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Disorders of sexual development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911086/affective-and-autonomic-responses-to-erotic-images-evidence-of-disgust-based-mechanisms-in-female-sexual-interest-arousal-disorder
#1
Natasha S DePesa, Jeffrey E Cassisi
Disgust has recently been implicated in the development and maintenance of female sexual dysfunction, yet most empirical studies have been conducted with a sexually healthy sample. The current study contributes to the literature by expanding the application of a disgust model of sexual functioning to a clinically relevant sample of women with low sexual desire/arousal and accompanying sexual distress. Young women (mean age = 19.12 years) with psychometrically defined sexual dysfunction (i.e., female sexual interest/arousal disorder [FSIAD] group) and a healthy control group were compared in their affective (i...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909452/the-levels-of-cortisol-and-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-in-child-and-adolescent-victims-of-sexual-abuse-with-or-without-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#2
Şeref Şimşek, Tuğba Yüksel, İbrahim Kaplan, Cem Uysal, Hüseyin Aktaş
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether cortisol and oxidative stress levels and DNA damage differ between individuals who developed PTSD or not following a sexual trauma. METHODS: The study included 61 children aged between 5 and 17 years who sustained sexual abuse (M/F: 18/43). The patients were divided into two groups: patients with PTSD and patients without PTSD based, based on the results of a structured psychiatric interview (K-SADS-PL and CAPS-CA)...
November 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901410/bystander-interventions-for-sexual-assault-and-dating-violence-on-college-campuses-are-we-putting-bystanders-in-harm-s-way
#3
Tricia H Witte, Deborah M Casper, Christine L Hackman, Mazheruddin M Mulla
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the well-being of bystanders who witness and intervene in sexual assault and dating violence situations on campus. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 321 young men and women from a large university in the southeastern United States. METHODS: Participants completed a survey at the end of the Spring semester of 2015 about risky situations they had witnessed with follow up questions about their responses to the situations (e...
November 30, 2016: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900222/surgical-outcomes-and-complications-of-tube%C3%A2-promedon-malleable-penile-prostheses-in-diabetic-versus-non-diabetic-patients-with-erectile-dysfunction
#4
Elnisr Rashed Mohamed, Ahmed Rashed Hammady, Mohamed Zaki Eldahshoury, Ahmed Mamdouh Elsharkawi, Ahmed Mahmoud Riad, Hazem Mohamed Elmogazy, Mohamed Mostafa Hussien, Wael Mohamed Gamal
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate surgical outcome, complications, and patients satisfaction with the Tube® (Promedon, Cordoba, Argentina) malleable penile prosthesis in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with refractory erectile dysfunction (ED). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The records of 128 eligible patients who received Tube malleable penile prostheses at our institute between September 2008 and October 2015 were reviewed. RESULTS: Of the 128 patients, who received Tube penile prostheses at our institute, 53 were diabetics and 75 were non-diabetics...
December 2016: Arab Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871958/current-perspectives-on-stem-cell-therapy-for-erectile-dysfunction
#5
REVIEW
Taylor C Peak, James Anaissie, Wayne J G Hellstrom
INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common sexual disorder that affects the lives of millions of male patients and their partners. Various medical and surgical therapies exist, with the most common being oral intake of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors. One therapeutic strategy in preclinical development to treat ED is stem cell transplantation. AIM: To examine the studies that have investigated stem cells for the treatment of ED. METHODS: A literature review was performed through PubMed focusing on stem cells and ED...
