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Disorders of sexual development

Sophie Rausch, Julia Herzog, Janine Thome, Petra Ludäscher, Meike Müller-Engelmann, Regina Steil, Kathlen Priebe, Thomas Fydrich, Nikolaus Kleindienst
BACKGROUND: Childhood interpersonal violence is a major risk factor for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), other axis-I disorders or Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Individuals with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical abuse (CPA) who meet the criteria of any axis-I disorder usually also exhibit general psychopathologic symptoms and impairments in quality of life and sexuality. The present study investigates whether women with a history of potentially traumatic CSA/CPA without any axis-I disorder or BPD show subthreshold symptoms of PTSD-specific and general psychopathology and impairments in global functioning, quality of life, and sexuality...
2016: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
T A M Teunissen, S H Lo Fong Wong, A L M Lagro-Janssen
Sexual abuse is very common. In the Netherlands 42% of women and 13% of men aged over 25 years have experienced unacceptable sexual behaviour. Most victims do not seek professional help nor do they report the abuse to the police, and most of the victims who do seek medical help do not mention the abuse. Doctors often do not recognize the signs of sexual abuse. Most victims of rape have symptoms that may develop into posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) if they persist for more than 4 weeks, such as sleep problems or panic attacks...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Drew A Kingston, Franklyn J Graham, Raymond A Knight
Hypersexuality, or extreme normophilic sexual urges and behaviors, is a controversial construct that was recently considered as a candidate disorder for the DSM-5 and was rejected. It was also rejected for inclusion in Section III (Conditions for Further Study). Nonetheless, it has been found to be an important predictor of recidivism among sex offenders, and it continues to be discussed widely in the literature. In the present study, we investigated the developmental roots of this construct in a sample of 529 adult male sexual offenders, who were administered the Multidimensional Assessment of Sex and Aggression...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Richard Quinton, Yaasir Mamoojee, Channa N Jayasena, Jacques Young, Sasha Howard, Leo Dunkel, Tim Cheetham, Neil Smith, Andrew A Dwyer
The recent Society for Endocrinology (SFE) UK Guidance on the Initial Evaluation of an Infant or an Adolescent with a Suspected Disorder of Sex Development (DSD) provides invaluable advice for clinicians treating affected patients (Ahmed, et al., 2016). Such reports are key to synthesizing evidence, sharing expert opinion and emphasizing the importance of supporting patients and families with rare disorders within the context of a multidisciplinary approach. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
Leonard R Derogatis, Michael Sand, Richard Balon, Raymond Rosen, Sharon J Parish
INTRODUCTION: A nomenclature is defined as a classification system for assigning names or terms in a scientific discipline. A nosology more specifically provides a scientific classification system for diseases or disorders. Historically, the nosologic system informing female sexual dysfunction (FSD) has been the system developed by the American Psychiatric Association in its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III through DSM-5). Experts have recognized limitations of its use in clinical practice, including concerns that the DSM-5 system does not adequately reflect the spectrum and presentation of FSD...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Veronica Gomez-Lobo, Anne-Marie Amies Oelschlager
Disorders (differences) of sexual development encompass a variety of conditions with atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex. Three of the most common differences of sex development conditions include congenital adrenal hyperplasia, complete androgen insensitivity, and Turner syndrome. Obstetrician-gynecologists who care for affected individuals in their practice must be familiar with the genetic, endocrine, and anatomic considerations of the most common conditions to provide optimal care...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Cynthia Lien, Tony Rosen, Elizabeth M Bloemen, Robert C Abrams, Maria Pavlou, Mark S Lachs
OBJECTIVES: To identify patterns of personal experience or behavior in self-neglect by exploring narratives of cognitively intact older adults. DESIGN: Descriptive study involving semistructured interviews and unstructured narratives. SETTING: A parent study of self-neglect characteristics. PARTICIPANTS: Cognitively intact, self-neglecting older adults referred from 11 community-based senior services agencies (N = 69)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Beatriz D S F Bonamichi, Stella L M Santiago, Débora R Bertola, Chong A Kim, Nivaldo Alonso, Berenice B Mendonca, Tania A S S Bachega, Larissa G Gomes
P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a variant of congenital adrenal hyperplasia that is caused by POR gene mutations. The POR gene encodes a flavor protein that transfers electrons from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to all microsomal cytochrome P450 type II (including 21-hydroxylase, 17α-hydroxylase 17,20 lyase and aromatase), which is fundamental for their enzymatic activity. POR mutations cause variable impairments in steroidogenic enzyme activities that result in wide phenotypic variability ranging from 46,XX or 46,XY disorders of sexual differentiation, glucocorticoid deficiency, with or without skeletal malformations similar to Antley-Bixler syndrome to asymptomatic newborns diagnosed during neonatal screening test...
October 10, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Alice R Norton, Maree J Abbott
BACKGROUND: A number of key environmental factors during childhood have been implicated in the aetiology of social anxiety disorder (SAD), including aversive social experiences, traumatic life events and parent-child interaction. However, understanding the nature, interactions and relative contributions of these factors remains unclear. Furthermore, the relation of aversive social experiences to the development of key maintaining factors in SAD requires elucidation. AIMS: The current study aimed to extend previous research regarding the aetiology of SAD by investigating the relationship between key environmental factors in childhood, negative beliefs and self-imagery, and the development of SAD...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Donna Gillies, Licia Maiocchi, Abhishta P Bhandari, Fiona Taylor, Carl Gray, Louise O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents who have experienced trauma are at high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes, all of which are associated with high personal and health costs. A wide range of psychological treatments are used to prevent negative outcomes associated with trauma in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychological therapies in preventing PTSD and associated negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents who have undergone a traumatic event...
