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Disorders of sexual development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234280/blunted-diurnal-cortisol-activity-in-healthy-adults-with-childhood-adversity
#1
Yuliya I Kuras, Naomi Assaf, Myriam V Thoma, Danielle Gianferante, Luke Hanlin, Xuejie Chen, Alexander Fiksdal, Nicolas Rohleder
Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as a result of differential hippocampal development in early life. A blunted diurnal cortisol slope is a precursor for many disorders. While studies have focused on HPA reactivity in relation to childhood adversity, there has been markedly less research on basal HPA functioning in those with low-to-moderate adversity...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230558/psychiatric-comorbidity-and-intimate-partner-violence-among-women-who-inject-drugs-in-europe-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Judit Tirado-Muñoz, Gail Gilchrist, Gabriele Fischer, Avril Taylor, Jacek Moskalewicz, Cinzia Giammarchi, Birgit Köchl, Alison Munro, Katarzyna Dąbrowska, April Shaw, Lucia Di Furia, Isabella Leeb, Caroline Hopf, Marta Torrens
Women who inject drugs (WWID) are an especially vulnerable group of drug users. This study determined the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity and intimate partrner violence (IPV), and factors associated with psychiatric comorbidity among WWID recruited from drug treatment services (67%) and harm reduction services in five European regions in Austria, Catalonia, Italy, Poland, and Scotland. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed among 226 WWID using the Dual Diagnosis Screening Instrument. IPV was assessed using the Composite Abuse Scale and injecting and sexual risk behaviors were assessed using a battery of questionnaires adapted and developed for the study...
December 11, 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225554/recent-developments-in-psychopharmaceutical-approaches-to-treating-female-sexual-interest-and-arousal-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Stephanie Both
Purpose of Review: This review summarizes the recent literature and empirical studies on psychopharmacological approaches to treating female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD). Recent Findings: Several new drugs for FSIAD that are intended to increase sexual responsiveness by influencing central excitatory and inhibitory neuromodulatory processes are under development. Studies on flibanserin resulted in the first approved medication for the treatment of low sexual desire in premenopausal women...
2017: Current Sexual Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225044/fear-extinction-in-an-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-animal-model-influence-of-sex-and-estrous-cycle
#4
Adriano Edgar Reimer, Amanda Ribeiro de Oliveira, Juliana Belo Diniz, Marcelo Queiroz Hoexter, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Mohammed Ragib Milad, Marcus Lira Brandão
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric condition that affects men and women equally, but with a sexually dimorphic pattern of development. Reproductive cycle events can influence symptom severity of OCD in females, indicating that ovarian hormones or their interaction with distinct neurotransmitter systems may play a role in OCD pathophysiology. Clinical studies and animal models have confirmed the importance of the serotonergic (5-HT) system in the neurobiology and treatment of OCD. Accordingly, the non-selective 5-HT2c agonist, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), exacerbates symptoms in untreated OCD patients...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224111/prenatal-testosterone-programming-of-insulin-resistance-in-the%C3%A2-female-sheep
#5
Muraly Puttabyatappa, Vasantha Padmanabhan
Insulin resistance, a common feature of metabolic disorders such as obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome, is a risk factor for development of diabetes. Because sex hormones orchestrate the establishment of sex-specific behavioral, reproductive, and metabolic differences, a role for them in the developmental origin of insulin resistance is also to be expected. Female sheep exposed to male levels of testosterone during fetal life serve as an excellent translational model for delineating programming of insulin resistance...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223515/-patients-assaulted-in-psychiatric-institutions-literature-review-and-clinical-implications
#6
A Ladois-Do Pilar Rei, S Chraïbi
BACKGROUND: The psychiatric ward is a place where all forms of violence are treated. Occasionally, this violence involves acts of aggression between patients in emergency psychiatric units or hospital wards. Such events can lead to the development or worsening of posttraumatic stress disorder. METHODS: To establish the context, we first examined the epidemiology data concerning posttraumatic stress disorder in psychiatric patients who were frequently exposed to assaults...
December 6, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220612/coexistence-of-trisomy-13-and-sry-xx-ovotesticular-disorder-of-sex-development
#7
Gizem Ürel Demir, Özlem Akgün Doğan, Pelin Özlem Şimşek Kiper, Gülen Eda Utine, Koray Boduroğlu, Safak Gucer, Mehmet Alikaşifoğlu
INTRODUCTION: Ovotesticular disorder of sex development (OT-DSD) is a rare disorder of sexual differentiation characterized by the presence of both testicular and ovarian tissue in an individual and the majority of cases have been reported with 46,XX karyotype. In 46,XX cases, testicular differentiation may occur due to the translocation of SRY to the X chromosome or to an autosome. CASE REPORT: Herein, we present a female newborn with a combination of trisomy 13 and SRY (-) XX OT-DSD...
