fruits, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a rodent model of human multiple sclerosis, we determined the effect of dietary naringenin (0...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331646/progress-in-the-management-of-advanced-thoracic-malignancies-in-2017
#5
REVIEW
Roberto Ferrara, Laura Mezquita, Benjamin Besse
The treatment paradigm of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) underwent a major revolution during the course of 2017. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) brought remarkable improvements in response and overall survival (OS) both in unselected pretreated patients and in untreated patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50%. Furthermore, compelling preliminary results were reported for new combinations of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents with chemotherapy or anti-CTLA4 inhibitors. The success of the ICIs appeared to extend to patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), mesothelioma or thymic tumors...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331332/hiv-infection-and-its-effects-on-the-development-of-autoimmune-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Luis E Vega, Luis R Espinoza
More than 35 years have elapsed since the initial outbreak of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the status of a considerable number of patients has changed from a fatal disorder to a chronic one where comorbidities including sarcoidosis and autoimmune diseases have become relevant and dominant. HIV targets the immune system leading to a state of immunodeficiency in a setting of immune activation in which CD4+ T cell depletion plays a critical role. The onset, natural history and course of HIV-associated autoimmune disease has dramatically changed according to the stage of HIV infection and since the introduction of combined anti-retroviral therapy...
January 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331323/regulation-of-inflammatory-factors-by-double-stranded-rna-receptors-in-breast-cancer-cells
#7
Amritha Venkatesh, Harika Nandigam, Maria Muccioli, Manindra Singh, Tiffany Loftus, Deana Lewis, Michelle Pate, Fabian Benencia
Malignant cells are not the only components of a tumor mass since other cells (e.g., fibroblasts, infiltrating leukocytes and endothelial cells) are also part of it. In combination with the extracellular matrix, all these cells constitute the tumor microenvironment. In the last decade the role of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression has gained increased attention and prompted efforts directed to abrogate its deleterious effects on anti-cancer therapies. The immune system can detect and attack tumor cells, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (particularly CD8 T cells) have been associated with improved survival or better response to therapies in colorectal, melanoma, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer patients among others...
November 22, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331266/human-papilloma-virus-specific-t-cells-can-be-generated-from-na%C3%A3-ve-t-cells-for-use-as-an-immunotherapeutic-strategy-for-immunocompromised-patients
#8
Sarah E McCormack, Conrad Russell Y Cruz, Kaylor E Wright, Allison B Powell, Haili Lang, Cornelia Trimble, Michael D Keller, Ephraim Fuchs, Catherine M Bollard
Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a known cause of cervical cancer, squamous cell carcinoma and laryngeal cancer. Although treatments exist for HPV-associated malignancies, patients unresponsive to these therapies have a poor prognosis. Recent findings from vaccine studies suggest that T-cell immunity is essential for disease control. Because Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-specific T cells have been highly successful in treating or preventing EBV-associated tumors, we hypothesized that the development of a manufacturing platform for HPV-specific T cells from healthy donors could be used in a third-party setting to treat patients with high-risk/relapsed HPV-associated cancers...
