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Iris Völker, Iris Schwarze, Tina E Brezina, Saskia Köstlinger, Marion Hewicker-Trautwein
An 8-month-old, male African hedgehog clinically displayed a wobbly walk, anuria, inappetence and apathy, whereupon the suspected diagnosis wobbly hedgehog syndrome was made. After exacerbation, the hedgehog was euthanized. Histologically, a tumour mainly consisting of medium-sized, oval tumour cells and a smaller number of spindeloid cells was found in the cerebrum. The tumour contained neuropil islets and extracellular myxoid material. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells expressed oligodendroglial (neurite outgrowth inhibitor, Nogo-A; oligodendrocyte transcription factor, Olig-2) and neuronal (neuron-specific enolase, NSE; microtubule-associated protein-2a, MAP-2a; synaptophysin) cell markers...
October 12, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Ewa Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Maciej Tarnowski, Jerzy Samochowiec, Michal Michalak, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Janusz K Rybakowski
Neuroinflammation, with microglial activation as an important element, plays a role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD). Also, in mood disorders, pathological changes have been demonstrated in macroglial cells, such as astrocyctes and oligodendrocytes. Postmortem brain studies of BD patients to assess glial cells, such as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and their markers such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Olig1 and Olig2, produced controversial results. On the other hand, investigation of these markers in the peripheral blood of such patients has not been performed so far...
September 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jun Ju, Qian Liu, Yang Zhang, Yuanxiu Liu, Mei Jiang, Liguo Zhang, Xuelian He, Chenchen Peng, Tao Zheng, Q Richard Lu, Hedong Li
The oligodendrocyte transcription factor Olig2 plays a crucial role in the neurogenesis of both spinal cord and brain. In the cerebellum, deletion of both Olig2 and Olig1 results in impaired genesis of Purkinje cells (PCs) and Pax2(+) interneurons. Here, we perform an independent study to show that Olig2 protein is transiently expressed in the cerebellar ventricular zone (VZ) during a period when PCs are specified. Further analyses demonstrate that Olig2 is expressed in both cerebellar VZ progenitors and early-born neurons...
2016: Scientific Reports
Eduardo N Maldonado, David N DeHart, Jyoti Patnaik, Sandra C Klatt, Monika Beck Gooz, John J Lemasters
Non-proliferating cells oxidize respiratory substrates in mitochondria to generate a protonmotive force (Δp) that drives ATP synthesis. The mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ), a component of Δp, drives release of mitochondrial ATP(4-) in exchange for cytosolic ADP(3-) via the electrogenic adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) located in the mitochondrial inner membrane, which leads to a high cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio up to >100-fold greater than matrix ATP/ADP. In rat hepatocytes, ANT inhibitors, bongkrekic acid (BA), and carboxyatractyloside (CAT), and the F1FO-ATP synthase inhibitor, oligomycin (OLIG), inhibited ureagenesis-induced respiration...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Robert Galinsky, Vittoria Draghi, Guido Wassink, Joanne O Davidson, Paul P Drury, Christopher A Lear, Alistair J Gunn, Laura Bennet
Magnesium sulfate is now widely recommended for neuroprotection for preterm birth; however, this has been controversial because there is little evidence that magnesium sulfate is neuroprotective. Preterm fetal sheep (104 days gestation; term is 147 days) were randomly assigned to receive sham occlusion (n = 7), i.v. magnesium sulfate (n = 10) or saline (n = 8) starting 24 h before asphyxia until 24 h after asphyxia. Sheep were killed 72 h after asphyxia. Magnesium sulfate infusion reduced electroencephalograph power and fetal movements before asphyxia...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Roberta Accetta, Simona Damiano, Annalisa Morano, Paolo Mondola, Roberto Paternò, Enrico V Avvedimento, Mariarosaria Santillo
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are signaling molecules that mediate stress response, apoptosis, DNA damage, gene expression and differentiation. We report here that differentiation of oligodendrocytes (OLs), the myelin forming cells in the CNS, is driven by ROS. To dissect the OL differentiation pathway, we used the cell line MO3-13, which display the molecular and cellular features of OL precursors. These cells exposed 1-4 days to low levels of H2O2 or to the protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol-12-Myristate-13-Acetate (PMA) increased the expression of specific OL differentiation markers: the specific nuclear factor Olig-2, and Myelin Basic Protein (MBP), which was processed and accumulated selectively in membranes...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Davide Pintus, Giuseppe Marruchella, Mariangela Masia, Caterina Maestrale, Maria Giovanna Cancedda, Claudia Contu, Simona Macciocu, Ciriaco Ligios
Herein we describe a glioblastoma partially occupying the telencephalic portion of the left cerebral hemisphere of a Sardinian (syn. Sarda) breed ewe. Microscopically, the mass consisted of a pleomorphic spindle-shaped cell component organized as bundles and numerous small areas of round cells displaying an oligodendroglioma-like aspect. A high number of mitotic figures, large areas of necrosis surrounded by pseudopalisading glial cells, and multiple foci of dystrophic mineralization were also observed. The neoplasm was highly vascularized with glomerular vascular proliferation...
