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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887816/perceived-ownership-of-avatars-influences-visual-perspective-taking
#1
Christian Böffel, Jochen Müsseler
Modern computer-based applications often require the user to interact with avatars. Depending on the task at hand, spatial dissociation between the orientations of the user and the avatars might arise. As a consequence, the user has to adopt the avatar's perspective and identify herself/himself with the avatar, possibly changing the user's self-representation in the process. The present study aims to identify the conditions that benefit this change of perspective with objective performance measures and subjective self-estimations by integrating the idea of avatar-ownership into the cognitive phenomenon of spatial compatibility...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878233/p16-as-a-prognostic-biomarker-for-nonoropharyngeal-squamous-cell-cancers-avatar-or-mirage
#2
Carole Fakhry, Robert L Ferris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873613/error-rather-than-its-probability-elicits-specific-electrocortical-signatures-a-combined-eeg-immersive-virtual-reality-study-of-action-observation
#3
Rachele Pezzetta, Valentina Nicolardi, Emmanuele Tidoni, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
Detecting errors in one's own actions, and in the actions of others, is a crucial ability for adaptable and flexible behavior. Studies show that specific EEG signatures underpin the monitoring of observed erroneous actions (error-related negativity, error-positivity, mid-frontal theta oscillations). However, the majority of studies on action observation used sequences of trials where erroneous actions were less frequent than correct actions. Therefore, it was not possible to disentangle whether the activation of the performance monitoring system was due to an error - as a violation of the intended goal - or a surprise/novelty effect, associated with a rare and unexpected event...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792582/advancing-child-sexual-abuse-prevention-in-schools-an-exploration-of-the-effectiveness-of-the-enough-online-training-program-for-k-12-teachers
#4
Melinda Gushwa, Jetta Bernier, David Robinson
Child sexual abuse (CSA) in schools and educator misconduct represents a threat to the safety and well-being of our children. The Enough! Preventing Child Sexual Abuse in My School program is a 1-hour online training course developed to address the problem of sexual misconduct and CSA in K-12 education via the use of two avatars/teachers who are navigating CSA and misconduct in their schools. One hundred and thirty-four teachers from three school districts participated in a study to examine the effectiveness of the program in terms of knowledge awareness, including prevalence rates, types of CSA behaviors, impact of CSA on children, signs and symptoms, reporting responsibilities and responses to suspected abuse...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785931/first-bone-cracking-dog-coprolites-provide-new-insight-into-bone-consumption-in-borophagus-and-their-unique-ecological-niche
#5
Xiaoming Wang, Stuart C White, Mairin Balisi, Jacob Biewer, Julia Sankey, Dennis Garber, Z Jack Tseng
Borophagine canids have long been hypothesized to be North American ecological 'avatars' of living hyenas in Africa and Asia, but direct fossil evidence of hyena-like bone consumption is hitherto unknown. We report rare coprolites (fossilized feces) of Borophagus parvus from the late Miocene of California and, for the first time, describe unambiguous evidence that these predatory canids ingested large amounts of bone. Surface morphology, micro-CT analyses, and contextual information reveal (1) droppings in concentrations signifying scent-marking behavior, similar to latrines used by living social carnivorans; (2) routine consumption of skeletons; (3) undissolved bones inside coprolites indicating gastrointestinal similarity to modern striped and brown hyenas; (4) B...
May 22, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777554/development-and-feasibility-testing-of-an-avatar-based-education-application-for-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#6
Jintana Tongpeth, Hui Yun Du, Robyn A Clark
AIMS: To develop and evaluate an interactive, avatar-based education application, for improving patients' knowledge of, and response to, ACS symptoms. BACKGROUND: A patient's ability to recognise and respond to the symptoms of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is imperative for seeking timely medical intervention. Innovative patient education interventions are needed to support patient education and patient self-care. METHODS: Participatory action research methods were used to engage consumers with cardiac and IT experts to develop an avatar-based education application...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767295/violation-of-expectations-about-movement-and-goal-achievement-leads-to-sense-of-agency-reduction
#7
Riccardo Villa, Emmanuele Tidoni, Giuseppina Porciello, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
The control of one's own movements and of their impact on the external world generates a feeling of control referred to as Sense of Agency (SoA). SoA is experienced when actions match predictions and is reduced by unpredicted events. The present study investigated the contribution of monitoring two fundamental components of action-movement execution and goal achievement-that have been most often explored separately in previous research. We have devised a new paradigm in which participants performed goal-directed actions while viewing an avatar's hand in a mixed-reality scenario...