December 8, 2017: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220065/clinical-profile-of-patients-with-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures-in-puerto-rico
#8
Joashlie M Méndez-Ruiz, Alfonso Martínez-Taboas, Yeira M Valdez-Pimentel, Miguel Torres-Narváez, Marianette Colón-Laboy, Gisela G Jiménez-Colón, José Rodríguez-Gómez, Christian J González-Jiménez
OBJECTIVE: Specialized epilepsy clinics receive many cases (20%-30% of total cases) in which the patients are diagnosed with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). In Puerto Rico, there has been a lack of research on and data about patients with PNES. This study examined the clinical profile of 34 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PNES. METHODS: A secondary analysis of 34 clinical records of patients with PNES was conducted. The resulting profile was based on clinical interviews, the behavioral presentation of seizures, the history of traumatic experiences or abuse, and the relationship between PNES events and life stressors...
December 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219112/haploinsufficiency-of-dmrt-gene-cluster-in-a-case-with-46-xy-ovotesticular-disorder-of-sexual-development
#9
Metin Eser, Akif Ayaz
BACKGROUND: Ovotesticular disorder is characterized by the presence of testicular tissue and ovarian tissue in the same individual. Single gen mutations such as SRY, SOX9, DMRT1 and DAX1 can lead to ovotesticular disorder of sexual development. CASE REPORT: Herein, we reported a 3 month-old phenotypically female detected tissues differentiated both Mullerian duct and Wolffian ducts on pathological analysis of laparoscopic biopsy material. In our case observed 46,XY,der(9)t(3;9)(p25;p24) on chromosomal analysis were detected deletion of 9p24...
December 8, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216968/gender-trouble-the-world-health-organization-the-international-statistical-classification-of-diseases-and-related-health-problems-icd-11-and-the-trans-kids
#10
Sam Winter
The World Health Organization (WHO) is revising its diagnostic manual, the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD). At the time of writing, and based on recommendations from its ICD Working Group on Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health, WHO is proposing a new ICD chapter titled Conditions Related to Sexual Health, and that the gender incongruence diagnoses (replacements for the gender identity disorder diagnoses used in ICD-10) should be placed in that chapter. WHO is proposing that there should be a Gender incongruence of childhood (GIC) diagnosis for children below the age of puberty...
October 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213232/stress-induced-chronic-visceral-pain-of-gastrointestinal-origin
#11
REVIEW
Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Anthony C Johnson
Visceral pain is generally poorly localized and characterized by hypersensitivity to a stimulus such as organ distension. In concert with chronic visceral pain, there is a high comorbidity with stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The mechanisms linking visceral pain with these overlapping comorbidities remain to be elucidated. Evidence suggests that long term stress facilitates pain perception and sensitizes pain pathways, leading to a feed-forward cycle promoting chronic visceral pain disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211317/neurobiology-of-gender-identity-and-sexual-orientation
#12
REVIEW
Charles E Roselli
Sexual identity and sexual orientation are independent components of a person's sexual identity. These dimensions are most often in harmony with each other and with an individual's genital sex, but not always. This review discusses the relationship of sexual identity and sexual orientation to prenatal factors that act to shape the development of the brain and the expression of sexual behaviors in animals and humans. One major influence discussed relates to organizational effects that the early hormone environment exerts on both gender identity and sexual orientation...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201068/gender-identity-in-patients-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#13
Maryam Razzaghy-Azar, Sakineh Karimi, Elham Shirazi
Background: Sex assignment in infancy for patients with disorder of sex development (DSD) is a challenging problem. Some of the patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have DSD that may affect their gender identity. Objectives: The study aimed to assess gender identity in patients with CAH. Methods: In this study, 52 patients with CAH, including 22 prepubertal children and 30 adolescents and adults, were assessed using two separate gender identity questionnaires for children and adults based on the criteria of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition...
