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Short bowel syndrom

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326962/intrauterine-fetal-death-with-vanishing-gastroschisis-and-post-mortem-examination-findings
#1
Alexandra Frances Jolley, Elizabeth Jane Beare, Jeremy Granger, Catherine Lucy Cord-Udy, Peter Muller, Lynette Moore
We present a severe case of vanishing gastroschisis resulting in intrauterine death with post mortem examination findings. Gastroschisis is defined as a full thickness paraumbilical abdominal wall defect associated with evisceration of fetal intestine. It is almost always right-sided. Vanishing gastroschisis is an extremely rare form of gastroschisis that results in short bowel syndrome due to exteriorized bowel disconnected from the lumen of the rest of the bowel proximally as well as distally in association with partial or complete closure of the abdominal wall...
March 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323272/constipation-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-females-have-normal-colonic-barrier-and-secretory-function
#2
Stephanie A Peters, Shoko Edogawa, Wendy J Sundt, Roy B Dyer, Daniel A Dalenberg, Amelia Mazzone, Ravinder J Singh, Natalie Moses, Thomas C Smyrk, Christopher Weber, David R Linden, Wallace K MacNaughton, Jerrold R Turner, Michael Camilleri, David A Katzka, Gianrico Farrugia, Madhusudan Grover
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) is associated with changes in intestinal barrier and secretory function. METHODS: A total of 19 IBS-C patients and 18 healthy volunteers (all females) underwent saccharide excretion assay (0.1 g (13)C mannitol and 1 g lactulose), measurements of duodenal and colonic mucosal barrier (transmucosal resistance (TMR), macromolecular and Escherichia coli Bio-Particle translocation), mucosal secretion (basal and acetylcholine (Ach)-evoked short-circuit current (Isc)), in vivo duodenal mucosal impedance, circulating endotoxins, and colonic tight junction gene expression...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300773/the-low-fodmap-diet-many-question-marks-for-a-catchy-acronym
#3
REVIEW
Giulia Catassi, Elena Lionetti, Simona Gatti, Carlo Catassi
FODMAP, "Fermentable Oligo-, Di- and Mono-saccharides And Polyols", is a heterogeneous group of highly fermentable but poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates and polyols. Dietary FODMAPs might exacerbate intestinal symptoms by increasing small intestinal water volume, colonic gas production, and intestinal motility. In recent years the low-FODMAP diet for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has gained increasing popularity. In the present review we aim to summarize the physiological, clinical, and nutritional issues, suggesting caution in the prolonged use of this dietary treatment on the basis of the existing literature...
March 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293969/teduglutide-for-treatment-of-adult-patients-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#4
Lore Billiauws, Julie Bataille, Vanessa Boehm, Olivier Corcos, Francisca Joly
The European Society for Clinical Nutrition has published recommendations on the "definition and classification of intestinal failure (IF)". Two criteria must be present: a "decreased absorption of macronutrients and/or water and electrolytes due to a loss of gut function" and the "need for parenteral support". Home parenteral support (HPS) is the primary treatment for chronic IF but is associated with complications. Areas covered: The principal cause of chronic IF is short bowel syndrome (SBS). The aim of treatment is to maximize intestinal absorption and reduce or eliminate the need for HPS to achieve the best possible quality of life...
March 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287202/-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-quality-of-life-psychopathological-variants
#5
Vincenzo Prisco, Teresa Iannaccone
INTRODUCTION: Purpose of the study was to analyze the quality of life and psychiatric symptomatology in patients suffering from Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. METHODS: In this study were enrolled 108 patients: 67 cases (Ulcerative Colitis in 39 patients, Crohn's Disease in 28 cases) and 41 controls (patients suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome). Patients were subjected to Self-Report Symptom Inventory-Revised (SCL-90-R) to analyze general psychiatric symptomatology; Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) to analyze depressive symptomatology; Short Form-36 (SF-36) to evaluate the quality of life...
February 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276811/new-therapeutic-options-for-ibs-the-role-of-the-first-in-class-mixed-%C3%A2%C2%B5-opioid-receptor-agonist-and-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-antagonist-mudelta-eluxadoline
#6
Maura Corsetti, Peter Whorwell
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder which represents a major cost to healthcare services. IBS-D patients represent about one-third of the IBS population and are currently treated with antispasmodics, loperamide, bile acid sequestrants and antidepressants. Alosetron and rifaximin are also available in USA, ramosetron in Japan, Korea and Thailand and ondansetron as an off-label treatment. Areas covered: This article focuses on eluxadoline, a novel pharmacological agent that has recently been approved by both the FDA and EMA for treatment of patients with IBS-D...
