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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704527/tacrine-derivatives-stimulate-human-glioma-sf295-cell-death-and-alter-important-proteins-related-to-disease-development-an-old-drug-for-new-targets
#1
Fernanda Nunes, Letícia Barros Silva, Evelyn Winter, Adny Henrique Silva, Leônidas João de Melo, Michele Rode, Marcos Antônio Pinto Martins, Nilo Zanatta, Sarah Coelho Feitosa, Hélio Gauze Bonacorso, Tânia Beatriz Creczynski-Pasa
Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive glioma, characterized by brain invasion capability. Being very resistant to the current therapies, since even under treatment, surgery, and chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ), patients achieve a median survival of one year. In the search for more effective therapies, new molecules have been designed. For nervous system cancers, molecules able to cross the blood-brain barrier are handled with priority. Accordingly, tacrine was chosen for this study and the inclusion of spiro-heterocyclic rings was done in its structure resulting in new compounds...
April 25, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368696/guggulsterone-releasing-microspheres-direct-the-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-neural-phenotypes
#2
Andrew Agbay, Laura De La Vega, Gillian Nixon, Stephanie Michelle Willerth
Parkinson's disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative disorder, results from the loss of motor function when dopaminergic neurons (DNs) in the brain selectively degenerate. While pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) show promise for generating replacement neurons, current protocols for generating terminally differentiated DNs require a complicated cocktail of factors. Recent work demonstrated that a naturally occurring steroid called guggulsterone effectively differentiated PSCs into DNs, simplifying this process. In this study, we encapsulated guggulsterone into novel poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL)-based microspheres and characterized its release profile over 44 days in vitro, demonstrating we can control its release over time...
January 25, 2018: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258767/immunohistochemical-comparative-analysis-of-gfap-map-2-nogo-a-olig-2-and-wt-1-expression-in-who-2016-classified-neuroepithelial-tumours-and-their-prognostic-value
#3
David Emanuel Schwab, Guilherme Lepski, Christian Borchers, Katrin Trautmann, Frank Paulsen, Jens Schittenhelm
Immunohistochemistry is routinely used in differential diagnosis of tumours of the central nervous system (CNS). The latest 2016 WHO 2016 revision now includes molecular data such as IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion thus restructuring glioma classification. Direct comparative information between commonly used immunohistochemical markers for glial tumours GFAP, MAP - 2, NOGO - A, OLIG - 2 and WT - 1 concerning quality and quantity of expression and their relation to the new molecular markers are lacking. We therefore compared the immunohistochemical staining results of all five antibodies in 34 oligodendrogliomas, 106 ependymomas and 423 astrocytic tumours...
January 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141824/inhibition-of-neurogenesis-in-a-case-of-marburg-variant-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Celia Oreja-Guevara, Ulises Gómez-Pinedo, Julia García-López, Rafael Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto Valverde-Moyano, Alberto Rabano-Gutierrez, Jordi A Matías-Guiu, Ines González-Suárez, Jorge Matías-Guiu
INTRODUCTION: Neural stem cells (NSC) are located essentially in the subventricular zone (SVZ), subgranular zone (SGZ), and along the central canal of the spinal cord. These cells can proliferate in vitro and differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astroglia, thus contributing to repair in multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a pathological study to analyse neurogenic response in a patient with Marburg variant MS. METHODS: We present the case of a 27-year-old immunocompetent patient with Marburg variant MS, a fulminant form of the disease...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053887/low-foxg1-and-high-olig-2-labelling-indices-define-a-prognostically-favourable-subset-in-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-idh-mutant-gliomas
#5
S Schäfer, F Behling, M Skardelly, M Koch, I Ott, F Paulsen, G Tabatabai, J Schittenhelm
AIMS: Previous data suggest that expression of transcription factors FoxG1 and Olig-2 can separate hotspot histone H3 family member 3A (H3F3A)-mutant tumours in paediatric glioma. We evaluated their prognostic potential and feasibility for identifying H3F3A-mutant tumours among IDH-mutant/wild-type gliomas. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry of FoxG1/Olig-2 and α-thalassaemia/mental-retardation-syndrome-X-linked gene (ATRX) in 471 cases of diffuse gliomas and molecular determination of IDH, H3F3A, MGMT and 1p/19 codeletion status...