July 2017: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200555/erectile-dysfunction-an-underestimated-presentation-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Zeeshan Anwar, Vishal Sinha, Sayantanava Mitra, Ashwani Kumar Mishra, Mahboobul Hasan Ansari, Abhishek Bharti, Vipin Kumar, Ashwini Kumar Nigam
Introduction: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus. ED, like other sexual disorders, is often under-reported and under-diagnosed, as talking about sex is considered a taboo in our society. Methodology: All the male patients with diabetes mellitus (with or without active complaints of ED) attending Medicine or Psychiatry OPD of the institute during the study period were enrolled in the study. They were investigated for their body-mass index (BMI), blood sugar and lipid profile; and were assessed on HAM-D, General Health Questionnaire-30, IIEF, sex myth checklist and QOL Instrument for Indian Diabetes Patients (QOLID)...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198504/female-sexual-dysfunction-medical-and-psychological-treatments-committee-14
#15
Sheryl A Kingsberg, Stanley Althof, James A Simon, Andrea Bradford, Johannes Bitzer, Joana Carvalho, Kathryn E Flynn, Rossella E Nappi, Jennifer B Reese, Roya L Rezaee, Leslie Schover, Jan L Shifrin
INTRODUCTION: Since the millennium we have witnessed significant strides in the science and treatment of female sexual dysfunction (FSD). This forward progress has included (i) the development of new theoretical models to describe healthy and dysfunctional sexual responses in women; (ii) alternative classification strategies of female sexual disorders; (iii) major advances in brain, hormonal, psychological, and interpersonal research focusing on etiologic factors and treatment approaches; (iv) strong and effective public advocacy for FSD; and (v) greater educational awareness of the impact of FSD on the woman and her partner...
December 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198412/intimate-partner-violence-during-pregnancy-and-perinatal-mental-disorders-in-low-and-lower-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-of-literature-1990-2017
#16
REVIEW
Nafisa Halim, Jennifer Beard, Aldina Mesic, Archana Patel, David Henderson, Patricia Hibberd
Mental health consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant and postpartum women are poorly understood in low and lower-middle-income countries (LLMIC). We systematically reviewed the evidence from 24 studies (1990-2017) selected via a comprehensive search strategy with 14 inclusion, exclusion, and quality-control criteria to assess the extent to which intimate partner violence during pregnancy adversely affects perinatal mental disorders among participants in 10 LLMIC across 4 economic regions...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197206/characteristics-and-development-of-nonsuicidal-super-self-injury-among-borderline-inpatients
#17
Katalin Merza, Gábor Papp, Judit Molnár, Ildikó Kuritárné Szabó
BACKGROUND: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a key feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD), which is strongly associated with childhood traumatization. To the best of our knowledge, there has been a lack of studies investigating extensively the characteristics of borderline patients who engage in extremely high numbers of NSSI, and their features of NSSI, trauma history and psychopathology. The aim of this study is to identify groups of borderline inpatients on the basis of the lifetime number of NSSI, and to explore the characteristics of these groups regarding the onset, reasons and methods of NSSI, history of childhood traumatization, and severity of psychopathology...
December 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196732/human-crmp4-mutation-and-disrupted-crmp4-expression-in-mice-are-associated-with-asd-characteristics-and-sexual-dimorphism
#18
Atsuhiro Tsutiya, Yui Nakano, Emily Hansen-Kiss, Benjamin Kelly, Masugi Nishihara, Yoshio Goshima, Don Corsmeier, Peter White, Gail E Herman, Ritsuko Ohtani-Kaneko
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are more common among boys than girls. The mechanisms responsible for ASD symptoms and their sex differences remain mostly unclear. We previously identified collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4) as a protein exhibiting sex-different expression during sexual differentiation of the hypothalamic sexually dimorphic nucleus. This study investigated the relationship between the sex-different development of autistic features and CRMP4 deficiency. Whole-exome sequencing detected a de novo variant (S541Y) of CRMP4 in a male ASD patient...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191671/erectile-dysfunction-and-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms
#19
REVIEW
Cosimo De Nunzio, Claus G Roehrborn, Karl-Erik Andersson, Kevin T McVary
CONTEXT: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) and erectile dysfunction (ED) are substantial health concerns with a significant impact on the overall male quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the available evidence of the association between LUTSs and ED in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and discuss possible clinical implications for the management of LUTS/BPH. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review of the existing literature published between 1997 and June 2017 and available in the Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science databases was conducted using both the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) and free-text protocols...
November 27, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190620/four-novel-nr5a1-mutations-in-46-xy-gonadal-dysgenesis-patients-including-frameshift-mutations-with-altered-subcellular-sf-1-localization
#20
Jan Rehkämper, Ann-Christin Tewes, Judit Horvath, Gerd Scherer, Peter Wieacker, Susanne Ledig
46,XY gonadal dysgenesis (46,XY GD) is a disorder of sexual development caused by mutations in genes involved in early gonadal development (bipotential gonads) and testis differentiation. In 46,XY GD individuals, mutations of the SRY gene are detected most frequently, followed by mutations in the NR5A1 (SF-1) gene, but in a lot of cases, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we retrospectively performed sequence analyses of the NR5A1 (SF-1) gene in 84 patients with complete, partial, and syndromic forms of 46,XY GD...
December 1, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
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