April 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267037/intravenous-lipid-emulsions-in-pediatric-patients-with-intestinal-failure
#7
Olivier Goulet, Cécile Lambe
The incidence of cholestatic liver disease (CLD) in pediatric patients suffering intestinal failure (IF) is not well established. Due to persistent portal inflammation, about 20% of these patients will progress to end-stage intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD) leading to liver transplant or death. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Premature babies as well as infants with short bowel syndrome (SBS) and repeated sepsis (catheter or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth related) are at risk of developing CLD...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266749/the-effect-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-glucagon-like-peptide-2-on-microcirculation-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Nikolaj Nerup, Rikard Ambrus, Joanna Lindhe, Michael P Achiam, Palle B Jeppesen, Lars B Svendsen
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and -2 (GLP-2) are gut-derived hormones used in the treatment of diabetes type-2 and short bowel syndrome, respectively. GLP-1 attenuates insulin resistance and GLP-2 reduces enterocyte apoptosis and enhances crypt cell proliferation in the small intestine. In addition, both hormones have vasoactive effects and may be useful in situations with impaired microcirculation. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of the potential effects of GLP-1 and GLP-2 on microcirculation...
March 7, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259479/-management-of-mesenteric-ischemia-in-the-era-of-intestinal-stroke-centers-the-gut-and-lifesaving-strategy
#9
A Nuzzo, O Corcos
Mesenteric ischemia is a gut and life-threatening, medical and surgical, digestive and vascular emergency. Mesenteric ischemia is the result of an arterial or venous occlusion, a vasospasm secondary to low-flow states in intensive care patients, aortic clamping during vascular surgery or intestinal transplantation. Progression towards mesenteric infarction and its complications is unpredictable and correlates with high rates of mortality or a high risk of short bowel syndrome in case of survival. Thus, mesenteric ischemia should be diagnosed and treated at an early stage, when gut injury is still reversible...
March 1, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249284/disease-associated-changes-in-bile-acid-profiles-and-links-to-altered-gut-microbiota
#10
Susan A Joyce, Cormac G M Gahan
The gastrointestinal microbiota plays a central role in the host metabolism of bile acids through deconjugation and dehydroxylation reactions, which generate unconjugated free bile acids and secondary bile acids respectively. These microbially generated bile acids are particularly potent signalling molecules that interact with host bile acid receptors (including the farnesoid X receptor, vitamin D receptor and TGR5 receptor) to trigger cellular responses that play essential roles in host lipid metabolism, electrolyte transport and immune regulation...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244673/history-of-the-low-fodmap-diet
#11
REVIEW
Peter R Gibson
It has long been known that many short-chain carbohydrates can induce abdominal symptoms that are similar to those in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It was hypothesized that restricting the intake of all short-chain carbohydrates that are either slowly absorbed or not digested in the small intestine should be considered together because they all have similar effects on the intestine by distending the lumen. These groups of carbohydrates were called, Fermentable, Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides and Monosaccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs), because of the lack of a known collective term...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244671/prebiotic-inulin-type-fructans-and-galacto-oligosaccharides-definition-specificity-function-and-application-in-gastrointestinal-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Bridgette Wilson, Kevin Whelan
Prebiotics are non-digestible selectively fermented dietary fibers that specifically promote the growth of one or more bacterial genera in the gastrointestinal tract and thus provide health benefit to the host. The two most investigated prebiotics being the inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides. Prebiotic specificity is mediated through species-specific gene clusters within saccharolytic bacteria controlled by signaling sensors for various substrates. Prebiotic health benefits are attributed to immune regulation and bacterial metabolite production...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244669/how-to-institute-the-low-fodmap-diet
#13
REVIEW
Jacqueline S Barrett
A diet low in poorly absorbed, fermentable, short chain carbohydrates (FODMAPs) is an effective strategy to manage symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The diet has gained traction since its original description in Australia 10 years ago and is now an internationally accepted dietary management strategy for IBS. Randomized controlled trials have raised the profile of the low-FODMAP diet to become a viable first-line therapy for IBS, when implemented under a dietitian's guidance. Importantly, the diagnosis of IBS should be confirmed before commencement of the dietary approach...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244658/nutritional-microbiological-and-psychosocial-implications-of-the-low-fodmap-diet
#14
REVIEW
Heidi Maria Staudacher