July 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870453/do-microglia-play-a-role-in-sex-differences-in-tbi
#6
REVIEW
Henry W Caplan, Charles S Cox, Supinder S Bedi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for both males and females and is, thus, a major focus of current study. Although the overall death rate of TBI for males is roughly three times higher than that for females, males have been disproportionately represented in clinical and preclinical studies. Gender differences are known to exist in many neurologic disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and stroke, and differences appear to exist in TBI. Furthermore, it is known that microglia have sexually dimorphic roles in CNS development and other neurologic conditions; however, most animal studies of microglia and TBI have focused on male subjects...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870450/the-immune-system-as-a-novel-regulator-of-sex-differences-in-brain-and-behavioral-development
#7
REVIEW
Lars H Nelson, Kathryn M Lenz
Sexual differentiation of the brain occurs early in life as a result of sex-typical hormone action and sex chromosome effects. Immunocompetent cells are being recognized as underappreciated regulators of sex differences in brain and behavioral development, including microglia, astrocytes, and possibly other less well studied cell types, including T cells and mast cells. Immunocompetent cells in the brain are responsive to steroid hormones, but their role in sex-specific brain development is an emerging field of interest...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870447/sex-on-the-brain-are-gender-dependent-structural-and-functional-differences-associated-with-behavior
#8
REVIEW
Anna Grabowska
A substantial number of studies provide evidence documenting a variety of sex differences in the brain. It remains unclear whether sexual differentiation at the neural level is related to that observed in daily behavior, cognitive function, and the risk of developing certain psychiatric and neurological disorders. Some investigators have questioned whether the brain is truly sexually differentiated and support this view with several arguments including the following: (1) brain structural or functional differences are not necessarily reflected in appropriate differences at the behavioral level, which might suggest that these two phenomena are not linked to each other; and (2) sex-related differences in the brain are rather small and concern features that significantly overlap between males and females...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870428/-putative-sex-differences-in-neuroimmune-modulation-of-memory
#9
REVIEW
Natalie C Tronson, Katie M Collette
The neuroimmune system is significantly sexually dimorphic, with sex differences evident in the number and activation states of microglia, in the activation of astrocytes, and in cytokine release and function. Neuroimmune cells and signaling are now recognized as critical for many neural functions throughout the life span, including synaptic plasticity and memory function. Here we address the question of how cytokines, astrocytes, and microglia contribute to memory, and specifically how neuroimmune modulation of memory differentially affects males and females...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870416/sex-specific-mechanisms-for-responding-to-stress
#10
REVIEW
Debra A Bangasser, Brittany Wicks
Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression share stress as an etiological contributor and are more common in women than in men. Traditionally, preclinical studies investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of stress vulnerability have used only male rodents; however, recent studies that include females are finding sex-specific mechanisms for responding to stress. This Mini-Review examines recent literature using a framework developed by McCarthy and colleagues (2012; J Neurosci 32:2241-2247) that highlights different types of sex differences...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870402/genetic-and-epigenetic-factors-underlying-sex-differences-in-the-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-the-brain
#11
REVIEW
Vikram S Ratnu, Michael R Emami, Timothy W Bredy
There are inherent biological differences between males and females that contribute to sex differences in brain function and to many sex-specific illnesses and disorders. Traditionally, it has been thought that such differences are due largely to hormonal regulation; however, there are also genetic and epigenetic effects caused by the inheritance and unequal dosage of genes located on the X and Y chromosomes. Here we discuss the evidence in favor of a genetic and epigenetic basis for sexually dimorphic behavior, as a consequence of underlying differences in the regulation of genes that drive brain function...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870392/brain-circuitry-associated-with-the-development-of-substance-use-in-bipolar-disorder-and-preliminary-evidence-for-sexual-dimorphism-in-adolescents
#12
Elizabeth T C Lippard, Carolyn M Mazure, Jennifer A Y Johnston, Linda Spencer, Judah Weathers, Brian Pittman, Fei Wang, Hilary P Blumberg
Substance use disorders and mood disorders are highly comorbid and confer a high risk for adverse outcomes. However, data are limited on the neurodevelopmental basis of this comorbidity. Substance use initiation typically occurs during adolescence, and sex-specific developmental mechanisms are implicated. In this preliminary study, we review the literature and investigate regional gray matter volume (GMV) associated with subsequent substance use problems in adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD) and explore these associations for females and males...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857842/zebrafish-models-of-prader-willi-syndrome-fast-track-to-pharmacotherapeutics
#13
Emma D Spikol, Caroline E Laverriere, Maya Robnett, Gabriela Carter, Erin Wolfe, Eric Glasgow
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by an insatiable appetite, leading to chronic overeating and obesity. Additional features include short stature, intellectual disability, behavioral problems and incomplete sexual development. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the genetic basis of PWS, the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of the disorder remain poorly understood. Treatment for PWS consists mainly of palliative therapies; curative therapies are sorely needed...
March 2016: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857130/early-life-exposure-to-edcs-role-in-childhood-obesity-and-neurodevelopment
#14
REVIEW
Joseph M Braun
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) might increase the risk of childhood diseases by disrupting hormone-mediated processes that are critical for growth and development during gestation, infancy and childhood. The fetus, infant and child might have enhanced sensitivity to environmental stressors such as EDCs due to their rapid development and increased exposure to some EDCs as a consequence of development-specific behaviour, anatomy and physiology. In this Review, I discuss epidemiological studies examining the relationship between early-life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates, triclosan and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with childhood neurobehavioural disorders and obesity...