February 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037533/continuous-tamoxifen-delivery-improves-locomotor-recovery-6h-after-spinal-cord-injury-by-neuronal-and-glial-mechanisms-in-male-rats
#6
Jennifer M Colón, Pablo A González, Ámbar Cajigas, Wanda I Maldonado, Aranza I Torrado, José M Santiago, Iris K Salgado, Jorge D Miranda
No treatment is available for patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Patients often arrive to the hospital hours after SCI suggesting the need of a therapy that can be used on a clinically relevant window. Previous studies showed that Tamoxifen (TAM) treatment 24h after SCI benefits locomotor recovery in female rats. Tamoxifen exerts beneficial effects in male and female rodents but a gap of knowledge exists on: the therapeutic window of TAM, the spatio-temporal mechanisms activated and if this response is sexually dimorphic...
January 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934806/radiation-exposure-during-uterine-fibroid-embolization-ufe-a-confounder-controlled-comparison-between-a-state-of-the-art-angiography-unit-and-a-conventional-angiography-unit
#7
Christof-Matthias Sommer, Wieland Voigt, Michel Klapp Oliger, Christopher L Schlett, Stefan Erpenbach, Katrina Thomas, Andreas Hatopp, Patrick Kurz, Goetz M Richter
PURPOSE:  To compare radiation exposure of a state-of-the-art and a conventional angiography unit in patients undergoing uterine fibroid embolization (UFE). MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Between January 2009 and December 2016, 286 patients underwent UFE in our Interdisciplinary Fibroid Center. The inclusion criteria for this retrospective analysis were first-time transarterial embolization for symptomatic fibroids, bilateral embolization, procedures applying a state-of-the-art (Group 1) or a conventional angiography unit (Group 2), and bilateral technical success with an adequate embolization endpoint after the injection of microspheres...
March 2018: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625858/stem-cells-pluripotency-and-glial-cell-markers-in-peripheral-blood-of-bipolar-patients-on-long-term-lithium-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Ewa Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Jolanta Kucharska-Mazur, Maciej Tarnowski, Jerzy Samochowiec, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Janusz K Rybakowski
BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of long-term lithium treatment on very-small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and the mRNA expression of pluripotency and glial markers, in peripheral blood, in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: Fifteen BD patients (aged 53±7years) not treated with lithium, with duration of illness >10years, 15 BD patients (aged 55±6years) treated with lithium for 8-40years (mean 16years) and 15 control subjects (aged 50±5years) were included...
June 16, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476867/regulatory-mechanisms-of-metamorphic-neuronal-remodeling-revealed-through-a-genome-wide-modifier-screen-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#9
Dahong Chen, Tingting Gu, Tom N Pham, Montgomery J Zachary, Randall S Hewes
During development, neuronal remodeling shapes neuronal connections to establish fully mature and functional nervous systems. Our previous studies have shown that the RNA-binding factor alan shepard ( shep ) is an important regulator of neuronal remodeling during metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster , and loss of shep leads to smaller soma size and fewer neurites in a stage-dependent manner. To shed light on the mechanisms by which shep regulates neuronal remodeling, we conducted a genetic modifier screen for suppressors of shep -dependent wing expansion defects and cellular morphological defects in a set of peptidergic neurons, the bursicon neurons, that promote posteclosion wing expansion...
July 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273661/early-versus-late-onset-fetal-growth-restriction-differentially-affects-the-development-of-the-fetal-sheep-brain
#10
Anna Karynna Alves de Alencar Rocha, Beth J Allison, Tamara Yawno, Graeme R Polglase, Amy E Sutherland, Atul Malhotra, Graham Jenkin, Margie Castillo-Melendez, Suzanne L Miller
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common complication of pregnancy, principally caused by suboptimal placental function, and is associated with high rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Clinical studies suggest that the time of onset of placental insufficiency is an important contributor towards the neurodevelopmental impairments that are evident in children who had FGR. It is however currently unknown how early-onset and late-onset FGR differentially affect brain development. The aim of this study was to examine neuropathology in early-onset and late-onset FGR fetal sheep and to determine whether they differentially alter brain development...