Dietary restriction of certain fermentable carbohydrates (low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet) is effective for managing symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, there are potential consequences of this diet that relate to its impact on nutritional, microbiological, and health-related quality of life outcomes. Evidence suggests that the low FODMAP diet leads to some alterations in nutrient intake. For example, carbohydrate intake is reduced, and there is a decrease in the proportion of patients meeting the recommended intake for calcium...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238523/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-pres-with-sub-arachnoid-haemorrhage-after-bevacizumab-and-5-fu
#15
Jennifer Massey
PRES is a neurological syndrome characterised by reversible subcortical vasogenic brain oedema in patients with acute neurological signs and symptoms. It occurs in the context of fluctuations in blood pressure, renal failure, autoimmune disorders, eclamptic syndromes and with use of cytotoxic drugs. We present the case of a 60year old female with advanced bowel cancer who was admitted with seizures and sub-arachnoid haemorrhage, with radiographic features of PRES, shortly after receiving bevacizumab (Avastin), a VEGF-inhibitor...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230078/unravelling-the-metabolic-impact-of-sbs-associated-microbial-dysbiosis-insights-from-the-piglet-short-bowel-syndrome-model
#16
Prue M Pereira-Fantini, Sean G Byars, James Pitt, Susan Lapthorne, Fiona Fouhy, Paul D Cotter, Julie E Bines
Liver disease is a major source of morbidity and mortality in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS). SBS-associated microbial dysbiosis has recently been implicated in the development of SBS-associated liver disease (SBS-ALD), however the pathological implications of this association have not been explored. In this study high-throughput sequencing of colonic content from the well-validated piglet SBS-ALD model was examined to determine alterations in microbial communities, and concurrent metabolic alterations identified in urine samples via targeted mass spectrometry approaches (GC-MS, LC-MS, FIA-MS) further uncovered impacts of microbial disturbance on metabolic outcomes in SBS-ALD...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216077/prenatal-diagnosis-and-outcome-of-fetal-gastrointestinal-obstruction
#17
Patricio E Lau, Stephanie Cruz, Christopher I Cassady, Amy R Mehollin-Ray, Rodrigo Ruano, Sundeep Keswani, Timothy C Lee, Oluyinka O Olutoye, Darrell L Cass
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for fetuses with gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction with correlation to postnatal outcomes. METHODS: Fetuses diagnosed with GI obstruction (excluding esophageal and duodenal) were reviewed for those evaluated between 2006 and 2016. Prenatal diagnosis and imaging studies were compared to postnatal findings. Outcomes evaluated included diagnostic accuracy, rate of other anomalies, neonatal length of stay, incidence of short bowel syndrome, and discharge with TPN or gastrostomy...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215162/gut-brain-axis-role-of-lipids-in-the-regulation-of-inflammation-pain-and-cns-diseases
#18
Roberto Russo, Claudia Cristiano, Carmen Avagliano, Carmen De Caro, Giovanna La Rana, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Roberto Berni Canani, Rosaria Meli, Antonio Calignano
The human gut is a composite anaerobic environment with a large, diverse and dynamic enteric microbiota, represented by more than 100 trillion microorganisms, including at least 1000 distinct species. The discovery that a different microbial composition can influence behavior and cognition, and in turn the nervous system can indirectly influence enteric microbiota composition, has significantly contributed to establish the well-accepted concept of gut-brain axis. This hypothesis is supported by several evidence showing mutual mechanisms, which involve the vague nerve, the immune system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation and the bacteria-derived metabolites...
February 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209957/-the-role-of-small-intestine-length-in-the-development-of-short-bowel-syndrome
#19
R R Khasanov, A A Gumerov, L M Vessel
AIM: To define the the role of small bowel length in development of SBS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with SBS after small bowel resection in neonatal period were included into the study. Total small bowel length ranged from 5 to 55 cm (11.8±5.59% from normal length for certain age). RESULTS: Described small bowel length has high risk of SBS/IF development irrespective to other factors (specific segment of small bowel that was resected, preserved intestinal segment state, absence of colon and/or ileocecal valve)...
2017: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198118/fibroblast-growth-factors-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-twists-and-turns
#20
Soula Danopoulos, Christopher R Schlieve, Tracy C Grikscheit, Denise Al Alam
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of conserved peptides that play an important role in the development, homeostasis, and repair processes of many organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract. All four FGF receptors and several FGF ligands are present in the intestine. They play important roles in controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, epithelial cell restitution, and stem cell maintenance. Several FGFs have also been proven to be protective against gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases or to aid in regeneration after intestinal loss associated with short bowel syndrome...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
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