May 16, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765152/illusory-body-ownership-of-an-invisible-body-interpolated-between-virtual-hands-and-feet-via-visual-motor-synchronicity
#8
Ryota Kondo, Maki Sugimoto, Kouta Minamizawa, Takayuki Hoshi, Masahiko Inami, Michiteru Kitazaki
Body ownership can be modulated through illusory visual-tactile integration or visual-motor synchronicity/contingency. Recently, it has been reported that illusory ownership of an invisible body can be induced by illusory visual-tactile integration from a first-person view. We aimed to test whether a similar illusory ownership of the invisible body could be induced by the active method of visual-motor synchronicity and if the illusory invisible body could be experienced in front of and facing away from the observer...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762259/precise-and-automatic-patient-positioning-in-computed-tomography-avatar-modeling-of-the-patient-surface-using-a-3-dimensional-camera
#9
Natalia Saltybaeva, Bernhard Schmidt, Andreas Wimmer, Thomas Flohr, Hatem Alkadhi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a 3-dimensional (3D) camera algorithm for automatic and individualized patient positioning based on body surface detection and to compare the results of the 3D camera with manual positioning performed by technologists in routinely obtained chest and abdomen computed tomography (CT) examinations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included data of 120 patients undergoing clinically indicated chest (n = 68) and abdomen (n = 52) CT...
May 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762063/agency-and-gender-influence-older-adults-presence-related-experiences-in-an-interactive-virtual-environment
#10
Oswald D Kothgassner, Andreas Goreis, Johanna X Kafka, Helmut Hlavacs, Leon Beutl, Ilse Kryspin-Exner, Anna Felnhofer
While virtual humans are increasingly used to benefit the elderly, considerably little is still known about older adults' virtual experiences. However, due to age-related changes, older adults' perceptions of virtual environments (VEs) may be unique. Hence, our objective was to examine possible gender differences in immersion, flow, and emotional states as well as physical and social presence in elderly males and females interacting either with a computer-controlled agent or a human-controlled avatar. Seventy-eight German-speaking older adults were randomly assigned to an avatar or an agent condition and were exposed to a brief social encounter in a virtual café...
May 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755378/the-architectonic-experience-of-body-and-space-in-augmented-interiors
#11
Isabella Pasqualini, Maria Laura Blefari, Tej Tadi, Andrea Serino, Olaf Blanke
The environment shapes our experience of space in constant interaction with the body. Architectonic interiors amplify the perception of space through the bodily senses; an effect also known as embodiment. The interaction of the bodily senses with the space surrounding the body can be tested experimentally through the manipulation of multisensory stimulation and measured via a range of behaviors related to bodily self-consciousness. Many studies have used Virtual Reality to show that visuotactile conflicts mediated via a virtual body or avatar can disrupt the unified subjective experience of the body and self...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748586/the-gut-liver-axis-and-the-intersection-with-the-microbiome
#12
REVIEW
Anupriya Tripathi, Justine Debelius, David A Brenner, Michael Karin, Rohit Loomba, Bernd Schnabl, Rob Knight
In the past decade, an exciting realization has been that diverse liver diseases - ranging from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma - fall along a spectrum. Work on the biology of the gut-liver axis has assisted in understanding the basic biology of both alcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Of immense importance is the advancement in understanding the role of the microbiome, driven by high-throughput DNA sequencing and improved computational techniques that enable the complexity of the microbiome to be interrogated, together with improved experimental designs...
May 10, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746465/the-cybathlon-bci-race-successful-longitudinal-mutual-learning-with-two-tetraplegic-users
#13
Serafeim Perdikis, Luca Tonin, Sareh Saeedi, Christoph Schneider, José Del R Millán
This work aims at corroborating the importance and efficacy of mutual learning in motor imagery (MI) brain-computer interface (BCI) by leveraging the insights obtained through our participation in the BCI race of the Cybathlon event. We hypothesized that, contrary to the popular trend of focusing mostly on the machine learning aspects of MI BCI training, a comprehensive mutual learning methodology that reinstates the three learning pillars (at the machine, subject, and application level) as equally significant could lead to a BCI-user symbiotic system able to succeed in real-world scenarios such as the Cybathlon event...