November 18, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856768/treatment-for-youth-paraphilic-disorders-opportunities-to-reduce-harm
#15
John Kasinathan
OBJECTIVE: To outline current understanding and recommended treatments for paraphilic or sexual deviant disorders in adolescents and youth. METHOD: An overview of the diagnosis, development and scope of paraphilic disorders. Evidence and an algorithm for pharmacological treatments in youth are outlined. RESULTS: Paraphilic disorders are relatively common in adolescents and youth, with fantasies and urges preceding the onset of deviant behaviour by a handful of years...
November 17, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853336/seventeen-alpha-hydroxylase-deficiency-associated-with-absent-gonads-and-myelolipoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#16
Mahmood Soveid, Ghanbar Ali Rais-Jalali
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia comprises a group of disorders resulting from defects in enzymes required for the synthesis of cortisol. The clinical presentation depends on the specific enzyme defect. We report a rare case of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency. A 26-year-old female patient referred with hypertension and hypokalemia. She also had primary amenorrhea and lack of sexual development. The karyotype was 46, XY. Hormonal evaluation showed low serum levels of all steroid hormones, requiring alpha-hydroxylation, which included cortisol, 17 alpha-hydroxy progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estradiol, and testosterone...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846226/pleiotropic-mechanisms-indicated-for-sex-differences-in-autism
#17
Ileena Mitra, Kathryn Tsang, Christine Ladd-Acosta, Lisa A Croen, Kimberly A Aldinger, Robert L Hendren, Michela Traglia, Alinoë Lavillaureix, Noah Zaitlen, Michael C Oldham, Pat Levitt, Stanley Nelson, David G Amaral, Irva Herz-Picciotto, M Daniele Fallin, Lauren A Weiss
Sexual dimorphism in common disease is pervasive, including a dramatic male preponderance in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Potential genetic explanations include a liability threshold model requiring increased polymorphism risk in females, sex-limited X-chromosome contribution, gene-environment interaction driven by differences in hormonal milieu, risk influenced by genes sex-differentially expressed in early brain development, or contribution from general mechanisms of sexual dimorphism shared with secondary sex characteristics...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845777/newer-insights-into-the-role-of-mirna-a-tiny-genetic-tool-in-psychiatric-disorders-focus-on-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#18
REVIEW
V V Giridharan, R A Thandavarayan, G R Fries, C Walss-Bass, T Barichello, N J Justice, M K Reddy, J Quevedo
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder occurring in about 2-9% of individuals after their exposure to life-threatening events, such as severe accidents, sexual abuse, combat or a natural catastrophe. Because PTSD patients are exposed to trauma, it is likely that epigenetic modifications have an important role in disease development and prognosis. For the past two decades, abnormal expression of the epigenetic regulators microRNAs (miRs) and miR-mediated gene regulation have been given importance in a variety of human diseases, such as cancer, heart disease and viral infection...
November 15, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845239/circuit-dysregulation-and-circuit-based-treatments-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Jony Sheynin, Israel Liberzon
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that develops in some individuals in the aftermath of exposure to traumatic events, such as actual or threatened death, serious injury or sexual assault. It has been hypothesized that dysregulations in a number of specific neurocircuits, characterized by heightened responsivity of amygdala, dACC and insula, diminished responsivity of mPFC, impaired hippocampal function and deficits in cortical regions, underlie the development and expression of key PTSD symptoms...
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843072/toward-a-more-evidence-based-nosology-and-nomenclature-for-female-sexual-dysfunctions-part-ii
#20
Sharon J Parish, Andrew T Goldstein, Sue W Goldstein, Irwin Goldstein, James Pfaus, Anita H Clayton, Annamaria Giraldi, James A Simon, Stanley E Althof, Gloria Bachmann, Barry Komisaruk, Roy Levin, Susan Kellogg Spadt, Sheryl A Kingsberg, Michael A Perelman, Marcel D Waldinger, Beverly Whipple
INTRODUCTION: Current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) definitions of sexual dysfunction do not identify all sexual problems experienced clinically by women and are not necessarily applicable for biologic or biopsychosocial management of female sexual dysfunction. A unified nomenclature system enables clinicians, researchers, and regulatory agencies to use the same language and criteria for determining clinical end points, assessing research results, and managing patients...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
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