2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595798/-oligodendroglioma-with-neuronal-differentiation-in-an-8-month-old-african-hedgehog-atelerix-albiventris
#11
Iris Völker, Iris Schwarze, Tina E Brezina, Saskia Köstlinger, Marion Hewicker-Trautwein
An 8-month-old, male African hedgehog clinically displayed a wobbly walk, anuria, inappetence and apathy, whereupon the suspected diagnosis wobbly hedgehog syndrome was made. After exacerbation, the hedgehog was euthanized. Histologically, a tumour mainly consisting of medium-sized, oval tumour cells and a smaller number of spindeloid cells was found in the cerebrum. The tumour contained neuropil islets and extracellular myxoid material. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells expressed oligodendroglial (neurite outgrowth inhibitor, Nogo-A; oligodendrocyte transcription factor, Olig-2) and neuronal (neuron-specific enolase, NSE; microtubule-associated protein-2a, MAP-2a; synaptophysin) cell markers...
October 12, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474686/increased-mrna-expression-of-peripheral-glial-cell-markers-in-bipolar-disorder-the-effect-of-long-term-lithium-treatment
#12
Ewa Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Maciej Tarnowski, Jerzy Samochowiec, Michal Michalak, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Janusz K Rybakowski
Neuroinflammation, with microglial activation as an important element, plays a role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD). Also, in mood disorders, pathological changes have been demonstrated in macroglial cells, such as astrocyctes and oligodendrocytes. Postmortem brain studies of BD patients to assess glial cells, such as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and their markers such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Olig1 and Olig2, produced controversial results. On the other hand, investigation of these markers in the peripheral blood of such patients has not been performed so far...
September 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469598/olig2-regulates-purkinje-cell-generation-in-the-early-developing-mouse-cerebellum
#13
Jun Ju, Qian Liu, Yang Zhang, Yuanxiu Liu, Mei Jiang, Liguo Zhang, Xuelian He, Chenchen Peng, Tao Zheng, Q Richard Lu, Hedong Li
The oligodendrocyte transcription factor Olig2 plays a crucial role in the neurogenesis of both spinal cord and brain. In the cerebellum, deletion of both Olig2 and Olig1 results in impaired genesis of Purkinje cells (PCs) and Pax2(+) interneurons. Here, we perform an independent study to show that Olig2 protein is transiently expressed in the cerebellar ventricular zone (VZ) during a period when PCs are specified. Further analyses demonstrate that Olig2 is expressed in both cerebellar VZ progenitors and early-born neurons...
July 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458020/atp-adp-turnover-and-import-of-glycolytic-atp-into-mitochondria-in-cancer-cells-is-independent-of-the-adenine-nucleotide-translocator
#14
Eduardo N Maldonado, David N DeHart, Jyoti Patnaik, Sandra C Klatt, Monika Beck Gooz, John J Lemasters
Non-proliferating cells oxidize respiratory substrates in mitochondria to generate a protonmotive force (Δp) that drives ATP synthesis. The mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ), a component of Δp, drives release of mitochondrial ATP(4-) in exchange for cytosolic ADP(3-) via the electrogenic adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) located in the mitochondrial inner membrane, which leads to a high cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio up to >100-fold greater than matrix ATP/ADP. In rat hepatocytes, ANT inhibitors, bongkrekic acid (BA), and carboxyatractyloside (CAT), and the F1FO-ATP synthase inhibitor, oligomycin (OLIG), inhibited ureagenesis-induced respiration...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317658/magnesium-sulfate-reduces-eeg-activity-but-is-not-neuroprotective-after-asphyxia-in-preterm-fetal-sheep
#15
Robert Galinsky, Vittoria Draghi, Guido Wassink, Joanne O Davidson, Paul P Drury, Christopher A Lear, Alistair J Gunn, Laura Bennet
Magnesium sulfate is now widely recommended for neuroprotection for preterm birth; however, this has been controversial because there is little evidence that magnesium sulfate is neuroprotective. Preterm fetal sheep (104 days gestation; term is 147 days) were randomly assigned to receive sham occlusion (n = 7), i.v. magnesium sulfate (n = 10) or saline (n = 8) starting 24 h before asphyxia until 24 h after asphyxia. Sheep were killed 72 h after asphyxia. Magnesium sulfate infusion reduced electroencephalograph power and fetal movements before asphyxia...