July 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Z J Duan, K Yao, X L Qi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathologic features of glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like island (GTNI). METHODS: Four cases of intracranial and spinal GTNI, including three cases of WHO grade Ⅲ, and one case of WHO grade Ⅱ with grade Ⅲ recurrence. HE and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining were used for pathologic analysis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect tumor genetic changes. Related literatures were reviewed. RESULTS: Microscopically, neuropil-like islands of varying sizes were seen within a background of glial proliferation, which showed features of astrocytoma or oligoastrocytoma...
May 8, 2016: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
Joanne O Davidson, Caroline A Yuill, Frank G Zhang, Guido Wassink, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn
A major challenge in modern neonatal care is to further improve outcomes after therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. In this study we tested whether extending the duration of cooling might reduce white matter damage. Term-equivalent fetal sheep (0.85 gestation) received either sham ischemia followed by normothermia (n = 8) or 30 minutes of bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by three days of normothermia (n = 8), three days of hypothermia (n = 8) or five days of hypothermia (n = 8) started three hours after ischemia...
2016: Scientific Reports
Tao Yang, Qi Zheng, Hui Zhao, Qiu-Xia Zhang, Ming Li, Fang Qi, Kang-Ning Li, Ling Fang, Lei Wang, Yong-Ping Fan
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of Bushen Yisui Capsule (, BSYSC) on the oligodendrocyte lineage genes (Olig) 1 and Olig2 in C57BL/6 mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in order to explore the remyelination effect of BSYSC. METHODS: The mice were randomly divided into normal control (NC), EAE model (EAE-M), prednisone acetate (PA, 6 mg/kg), BSYSC high-dose (3.02 g/kg) and BSYSC low-dose (1.51 g/kg) groups. The mice were induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55...
December 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
K E Wang, Ming Ni, Liang Wang, Guijun Jia, Zhen Wu, Liwei Zhang, Junting Zhang
Cerebellar liponeurocytoma is rare, and the clinical characteristics and treatment strategy remain unclear. In the present study, a case of cerebellar liponeurocytoma was retrospectively reported and a literature review was performed. A 45-year-old female presented due to occipital headaches, exhibiting a hoarse voice and a broad-based gait. Pre-operative magnetic resonance images revealed a lesion occupying the right hemisphere of the cerebellum and the inferior vermis, compressing the medulla oblongata from the right side, and extending through the foramen magnum to the C2 level...
February 2016: Oncology Letters
Huiliang Li, William D Richardson
Myelin is a specialized subcellular structure that evolved uniquely in vertebrates. A myelinated axon conducts action potentials many times faster than an unmyelinated axon of the same diameter; for the same conduction speed, the unmyelinated axon would need a much larger diameter and volume than its myelinated counterpart. Hence myelin speeds information transfer and saves space, allowing the evolution of a powerful yet portable brain. Myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) is controlled by a gene regulatory program that features a number of master transcriptional regulators including Olig1, Olig2 and Myrf...
June 15, 2016: Brain Research
Avin S Jamil, Shahla K Alalaf, Namir G Al-Tawil, Talha Al-Shawaf
PURPOSE: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disturbances in women and is divided into different phenotypes. The aim of study is to compare the clinical and hormonal parameters among the four phenotypes of PCOS based on the Rotterdam criteria and with control group. METHODS: Women with PCOS (n = 263) confirmed based on the Rotterdam criteria and 263 women with no evidence of PCOS were recruited as controls using observational case-control study...