January 10, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330807/evaluation-of-macrophage-polarization-in-pancreatic-cancer-microenvironment-under-hypoxia
#9
Kuldeep S Attri, Kamiya Mehla, Pankaj K Singh
Hypoxic microenvironment found in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and other solid tumors is central to physiological and metabolic alterations of immune cells that significantly impact tumor growth dynamics. Hypoxic adaptations in the immune cells are primarily mediated by the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), which regulates cellular metabolism by modulating glycolysis and other interconnected metabolic pathways. HIF-1α plays distinct roles in M1 and M2 macrophage polarization, which, in turn, regulates tumor cell immune escape and growth...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330750/immunologic-and-gene-expression-profiles-of-spontaneous-canine-oligodendrogliomas
#10
Anna Filley, Mario Henriquez, Tanmoy Bhowmik, Brij Nath Tewari, Xi Rao, Jun Wan, Margaret A Miller, Yunlong Liu, R Timothy Bentley, Mahua Dey
Malignant glioma (MG), the most common primary brain tumor in adults, is extremely aggressive and uniformly fatal. Several treatment strategies have shown significant preclinical promise in murine models of glioma; however, none have produced meaningful clinical responses in human patients. We hypothesize that introduction of an additional preclinical animal model better approximating the complexity of human MG, particularly in interactions with host immune responses, will bridge the existing gap between these two stages of testing...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330579/-initially-undetected-de-novo-psoriasis-triggered-by-nivolumab-for-metastatic-base-of-the-tongue-carcinoma
#11
S Troyanova-Slavkova, L Eickenscheidt, K Dumann, L Kowalzick
Nivolumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to the PD-1 receptor on T cells and inhibits the interaction with the PD-L1 and PD-L2 ligands on cancer cells. Thus, nivolumab has immunostimulatory properties. The known side effects of this therapy include fatigue, skin rash, dysfunction of the thyroid gland and colitis, which are explained by the immunoregulatory mechanisms of the drug. Here we report on the case of a 58-year-old man with metastatic base of tongue carcinoma who developed de novo psoriasis triggered by nivolumab...
January 12, 2018: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330552/dosimetry-prediction-for-clinical-translation-of-64cu-pembrolizumab-immunopet-targeting-human-pd-1-expression
#12
Arutselvan Natarajan, Chirag B Patel, Frezghi Habte, Sanjiv S Gambhir
The immune checkpoint programmed death 1 receptor (PD-1) expressed on some tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and its ligand (PD-L1) expressed on tumor cells, enable cancers to evade the immune system. Blocking PD-1 with the monoclonal antibody pembrolizumab is a promising immunotherapy strategy. Thus, noninvasively quantifying the presence of PD-1 expression in the tumor microenvironment prior to initiation of immune checkpoint blockade may identify the patients likely to respond to therapy. We have developed a 64Cu-pembrolizumab radiotracer and evaluated human dosimetry...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330308/survival-outcomes-of-primary-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-national-population-based-study
#13
Jianhong Wang, Rong Liang, Caixia Hao, Xiangxiang Liu, Na Zhang, Xiaohui Duan, Hongjuan Dong, Baoxia Dong, Hongtao Gu, Guangxun Gao, Tao Zhang, Qingxian Bai, Xiequn Chen
This study aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and survival outcomes of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) in HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected patients. All data were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, 1973-2013, of the U.S. National Cancer Institute. Data of 318 HIV-infected patients and 1272 non-HIV-infected patients with primary CTCL were analyzed. Endpoints were overall survival and cancer-specific mortality. Independent variables included demographics, pre-existing malignancy, treatments, and environmental factors...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330232/interventions-must-be-realistic-to-be-useful-and-completed-in-family-medicine
#14
EDITORIAL
Marjorie A Bowman, Dean A Seehusen, Anne Victoria Neale
Being realistic while helping our patients is this issue's theme. Given the volume of tasks required in family medicine, recommendations for improvements in direct care or care measurement cannot just be evidence-based but must also be realistic. On the list of realistic: ordering antipsychotics for symptoms of dementia in the elderly, despite recommendations to not do so; ordering antidepressants without fear that the patient could develop hypertension; mental health care providers in primary care offices; forced choice for opioid management; plus agenda setting for visit efficiency...
