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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445183/reducing-risk-and-improving-maternal-perspective-taking-and-empathy-using-virtual-embodiment
#1
Catherine Hamilton-Giachritsis, Domna Banakou, Manuela Garcia Quiroga, Christos Giachritsis, Mel Slater
The ability to perspective-take (cognitive awareness of another's state) and empathise (emotional/affective response) are important characteristics for sensitive, co-operative and constructive parenting, which assists in developing adaptive functioning for children. For the first time, immersive virtual reality was used to place parents in the position of a child in order to assess impact on perspective-taking and empathy. This novel study was conducted with 20 non-high risk Spanish mothers (a pilot study with 12 mothers is reported in supplementary files)...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425218/body-size-estimation-of-self-and-others-in-females-varying-in-bmi
#2
Anne Thaler, Michael N Geuss, Simone C Mölbert, Katrin E Giel, Stephan Streuber, Javier Romero, Michael J Black, Betty J Mohler
Previous literature suggests that a disturbed ability to accurately identify own body size may contribute to overweight. Here, we investigated the influence of personal body size, indexed by body mass index (BMI), on body size estimation in a non-clinical population of females varying in BMI. We attempted to disentangle general biases in body size estimates and attitudinal influences by manipulating whether participants believed the body stimuli (personalized avatars with realistic weight variations) represented their own body or that of another person...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407688/in-pursuit-of-a-self-sustaining-college-alcohol-intervention-deploying-gamified-pnf-in-the-real-world
#3
Andrew M Earle, Joseph W LaBrie, Sarah C Boyle, Daniel Smith
Our recent work (Boyle, Earle, LaBrie, & Smith, 2017) showed that the efficacy of personalized normative feedback-based (PNF) college alcohol interventions can be improved through the addition of gamified elements including points, chance, competition, and personal avatars. However, participants in that study were compensated with subject pool credit. In the current study, we piloted an upgraded, smartphone-based version of the game, which was designed to be truly self-sustaining (i.e., engaging enough that students play voluntarily without the presence of external motivators)...
January 6, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406774/photorealistic-avatar-and-teen-physical-activity-feasibility-and-preliminary-efficacy
#4
Deborah I Thompson, Dora Cantu, Chishinga Callender, Yan Liu, Mayur Rajendran, Madhur Rajendran, Yuting Zhang, Zhigang Deng
OBJECTIVE: Exergames played with a photorealistic avatar may enhance motivation to play, in addition to frequency, duration, and intensity of game-play. This article reports the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an exergame played with a photorealistic avatar on physical activity (PA) intensity in a laboratory-based study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Teens (12-14 years old) were recruited from a large, metropolitan area of the southwestern United States. Parents provided written informed consent...
February 6, 2018: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395610/disrupted-salience-processing-involved-in-motivational-deficits-for-real-life-activities-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#5
Byung-Hoon Kim, Yu-Bin Shin, Sunghyon Kyeong, Seon-Koo Lee, Jae-Jin Kim
Motivational deficits in patients with schizophrenia adversely affect various domains of daily living. This symptom in everyday life situations manifests in a complex behavioral pattern whose root cannot be simplified to an impaired reward-motivation scheme. This study aimed to identify impairment of the salience network that underlies motivational deficits seen in patients with schizophrenia in real-life situations. During the functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, 20 patients with schizophrenia and 20 normal controls performed a task mimicking real-life situations, in which an avatar proposed participation in a daily activity with either an intrinsic or extrinsic reward...
January 27, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384426/korean-clergy-for-healthy-families-online-intervention-for-preventing-intimate-partner-violence
#6
Y Joon Choi, Pamela Orpinas, Irang Kim, Kyung Soon Ko
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) among immigrant women is a serious public health problem. Churches and clergy play a fundamental role in their lives, as a form of social organization and alternative to community services. PURPOSE: To describe the implementation and evaluation of an intervention for Korean American faith leaders designed to increase knowledge about IPV and about resources to handle IPV, strengthen attitudes that do not support IPV, enhance self-efficacy to handle IPV, and increase prevention and intervention behaviors about IPV...
January 1, 2018: Global Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357047/human-decisions-in-moral-dilemmas-are-largely-described-by-utilitarianism-virtual-car-driving-study-provides-guidelines-for-autonomous-driving-vehicles
#7
Anja K Faulhaber, Anke Dittmer, Felix Blind, Maximilian A Wächter, Silja Timm, Leon R Sütfeld, Achim Stephan, Gordon Pipa, Peter König
Ethical thought experiments such as the trolley dilemma have been investigated extensively in the past, showing that humans act in utilitarian ways, trying to cause as little overall damage as possible. These trolley dilemmas have gained renewed attention over the past few years, especially due to the necessity of implementing moral decisions in autonomous driving vehicles (ADVs). We conducted a set of experiments in which participants experienced modified trolley dilemmas as drivers in virtual reality environments...