February 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Esmaeil Mirzaei, Jafar Ai, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Javad Verdi, Hossein Ghanbari, Reza Faridi-Majidi
Electrospun carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have great potential for applications in neural tissue regeneration due to their electrical conductivity, biocompatibility, and morphological similarity to natural extracellular matrix. In this study, we cultured human endometrial stem cells (hEnSCs) on electrospun CNFs with random and aligned topographies and demonstrated that hEnSCs could attach, proliferate, and differentiate into neural cells on both random and aligned CNFs. However, the proliferation, differentiation, and morphology of cells were affected by CNF morphology...
September 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Teng Ma, Xiyan Wu, Qiyan Cai, Yun Wang, Lan Xiao, Yanping Tian, Hongli Li
Lead (Pb) poisoning has always been a serious health concern, as it permanently damages the central nervous system. Chronic Pb accumulation in the human body disturbs oligodendrocytes (OLs) differentiation, resulting in dysmyelination, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, Pb at 1 μM inhibits OLs precursor cells (OPCs) differentiation via decreasing the expression of Olig 2, CNPase proteins in vitro. Moreover, Pb treatment inhibits the sodium/calcium exchanger 3 (NCX3) mRNA expression, one of the major means of calcium (Ca(2+)) extrusion at the plasma membrane during OPCs differentiation...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kun Yao, Bin Wu, Mei Xi, Zejun Duan, Jiqiang Wang, Xueling Qi
We present a rare case of low-grade astroblastoma coexisting with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) underwent surgery two times in a 38-year-old man. After the first surgery, this case was reported as a mixed low-grade astroblastoma and AVM. The lesion was completely resected surgically along with AVM. The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Twenty months later, MRI showed enhanced lesions in suprasellar, pineal region and multiple small lesions in the spinal cord, whereas completely no recurrent lesion at the primary tumor site...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Feng Jin, Ran Zhang, Song Feng, Chuan-Tao Yuan, Ren-Ya Zhang, Guang-Kui Han, Gen-Hua Li, Xi-Zhen Yu, Yang Liu, Ling-Sheng Kong, Shu-Ling Zhang, Lei Zhao
BACKGROUND: This study is to explore the pathological features of transplanted tumor established by CD133 positive TJ905 glioblastoma stem-like cells. METHODS: CD133 positive TJ905 glioma cells were separated by immunomagnetic beads to isolate glioma stem-like cells. TJ905 cells and stem-like cells were inoculated subcutaneously into the mice to establish model of transplanted tumor, respectively. Mice growing condition and behavior were observed. HE staining assay, immunohistochemical assay for GFAP, Ki-67 and Olig-2, and CD34 marked microvascular density (MVD) test were performed...
2015: Cancer Cell International
Laura Otero-Ortega, María Gutiérrez-Fernández, Jaime Ramos-Cejudo, Berta Rodríguez-Frutos, Blanca Fuentes, Tomás Sobrino, Teresa Navarro Hernanz, Francisco Campos, Juan Antonio López, Sebastián Cerdán, Jesús Vázquez, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor
INTRODUCTION: Despite its high incidence, nerve fiber (axon and myelin) damage after cerebral infarct has not yet been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate white matter repair after adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) administration in an experimental model of subcortical stroke. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze the ADMSC secretome and whether this could be implicated in this repair function. METHODS: An animal model of subcortical ischemic stroke with white matter affectation was induced in rats by injection of endothelin-1...
June 19, 2015: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Xiaohu H Hou, Xiaoyan Y Guo, Yusheng Chen, Cheng-Yi He, Zhi-Ying Chen
DNA vectors for human gene therapy have to meet the efficacy and safety requirements. Minicircles (MCs), a class of optimized DNA vectors free of plasmid backbone (PB) DNAs, have emerged as promising candidates because of their superior transgene expression profiles. However, the existence of impure DNAs, including the unrecombined MC producing plasmid (PP) and PB circle, in the MC products made using the current technologies exceed the safety limit. Here, we report the development of an enhanced triplex DNA (TriD) technology to eliminate almost all the impure DNAs from the MC products...
2015: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
M K Kukhanova, A N Korovina, Iu A Sharkin, A V Azhaev, S N Kochetkov
Substrate specificities of three viral replicative polymerases of different origins (HIV reverse transcriptase, hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase, and herpes virus DNA polymerase) towards 2'F-NTP were studied. Activated DNA, polyA-oligoUs and (2'F-A)20-oligoU6-complexes were used as templates. It was shown that all DNA polymerases studied can incorporate 2'F-NMP into the 3'-end of primer-template complexes. HIV reverse transcriptase and herpes virus DNA polymerase can elongate synthesis with both dNTP and 2'F-NTP...
September 2014: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
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