May 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724701/experiences-of-a-motivational-interview-delivered-by-a-robot-qualitative-study
#14
Joana Galvão Gomes da Silva, David J Kavanagh, Tony Belpaeme, Lloyd Taylor, Konna Beeson, Jackie Andrade
BACKGROUND: Motivational interviewing is an effective intervention for supporting behavior change but traditionally depends on face-to-face dialogue with a human counselor. This study addressed a key challenge for the goal of developing social robotic motivational interviewers: creating an interview protocol, within the constraints of current artificial intelligence, which participants will find engaging and helpful. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore participants' qualitative experiences of a motivational interview delivered by a social robot, including their evaluation of usability of the robot during the interaction and its impact on their motivation...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719520/eyewitness-memory-in-face-to-face-and-immersive-avatar-to-avatar-contexts
#15
Donna A Taylor, Coral J Dando
Technological advances offer possibilities for innovation in the way eyewitness testimony is elicited. Typically, this occurs face-to-face. We investigated whether a virtual environment, where interviewer and eyewitness communicate as avatars, might confer advantages by attenuating the social and situational demands of a face-to-face interview, releasing more cognitive resources for invoking episodic retrieval mode. In conditions of intentional encoding, eyewitnesses were interviewed 48 h later, either face-to-face or in a virtual environment ( N = 38)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713292/avatar-therapy-for-persistent-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-an-ultra-resistant-schizophrenia-patient-a-case-report
#16
Laura Dellazizzo, Stéphane Potvin, Kingsada Phraxayavong, Pierre Lalonde, Alexandre Dumais
Effective treatment strategies for schizophrenia remain very challenging and many treatment-resistant patients will suffer from persistent auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). While clozapine is the gold-standard medication for this complex population, many will not respond to this molecule. For these ultra-resistant patients, limited options are available. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most widely used psychological intervention, though it offers modest effects. With the interpersonal dimension of AVH being recognized, Avatar Therapy (AT), a novel experiential treatment enabling patients to create an avatar of their persecutor and allowing them to gain control over their symptoms, was developed and tested...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709259/cancer-crispr-screens-in-vivo
#17
REVIEW
Ryan D Chow, Sidi Chen
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) screening is a powerful toolset for investigating diverse biological processes. Most CRISPR screens to date have been performed with in vitro cultures or cellular transplant models. To interrogate cancer in animal models that more closely recapitulate the human disease, autochthonous direct in vivo CRISPR screens have recently been developed that can identify causative drivers in the native tissue microenvironment. By empowering multiplexed mutagenesis in fully immunocompetent animals, direct in vivo CRISPR screens enable the rapid generation of patient-specific avatars that can guide precision medicine...
May 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707220/the-impact-of-virtual-reality-on-implicit-racial-bias-and-mock-legal-decisions
#18
Natalie Salmanowitz
Implicit racial biases are one of the most vexing problems facing current society. These split-second judgments are not only widely prevalent, but also are notoriously difficult to overcome. Perhaps most concerning, implicit racial biases can have consequential impacts on decisions in the courtroom, where scholars have been unable to provide a viable mitigation strategy. This article examines the influence of a short virtual reality paradigm on implicit racial biases and evaluations of legal scenarios. After embodying a black avatar in the virtual world, participants produced significantly lower implicit racial bias scores than those who experienced a sham version of the virtual reality paradigm...
May 2018: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704260/comments-to-skin-findings-of-21st-century-movie-response
#19
Yoshihiro Ishida, Atsushi Otsuka, Kenji Kabashima
We admire V Reese and co-authors for shedding lights on problematic depiction of human body in classic movies in their original paper1 . We would like to address the inquiries made to our recent article2 ,3 . First, I apologize for erroneously assigning Colonel Miles Quaritch from Avatar as having no persistent skin findings. As they pointed out, he displays significant scar spanning from the right cheek to the scalp. Second, we agree that "lip deficit" understates the extent of the facial defect in Mad Max: Fury Road's in Immortan Joe...
April 28, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688217/a-mobile-brain-body-imaging-dataset-recorded-during-treadmill-walking-with-a-brain-computer-interface
#20
Yongtian He, Trieu Phat Luu, Kevin Nathan, Sho Nakagome, Jose L Contreras-Vidal
We present a mobile brain-body imaging (MoBI) dataset acquired during treadmill walking in a brain-computer interface (BCI) task. The data were collected from eight healthy subjects, each having three identical trials. Each trial consisted of three conditions: standing, treadmill walking, and treadmill walking with a closed-loop BCI. During the BCI condition, subjects used their brain activity to control a virtual avatar on a screen to walk in real-time. Robust procedures were designed to record lower limb joint angles (bilateral hip, knee, and ankle) using goniometers synchronized with 60-channel scalp electroencephalography (EEG)...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Data
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