January 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330207/early-assessment-of-lung-cancer-immunotherapy-response-via-circulating-tumor-dna
#15
Sarah B Goldberg, Azeet Narayan, Adam J Kole, Roy H Decker, Jimmitti Teysir, Nicholas J Carriero, Angela Lee, Roxanne Nemati, Sameer K Nath, Shrikant M Mane, Yanhong Deng, Nitin Sukumar, Daniel Zelterman, Daniel J Boffa, Katerina Politi, Scott Gettinger, Lynn D Wilson, Roy S Herbst, Abhijit A Patel
PURPOSE: Decisions to continue or suspend therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors are commonly guided by tumor dynamics seen on serial imaging.  However, immunotherapy responses are uniquely challenging to interpret because tumors often shrink slowly or can appear transiently enlarged due to inflammation.  We hypothesized that monitoring tumor cell death in real-time by quantifying changes in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) levels could enable early assessment of immunotherapy efficacy...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329556/cancer-immunotherapy-beyond-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#16
REVIEW
Julian A Marin-Acevedo, Aixa E Soyano, Bhagirathbhai Dholaria, Keith L Knutson, Yanyan Lou
Malignant cells have the capacity to rapidly grow exponentially and spread in part by suppressing, evading, and exploiting the host immune system. Immunotherapy is a form of oncologic treatment directed towards enhancing the host immune system against cancer. In recent years, manipulation of immune checkpoints or pathways has emerged as an important and effective form of immunotherapy. Agents that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) are the most widely studied and recognized...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329113/therapeutic-hiv-1-vaccine-time-for-immunomodulation-and-combinatorial-strategies
#17
Nabila Seddiki, Yves Lévy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to recall some of the key immunological elements that are at the crossroad and need to be combined for developing a potent therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine. RECENT FINDINGS: Therapeutic vaccines and cytokines have been commonly used to enhance and/or recall preexisting HIV-1 specific cell-mediated immune responses aiming to suppress virus replication. While the vaccine is important to stimulate HIV-1 specific T-cell responses, the cytokine may support the expansion of the stimulated virus-specific T cells...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329020/a-novel-mouse-model-of-atopic-dermatitis-that-is-t-helper-2-th2-polarized-by-an-epicutaneous-allergen
#18
Hyun Jung Park, Wahn Soo Choi, Won Young Lee, Youngsok Choi, Chankyu Park, Jin Hoi Kim, Kwon Ho Hong, Hyuk Song
The pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) involves T helper 2 (Th2) cells, and effective therapies remain elusive due to the paucity of animal models. We aimed to develop a mouse model of an immune system aberration caused by allergen. Experiments were conducted in two phases. In experiment 1, BALB/c mice were sensitized with one of four chemical allergens - toluene diisocyanate (TDI), hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), trimellitic anhydride (TMA), or 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) - for 3 weeks. Based on results of experiment 1, immunological features were compared between TMA-sensitized BALB/c mice and NC/Nga mice, after exposure to mite extracts, harmful chemicals and detergents in experiment 2...
December 29, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328507/genetics-of-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Trixy David, Stephanie Ling, Anne Barton
Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are characterised by dysregulation of the normal immune response, which leads to inflammation. Together, they account for a high disease burden in the population, given that they are usually chronic conditions with associated co-morbidities. Examples include systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease and type 1 diabetes. Since the advent of genome-wide association studies, evidence of considerable genetic overlap in the loci predisposing to a wide range of IMIDs has emerged...
January 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328499/mait-cells-are-chronically-activated-in-patients-with-autoimmune-liver-disease-and-promote-pro-fibrogenic-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation
#20
Katrin Böttcher, Krista Rombouts, Francesca Saffioti, Davide Roccarina, Matteo Rosselli, Andrew Hall, TuVinh Luong, Emmanuel A Tsochatzis, Douglas Thorburn, Massimo Pinzani
Autoimmune liver diseases (AILD) are chronic liver pathologies characterised by fibrosis and cirrhosis due to immune-mediated liver damage. In this study, we addressed the question whether mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, innate-like T cells, are functionally altered in patients with AILD and whether MAIT cells can promote liver fibrosis through activation of hepatic stellate cells. We analysed the phenotype and function of MAIT cells from AILD patients and healthy controls by multi-colour flow cytometry and investigated the interaction between human MAIT cells and primary human hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs)...
January 12, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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