January 22, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330203/personalized-rna-medicine-for-pancreatic-cancer
#8
Maud-Emmanuelle Gilles, Liangliang Hao, Ling Huang, Rajesha Rupaimoole, Pedro P Lopez-Casas, Emilia Pulver, Jong Cheol Jeong, Senthil K Muthuswamy, Manuel Hidalgo, Sangeeta N Bhatia, Frank J Slack
PURPOSE: Since drug responses vary between patients, it is crucial to develop pre-clinical or co-clinical strategies that forecast patient response. In this study, we tested whether RNA-based therapeutics were suitable for personalized medicine by using patient-derived-organoid (PDO) and patient-derived-xenograft (PDX) models.  Experimental Design: We performed microRNA (miRNA) profiling of PDX samples to determine the status of miRNA deregulation in individual pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324411/virtual-activities-of-daily-living-for-recovery-of-upper-extremity-motor-function
#9
Richard J Adams, Matthew D Lichter, Allison Ellington, Marga White, Kate Armstead, James T Patrie, Paul T Diamond
A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of virtual activities of daily living (ADL) practice using the SaeboVR software system for the recovery of upper extremity (UE) motor function following stroke. The system employs Kinect sensor-based tracking to translate human UE motion into the anatomical pose of the arm of the patient's avatar within a virtual environment, creating a virtual presence within a simulated task space. Patients gain mastery of 12 different integrated activities while traversing a metaphorical "road to recovery" that includes thematically linked levels and therapist-selected difficulty settings...
January 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313388/virtual-reality-in-cognitive-and-motor-rehabilitation-facts-fiction-and-fallacies
#10
Gaetano Tieri, Giovanni Morone, Stefano Paolucci, Marco Iosa
Over recent decades many researchers and clinicians have started to use Virtual Reality (VR) as a new technology for implementing innovative rehabilitation treatments in cognitive and motor domains. However, the expression "VR" has often also been improperly used to refer to video games. Further, VR efficacy, often confused with that of video-game exercises, is still debated. Areas covered: In this review, we provide the scientific rationale for the advantages of using VR systems in rehabilitation and investigate whether the VR could really be a promising technique for the future of rehabilitation of patients, or if it is just an entertainment for scientists...
January 9, 2018: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274811/face-recognition-of-full-bodied-avatars-by-active-observers-in-a-virtual-environment
#11
Isabelle Bülthoff, Betty J Mohler, Ian M Thornton
Viewing faces in motion or attached to a body instead of isolated static faces improves their subsequent recognition. Here we enhanced the ecological validity of face encoding by having observers physically moving in a virtual room populated by life-size avatars. We compared the recognition performance of this active group to two control groups. The first control group watched a passive reenactment of the visual experience of the active group. The second control group saw static screenshots of the avatars. All groups performed the same old/new recognition task after learning...
December 21, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240837/the-impact-of-self-avatars-on-trust-and-collaboration-in-shared-virtual-environments
#12
Ye Pan, Anthony Steed
A self-avatar is known to have a potentially significant impact on the user's experience of the immersive content but it can also affect how users interact with each other in a shared virtual environment (SVE). We implemented an SVE for a consumer virtual reality system where each user's body could be represented by a jointed self-avatar that was dynamically controlled by head and hand controllers. We investigated the impact of a self-avatar on collaborative outcomes such as completion time and trust formation during competitive and cooperative tasks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222631/an-advanced-simulator-for-orthopedic-surgical-training
#13
J Cecil, Avinash Gupta, Miguel Pirela-Cruz
PURPOSE: The purpose of creating the virtual reality (VR) simulator is to facilitate and supplement the training opportunities provided to orthopedic residents. The use of VR simulators has increased rapidly in the field of medical surgery for training purposes. This paper discusses the creation of the virtual surgical environment (VSE) for training residents in an orthopedic surgical process called less invasive stabilization system (LISS) surgery which is used to address fractures of the femur...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218901/using-simulation-and-optimization-approach-to-improve-outcome-through-warfarin-precision-treatment
#14
Chih-Lin Chi, Lu He, Kourosh Ravvaz, John Weissert, Peter J Tonellato
We apply a treatment simulation and optimization approach to develop decision support guidance for warfarin precision treatment plans. Simulation include the use of ∼1,500,000 clinical avatars (simulated patients) generated by an integrated data-driven and domain-knowledge based Bayesian Network Modeling approach. Subsequently, we simulate 30-day individual patient response to warfarin treatment of five clinical and genetic treatment plans followed by both individual and subpopulation based optimization. Sub-population optimization (compared to individual optimization) provides a cost effective and realistic means of implementation of a precision-driven treatment plan in practical settings...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211508/exploring-stereotypical-perceptions-of-female-players-in-digital-gaming-contexts
#15
Linda K Kaye, Claire E Gresty, Natasha Stubbs-Ennis
Gender stereotypes are still reported to exist in digital gaming contexts, despite the fact that participation of females is relatively equal to that of males. The current research explored a number of factors and their impact upon stereotypical perceptions and attitudes toward female players. This included avatar gender, gender identity by gaming context, as well as more general gender-role beliefs. We undertook two studies, each utilizing an online questionnaire targeted toward online players. Study 1 recruited online gamers (N = 489) and compared competence perceptions of players, which varied by player gender (male, female) and avatar gender (male, female), whereby four conditions were established...