April 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313511/reactive-oxygen-species-derived-from-nox3-and-nox5-drive-differentiation-of-human-oligodendrocytes
#16
Roberta Accetta, Simona Damiano, Annalisa Morano, Paolo Mondola, Roberto Paternò, Enrico V Avvedimento, Mariarosaria Santillo
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are signaling molecules that mediate stress response, apoptosis, DNA damage, gene expression and differentiation. We report here that differentiation of oligodendrocytes (OLs), the myelin forming cells in the CNS, is driven by ROS. To dissect the OL differentiation pathway, we used the cell line MO3-13, which display the molecular and cellular features of OL precursors. These cells exposed 1-4 days to low levels of H2O2 or to the protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol-12-Myristate-13-Acetate (PMA) increased the expression of specific OL differentiation markers: the specific nuclear factor Olig-2, and Myelin Basic Protein (MBP), which was processed and accumulated selectively in membranes...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154317/glioblastoma-with-oligodendroglioma-component-in-a-ewe
#17
Davide Pintus, Giuseppe Marruchella, Mariangela Masia, Caterina Maestrale, Maria Giovanna Cancedda, Claudia Contu, Simona Macciocu, Ciriaco Ligios
Herein we describe a glioblastoma partially occupying the telencephalic portion of the left cerebral hemisphere of a Sardinian (syn. Sarda) breed ewe. Microscopically, the mass consisted of a pleomorphic spindle-shaped cell component organized as bundles and numerous small areas of round cells displaying an oligodendroglioma-like aspect. A high number of mitotic figures, large areas of necrosis surrounded by pseudopalisading glial cells, and multiple foci of dystrophic mineralization were also observed. The neoplasm was highly vascularized with glomerular vascular proliferation...
July 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27142914/-glioneuronal-tumor-with-neuropil-like-island-report-of-four-cases-and-review-of-literature
#18
REVIEW
Z J Duan, K Yao, X L Qi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathologic features of glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like island (GTNI). METHODS: Four cases of intracranial and spinal GTNI, including three cases of WHO grade Ⅲ, and one case of WHO grade Ⅱ with grade Ⅲ recurrence. HE and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining were used for pathologic analysis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect tumor genetic changes. Related literatures were reviewed. RESULTS: Microscopically, neuropil-like islands of varying sizes were seen within a background of glial proliferation, which showed features of astrocytoma or oligoastrocytoma...
May 8, 2016: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121655/extending-the-duration-of-hypothermia-does-not-further-improve-white-matter-protection-after-ischemia-in-term-equivalent-fetal-sheep
#19
Joanne O Davidson, Caroline A Yuill, Frank G Zhang, Guido Wassink, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn
A major challenge in modern neonatal care is to further improve outcomes after therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. In this study we tested whether extending the duration of cooling might reduce white matter damage. Term-equivalent fetal sheep (0.85 gestation) received either sham ischemia followed by normothermia (n = 8) or 30 minutes of bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by three days of normothermia (n = 8), three days of hypothermia (n = 8) or five days of hypothermia (n = 8) started three hours after ischemia...
April 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26919831/effect-of-bushen-yisui-capsule-on-oligodendrocyte-lineage-genes-1-and-2-in-mice-with-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#20
Tao Yang, Qi Zheng, Hui Zhao, Qiu-Xia Zhang, Ming Li, Fang Qi, Kang-Ning Li, Ling Fang, Lei Wang, Yong-Ping Fan
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of Bushen Yisui Capsule (, BSYSC) on the oligodendrocyte lineage genes (Olig) 1 and Olig2 in C57BL/6 mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in order to explore the remyelination effect of BSYSC. METHODS: The mice were randomly divided into normal control (NC), EAE model (EAE-M), prednisone acetate (PA, 6 mg/kg), BSYSC high-dose (3.02 g/kg) and BSYSC low-dose (1.51 g/kg) groups. The mice were induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55...
December 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
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