October 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Geoffrey M Reed, Jack Drescher, Richard B Krueger, Elham Atalla, Susan D Cochran, Michael B First, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, Iván Arango-de Montis, Sharon J Parish, Sara Cottler, Peer Briken, Shekhar Saxena
In the World Health Organization's forthcoming eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), substantial changes have been proposed to the ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders related to sexuality and gender identity. These concern the following ICD-10 disorder groupings: F52 Sexual dysfunctions, not caused by organic disorder or disease; F64 Gender identity disorders; F65 Disorders of sexual preference; and F66 Psychological and behavioural disorders associated with sexual development and orientation...
October 2016: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
Isabelle Blanchette, Serge Caparos
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to examine how working memory (WM) may be related to exposure to potentially traumatic events and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: In four studies, we measured WM function using adaptations of the running span and the reading span tasks. We compared the performance of women reporting experiences of sexual abuse to control participants (total n = 144 controls and 84 victims). We measured severity of the sexual abuse experiences as well as exposure to general life stress...
October 6, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Behzad S Khorashad, Zahra Aghili, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels, Mehran Hiradfar, Ghasem M Roshan, Mozhgan Afkhamizadeh, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan, Nosrat Ghaemi, Behnaz Khazai, Peggy Cohen Kettenis
INTRODUCTION: Few studies exist on the psychosexual outcome of homogeneous groups of individuals with 5α-reductase deficiency type 2 (5α-RD-2) and the relation between gender changes and parental hostile and benevolent sexism, which are two components of ambivalent sexism that assume a stereotypical approach toward women in an overtly negative way or a chivalrous, seemingly positive way. AIM: To report on the psychosexual outcome of individuals with 5α-RD-2 and to investigate its relation to the level of parental sexism in a relatively large sample of Iranians with 5α-RD-2...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
A Saleh, G G Potter, D R McQuoid, B Boyd, R Turner, J R MacFall, W D Taylor
BACKGROUND: Childhood early life stress (ELS) increases risk of adulthood major depressive disorder (MDD) and is associated with altered brain structure and function. It is unclear whether specific ELSs affect depression risk, cognitive function and brain structure. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 64 antidepressant-free depressed and 65 never-depressed individuals. Both groups reported a range of ELSs on the Early Life Stress Questionnaire, completed neuropsychological testing and 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
September 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Michael C Seto, J Paul Fedoroff, John M Bradford, Natasha Knack, Nicole C Rodrigues, Susan Curry, Brad Booth, Jonathan Gray, Colin Cameron, Dominique Bourget, Sarina Messina, Elizabeth James, Diane Watson, Sanjiv Gulati, Rufino Balmaceda, Adekunle G Ahmed
We tested the inter-rater reliability and criterion-related validity of the DSM-IV-TR pedophilia diagnosis and proposed DSM-5 pedohebephilia diagnosis in a sample of 79 men who had committed child pornography offenses, contact sexual offenses against children, or who were referred because of concerns about whether they had a sexual interest in children. Participants were evaluated by two independent psychiatrists with an interview and questionnaire regarding demographic characteristics, sexual history, and self-reported sexual interests; they also completed phallometric and visual reaction time testing...
September 22, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Hongjuan Li, Chengye Ji, Liu Yang, Cheng Zhuang
BACKGROUND: Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), the most plentiful circulating adrenal hormone, may be considered as a marker of the onset of adrenarche and is involved in pubertal development and metabolic disorders. AIM: The objective of this study is to determine the genetic and environmental influences on the variation of basal DHEAS levels and pubertal development in pubertal girls. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Three hundred and sixty twin girls aged 6-18-years were enrolled, consisting of 132 monozygotic pairs and 48 dizygotic pairs...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Marc Ferrer, Óscar Andión, Natalia Calvo, Josep A Ramos-Quiroga, Mònica Prat, Montserrat Corrales, Miguel Casas
Common environmental etiological factors between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been fully studied. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between childhood trauma histories, assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), with adult BPD, ADHD or BPD-ADHD diagnoses. Comorbid BPD-ADHD patients exhibited significantly higher clinical severity and higher scores in the Total Neglect Scale, compared to BPD and ADHD patients, and only a marginal difference was observed for Sexual Abuse when BPD and ADHD patients were compared...
September 22, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Carmita Helena Najjar Abdo
Ejaculatory function cannot be evaluated outside the dyadic process and without taking into account the men's and women's cognition of the condition and how their subjective perception impacts on the evaluation of the relationship and sexual quality. Although the distress of the sufferer and his partner has been a motivating factor in leading men with ejaculatory dysfunction to seek medical help, few objective or prospective evaluations of the effects on the couple have been reported. Specialized literature has been dealing with ejaculatory disorders in a heterogeneous manner...
August 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
Chris G McMahon, Emmanuele A Jannini, Ege C Serefoglu, Wayne J G Hellstrom
The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy...
August 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
Noriko Nishina-Uchida, Ryuji Fukuzawa, Tomohiro Ishii, Matthew R Anaka, Tomonobu Hasegawa, Yukihiro Hasegawa
Individuals with a 46,XX/46,XY karyotype are categorized as ovotesticular disorder of sexual development (ODSD) and have gonads with either an ovary on one side and a testis on the other side or a mixed ovotestis. To examine the distribution of 46,XX and 46,XY cells in gonads of 3 patients with ODSD, FISH for X and Y chromosomes and immunohistochemistry for SOX9 and FOXL2 were carried out. FISH analysis showed that XX signals were present in Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules, while cells containing Y signals were seen in epithelia of ovarian follicles...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
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