December 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209193/human-avatar-symbiosis-for-the-treatment-of-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-schizophrenia-through-virtual-augmented-reality-and-brain-computer-interfaces
#16
Antonio Fernández-Caballero, Elena Navarro, Patricia Fernández-Sotos, Pascual González, Jorge J Ricarte, José M Latorre, Roberto Rodriguez-Jimenez
This perspective paper faces the future of alternative treatments that take advantage of a social and cognitive approach with regards to pharmacological therapy of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with schizophrenia. AVH are the perception of voices in the absence of auditory stimulation and represents a severe mental health symptom. Virtual/augmented reality (VR/AR) and brain computer interfaces (BCI) are technologies that are growing more and more in different medical and psychological applications...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207792/clinical-evaluation-of-efficacy-and-performance-of-all-poly-tibial-freedom%C3%A2-total-knee-system-for-treating-osteoarthritis-patients-three-year-follow-up-study
#17
Avatar Singh, Kanwar Kulwinder Singh
Introduction: Advancement in technology in terms of design and building materials has made Total Knee Replacement (TKR) a highly effective, safe, and predictable orthopedic procedure. Aim: To review the clinical outcomes for efficacy and performance of Freedom Total Knee System for the management of Osteoarthritis (OA), at a minimum of three years follow up. Materials and Methods: For this retrospective, post-marketing study, clinical data of patients treated with Freedom Total Knee System was retrieved from the clinical records after approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee ...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198733/virtual-medicine-utilization-of-the-advanced-cardiac-imaging-patient-avatar-for-procedural-planning-and-facilitation
#18
REVIEW
Jerold S Shinbane, Leslie A Saxon
Advances in imaging technology have led to a paradigm shift from planning of cardiovascular procedures and surgeries requiring the actual patient in a "brick and mortar" hospital to utilization of the digitalized patient in the virtual hospital. Cardiovascular computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) digitalized 3-D patient representation of individual patient anatomy and physiology serves as an avatar allowing for virtual delineation of the most optimal approaches to cardiovascular procedures and surgeries prior to actual hospitalization...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196281/the-use-of-avatar-counseling-for-hiv-aids-health-education-the-examination-of-self-identity-in-avatar-preferences
#19
Shantrel Canidate, Mark Hart
BACKGROUND: The number of adults using the Internet to obtain health information is on the rise. An estimated 66% of the adults reportedly use the Internet to obtain health information related to a specific disease (ie, human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, HIV/AIDS). Previous research has demonstrated that health information seekers use the Internet to seek answers to stigma-laden questions from health avatars. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify patterns in the choice of avatar among health information seekers (patients or public health workers) using the Internet to obtain HIV/AIDS information and to describe the demographic characteristics (age, gender, and ethnicity) of health information seekers to determine whether they preferred an avatar that was similar to their own gender and ethnicity...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175276/avatar-therapy-for-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-people-with-psychosis-a-single-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Tom Kj Craig, Mar Rus-Calafell, Thomas Ward, Julian P Leff, Mark Huckvale, Elizabeth Howarth, Richard Emsley, Philippa A Garety
BACKGROUND: A quarter of people with psychotic conditions experience persistent auditory verbal hallucinations, despite treatment. AVATAR therapy (invented by Julian Leff in 2008) is a new approach in which people who hear voices have a dialogue with a digital representation (avatar) of their presumed persecutor, voiced by the therapist so that the avatar responds by becoming less hostile and concedes power over the course of therapy. We aimed to investigate the effect of AVATAR therapy on auditory verbal hallucinations, compared with a supportive counselling control condition...
January 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
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